Annazid

The Annazid or Banu Annaz,(990-1116), were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah,Ilam, Hulwan, "Dinawar" (all in western Iran), "Sharazour", "Daquq", "Daskara", "Bandanijin"(Mandali), and "No'maniya "(in south-eastern Iraq). According to the Kurdish history Sherefname, the title of the dynasty was "Ayyar" not "Annaz" [http://www.encislam.brill.nl/data/EncIslam/C4/COM-0544.html] , therefore the alternative name Ayyarid is also used [http://kurdistanica.com/english/history/origin-e.html#Ayyarid] .

Annazid Rulers

Abul-Fath Mohammad bin Annaz (r. 990-1011) was the founder of the Annazid dynasty and ruled in Hulwan. Political conflicts during his twenty-year rule led to clashes in the west with the "Banu Oqayl"(from whom he temporarily seized "Daquq" in 998) and the "Banu Mazyad", as well as a campaign against "Zahman bin Hendi", lord of Khanaqin, whose family he destroyed in 999. In the east, there was fierce competition between him and the "Hasanwayhid" Kurds (his relatives through marriage). In 1006, "Badr bin Hasanuya" aided by "Abul-Hassan Ali bin Mazyad", sent an army of 10,000 men against "Abul-Fath", who was compelled to seek refuge with the Buyid vizier, "Amid-al-Joyus Abu Ali Hassan bin Abi Jafar" in Baghdad. In a treaty concluded that year between the two Kurdish dynasties, "Abul-Fath" declared himself a "Hasanwayhid" vassal.

Hosam-al-Dawla Abul-Shawk (r. 1011-1046) was son of "Abul-Fath Annaz". His thirty-six-year rule was filled with internecine strife as well as external conflict. As a result, the extent of his authority grew a great deal, sometimes reaching as far as Hilla and at other times contracting to a narrow region in present-day western Iran. He inaugurated his reign by checking an attack by the forces of the new Buyid vizier, "Fakhr-al-molk", but he was compelled to retreat to Hulwan until a reconciliation was achieved. In 1029, he managed to defeat "Shams-al-Dawla" and stop the Seljuk Turks, after they seized Hamadan and attacked "Dinawar" and "Asadabad". In 1029, "Abul-Shawk" defeated the "Oqayl" and took "Daquq". In the period 1038-1039, he seized Kermanshah("Qarmisin") and captured its ruler (a Quhid Kurd). In 1040, his son "Abul-Fath Abul-Shawk" tried to capture territories belonging to "Mohalhel" but was defeated and captured. "Mohalhel" secured assistance from "Ala-al-Dawla bin Kakuya", th eruler of Hamadan, and then he seized "Dinawar", Kermanshah and other regions. Relations between "Abul-Shawk" and "Mohalhel" improved following the intervention of "Jalal-al-Dawla", but Mohalhel's refusal to release "Abul-Fath bin Shawk" led to renewed hostilities in 1040 and 1042, but he failed to release his son, who died in captivity. During the seconf campaign in 1042, Mohalhel caused great damage in "Sanda" (Sanandaj).

In 1045, Toghrul Beg sought to capture Annazid territories. During the campaign, the Kurdish governor of Hamadan fled, and "Abul-Shawk" retreated from Dinawar to Kermanshah and then to the citadel of Sirwan.on the Diyala river, where a large number of Kurds rallied around him. "Annazids" where unable to stop the march of the Turks, which captured Hulwan and "Mahidasht" and attacked Khanaqin. "Abul-Shawk" died in the citadel of Sirwan in April 1046. His followers rallied around Mohalhel.

Mohalhel

The strife between the Annazid chiefs continued during the Mohalhel reign, especially when "Sa'di bin Abul-Shawk" sided with "Yenal"(half-brother of Toghrul Beg) against his uncle. "Yenal" seized Hulwan in 1046 in the name of Hasanwayhid "Badr bin Taher bin Helal". After four years of attempted reconciliation between the Annazids and the Seljuk, Mohalhel met Toghrul Beg in 1050, who confirmed his rule over Sirwan, "Daquq", "Sharazur" and "Samagan" and released his brother "Sokrab".

Decline of Annazids

A declining Annazid rule can be traced for several generations. The last mention occurs in the seconf half of 12th century, when "Sokrab bin Annaz" became one of the rulers of Lorestan. According to the Kurdish historian Ali ibn al-Athir and "Sharafnama", the Annazid era lasted 130 years.

List of Annazid Rulers

#Abul-Fath Mohammad bin Annaz.....................991-1011
#Husam al-Dawla Abu'l Shawk Faris ibn Muhammad... 1011-1046
#Muhalhil ibn Muhammad (in Shahrazur).............1011-1055
#Surkhab I ibn Muhammad (in Bandanijin)...........1011-1046
#Sa'idi ibn Faris (sporadic rule)..................1050-1055
#Surkhab II ibn Badr.......................... ? -1107
#Abu Mansur ibn Surkhab......................1107- ?
#Surkhab III ibn Annaz............................late 1100s

References

#Sharf Khan Bedlisi, "Sharafnama", edited by V. Veliaminof-Zernof, 2 vols., St.Petersburg, 1860/1862.
#"Cheref-namah ou Postes de la nation Kurde", translated by F.B. Charmoy, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1868/1875. (in French)
# [http://www.iranica.com/articles/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home1/iranica/articles/v2_articles/annazids&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/logs/pdfdownload.html "Annazids, Kurdish Dynasty"] in Encyclopaedia Iranica.
# [http://www.hostkingdom.net/iran.html#Kermanshah List of Annazid Rulers]


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