- Landlocked country
A landlocked country is a country entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are 48 landlocked countries in the world, including partially recognized states. Of the major landmasses, only North America, Australia, and inhospitable Antarctica do not have a landlocked country inside their respective continents.
History and significance
Historically, being landlocked was regarded as a disadvantageous position. It cuts the country off from sea resources such as fishing, but more importantly cuts off access to seaborne trade which, even today, makes up a large percentage of international trade. Coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more heavily populated than inland ones. Paul Collier in his book The Bottom Billion argues that being landlocked in a poor geographic neighborhood is one of four major development "traps" by which a country can be held back. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, it tends to spill over into favorable development for the country itself. For landlocked countries, the effect is particularly strong, as they are limited from their trading activity with the rest of the world. "If you are coastal, you serve the world; if you are landlocked, you serve your neighbors." Others have argued that being landlocked may actually be a blessing as it creates a 'natural tariff barrier' which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances this has led to more robust local food systems.  
Countries thus have made particular efforts to avoid being landlocked:
- The International Congo Society, which owned the modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo, was given a thin piece of land cutting through Angola to connect it to the sea by the Conference of Berlin in 1885.
- The Republic of Ragusa once gifted the town of Neum to the Ottoman Empire because it did not want to have a land border with Venice; this small municipality was inherited by Bosnia and Herzegovina and now provides limited sea access, splitting the Croatian part of the Adriatic coast in two.
- After World War I, in the Treaty of Versailles, a part of Germany, designated "the Polish corridor", was given to the new Second Polish Republic, for access to the Baltic Sea. This was also the pretext for making Danzig (now Gdańsk) with its harbour the Free City of Danzig. This gave Poland a slight coastline, which was soon enlarged as the small fishing harbor of Gdynia grew into a large one.
- The Treaty of Versailles also forced Germany to offer Czechoslovakia a lease for 99 years for a part of the ports in Hamburg and Stettin, allowing Czechoslovakia sea trade over the Elbe and Oder rivers. While the former Stettin is now part of Poland after World War II, Hamburg still continued the contract so that the part of the port (now called Moldauhafen) may still be used for sea trade by the successor of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic.
- The Danube is an international waterway so that landlocked Austria, Hungary, Serbia, and Slovakia could have secure access to the Black Sea (the same access is given to southern parts of Germany, itself not landlocked, and eastern parts of Croatia, which is also not landlocked).
- The Mekong is an international waterway so that landlocked Laos has secure access to the South China Sea (after Laos became independent from French Indochina).
Losing access to the sea is generally a great blow to a nation, politically, militarily, and particularly with respect to international trade and therefore economic security:
- The independence of Eritrea and Montenegro, brought about by successful separatist movements, have caused Ethiopia and Serbia respectively to become landlocked.
- Bolivia lost its short-lived coastline to Chile in the War of the Pacific. The Bolivian Navy still trains in Lake Titicaca for an eventual recovery, and the Bolivian people annually celebrate a patriotic "Dia del Mar" (Day of the Sea) to remember its territorial loss, which included both the coastal city of Antofagasta and what has proven to be one of the most significant and lucrative copper deposits in the world. In the 21st century, the selection of the route of gas pipes from Bolivia to the sea fueled popular uprisings.
- Austria and Hungary also lost their access to the sea as a consequence of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) and the Treaty of Trianon (1920) respectively. Before, although Croatia had a constitutional autonomy within the Kingdom of Hungary, the City of Fiume/Rijeka on the Croatian coast was governed directly from Budapest by an appointed governor as a corpus separatum, to provide Hungary with its only international port in the periods 1779–1813, 1822–1848 and 1868–1918.
- When the Entente Powers divided the former Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Sèvres at the close of World War I, Armenia was promised part of the Trebizond vilayet (roughly corresponding to the modern Trabzon and Rize provinces in Turkey). This would have granted Armenia access to the Black Sea. However, the Sèvres treaty collapsed with the Turkish War of Independence and was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne which firmly established Turkish rule over the area.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea now gives a landlocked country a right of access to and from the sea without taxation of traffic through transit states. The United Nations has a programme of action to assist landlocked developing countries, and the current responsible Undersecretary-General is Anwarul Karim Chowdhury.
Some countries may have a long coastline, but much of it may not be readily usable for trade and commerce. For instance, in its early history, Russia's only ports were on the Arctic Ocean and frozen shut for much of the year. The wish to gain control of a warm water port was a major motivator of Russian expansion towards the Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, some landlocked countries can have access to the ocean along wide navigable rivers. For instance, Paraguay (and Bolivia to a lesser extent) have access to the ocean by the Paraguay and Parana rivers.
Several countries have coastlines on landlocked seas, such as the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea. Since these seas are in effect lakes, and do not allow access to seaborne trade, countries such as Kazakhstan are still considered to be landlocked. (The Caspian Sea, however, is connected to the Black Sea via a man-made canal between the Volga and Don rivers.)
List of landlocked countries
Country Area (km²) Population Afghanistan 647,500 29,117,000 Andorra 468 84,082 Armenia 29,743 3,254,300 Austria 83,871 8,396,760 Azerbaijan[a] 86,600 8,997,400 Belarus 207,600 9,484,300 Bhutan 38,394 691,141 Bolivia 1,098,581 10,907,778 Botswana 582,000 1,990,876 Burkina Faso 274,222 15,746,232 Burundi 27,834 8,988,091 Central African Republic 622,984 4,422,000 Chad 1,284,000 10,329,208 Czech Republic 78,867 10 674 947 Ethiopia 1,104,300 85,237,338 Hungary 93,028 10,005,000 Kazakhstan[a][b] 2,724,900 16,372,000 Kosovo[c] 10,908 1,804,838 Kyrgyzstan 199,951 5,482,000 Laos 236,800 6,320,000 Lesotho[d] 30,355 2,067,000 Liechtenstein 160 35,789 Luxembourg 2,586 502,202 Republic of Macedonia 25,713 2,114,550 Malawi 118,484 15,028,757 Mali 1,240,192 14,517,176 Moldova 33,846 3,567,500 Mongolia 1,564,100 2,736,800 Nagorno-Karabakh[c] 11,458 138,000 Nepal 147,181 29,331,000 Niger 1,267,000 15,306,252 Paraguay 406,752 6,349,000 Rwanda 26,338 10,746,311 San Marino[d] 61 31,716 Serbia 88,361 7,306,677 Slovakia 49,035 5,429,763 South Ossetia[c] 3,900 72,000 South Sudan 619,745 8,260,490 Swaziland 17,364 1,185,000 Switzerland 41,284 7,785,600 Tajikistan 143,100 7,349,145 Transnistria[c] 4,163 537,000 Turkmenistan[a] 488,100 5,110,000 Uganda 241,038 32,369,558 Uzbekistan[b] 447,400 27,606,007 Vatican City[d] 0.44 826 Zambia 752,612 12,935,000 Zimbabwe 390,757 12,521,000 Total 16,963,624 470,639,181 Percentage of World 11.4% 6.9%
- a Has a coast on the saltwater Caspian Sea
- b Has a coast on the saltwater Aral Sea
- c Disputed region with limited international recognition
- d Completely landlocked by exactly one country
They can be grouped in contiguous groups as follows:
- Central Asian cluster (6): Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
- European cluster (9): Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Kosovo (partially recognized), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia and Switzerland
- Central and East African cluster (10): Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Sudan
- South African cluster (4): Botswana, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe
- Caucasian cluster (3): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh (unrecognized)
- South American cluster (2): Bolivia, Paraguay
If it were not for the 40 km of coastline at Muanda, DR Congo would join the two African clusters into one, making them the biggest contiguous group in the world.
There are the following 'single' landlocked countries (each of them borders no other landlocked country):
- Africa (2): Lesotho, Swaziland
- Asia (4): Bhutan, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal
- Europe (6): Andorra, Belarus, Luxembourg, Moldova, San Marino, and the State of the Vatican City
- Caucasus (1): South Ossetia (partially recognized)
If Transnistria is included then Moldova and Transnistria form their own cluster.
If the Caucasian countries are counted as part of Europe, then Europe has the most landlocked countries, at 19. Kazakhstan is also sometimes regarded as a transcontinental country, so if that is included, the count for Europe goes up to 20. If these countries are included in Asia, then Africa has the most, at 16. Depending on the status of the three transcontinental countries, Asia has between 9 and 14, while South America has only 2. North America and Oceania are the only continents with no landlocked countries.
Doubly landlocked country
A landlocked country surrounded only by other landlocked countries may be called a "doubly landlocked" country. A person in such a country has to cross at least two borders to reach a coastline.
There are currently two such countries in the world:
- Liechtenstein in Central Europe surrounded by Switzerland and Austria.
- Uzbekistan in Central Asia surrounded by Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
Uzbekistan has borders with Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan that border the landlocked but saltwater Caspian Sea, from which ships can reach the Sea of Azov by using the man-made Volga-Don Canal, and thence the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the oceans.
There were no doubly landlocked countries in the world from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the end of World War I. This is because Uzbekistan was part of the Russian Empire, and thus part of a country that was not landlocked; while Liechtenstein bordered Austria-Hungary, a country which had an Adriatic coast until it was dissolved in 1918. Upon the dissolution of Austria-Hungary Liechtenstein became a doubly landlocked country. There were again no doubly landlocked countries from 1938 until the end of World War II, as Nazi Germany had incorporated Austria, which meant that Liechtenstein bordered a country with a coast. After World War II Austria regained its independence and Liechtenstein became doubly landlocked once more. Upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan became the second doubly landlocked country.
Landlocked by a single country
There are only three countries that are landlocked by a single country – that is they are surrounded on all sides by just one country. Such a country is also called an enclave.
The three countries are:
- Lesotho, an enclave in South Africa.
- San Marino, an enclave in Italy.
- Vatican City, an enclave in the city of Rome, Italy.
- Landlocked developing countries
- List of countries and territories by land and maritime borders
- List of countries and territories by maritime boundaries
- List of countries by length of coastline
- List of countries that border only one other country
- List of sets of four countries that border one another
- Navies of landlocked countries
- Pole of inaccessibility
- ^ "Definition of landlocked". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/landlocked. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
- ^ "Landlocked". Webster's 1913 Dictionary. http://www.hyperdictionary.com/search.aspx?define=landlocked. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
- ^ "Landlocked definition". MSN Encarta Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwsZAdLA. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
- ^ "AskOxford". Compact Oxford English Dictionary. http://www.askoxford.com/results/?view=dict&freesearch=landlocked&branch=13842570&textsearchtype=exact. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
- ^ Collier, Paul (2007). The Bottom Billion. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 56,57. ISBN 978-0-19-537338-7.
- ^ Moseley, W.G., J. Carney and L. Becker. 2010. “Neoliberal Policy, Rural Livelihoods and Urban Food Security in West Africa: A Comparative Study of The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (13) 5774-5779.
- ^ Moseley, W.G. 2011. “Lessons from the 2008 Global Food Crisis: Agro-Food Dynamics in Mali.” Development in Practice. 21(4-5): 604-612.
- ^ United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2010) (PDF). Review of Maritime Transport, 2010. New York and Geneva: United Nations. p. 160. ISBN 978-92-1-112810-9. http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Download.asp?docid=14218&lang=1&intItemID=2068.
- ^ UN Report
- ^ Cia World Factbook Uzbekistan
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Look at other dictionaries:
Landlocked — Land locked , a. 1. Inclosed, or nearly inclosed, by land; having no border on the sea; as, a landlocked country. [1913 Webster] 2. (Zo[ o]l.) Confined to a fresh water lake by reason of waterfalls or dams; said of fishes that would naturally… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
landlocked — land‧locked [ˈlændlɒkt ǁ lɑːkt] adjective 1. a landlocked country is surrounded by other countries and has no sea coast 2. PROPERTY a landlocked piece of land is not on a public road, and to reach it you have to cross land owned by other people … Financial and business terms
landlocked — adjective Date: 1622 1. enclosed or nearly enclosed by land < a landlocked country > 2. confined to freshwater by some barrier < landlocked salmon > 3. living or located away from the ocean < a landlocked sailor > … New Collegiate Dictionary
landlocked — /land lokt /, adj. 1. shut in completely, or almost completely, by land: a landlocked bay. 2. having no direct access to the sea: a landlocked country. 3. living in waters shut off from the sea, as some fish. [1615 25; LAND + LOCK1 + ED2] * * * … Universalium
landlocked — [[t]læ̱ndlɒkt[/t]] also land locked ADJ: usu ADJ n A landlocked country is surrounded by other countries and does not have its own ports. ...the landlocked West African nation of Mali … English dictionary
landlocked — land|locked [ˈlændlɔkt US la:kt] adj a landlocked country, state etc is surrounded by other countries, states etc and has no coast … Dictionary of contemporary English
landlocked — land|locked [ lænd,lakt ] adjective a landlocked country or area is surrounded by land … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
landlocked — adjective a landlocked country is surrounded by other countries and has no coast … Longman dictionary of contemporary English
landlocked — UK [ˈlæn(d)ˌlɒkt] / US [ˈlændˌlɑkt] adjective a landlocked country or area is surrounded by land … English dictionary
landlocked — [ˈlæn(d)ˌlɒkt] adj a landlocked country is surrounded by land … Dictionary for writing and speaking English