Chinese Postal Map Romanization


Chinese Postal Map Romanization
Chinese romanization
Mandarin
for Standard Chinese
    Hanyu Pinyin (ISO standard)
    EFEO
    Gwoyeu Romatzyh
        Spelling conventions
    Latinxua Sin Wenz
    Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II
    Chinese Postal Map Romanization
    Tongyong Pinyin
    Wade–Giles
    Yale
    Legge romanization
    Simplified Wade
    Comparison chart
for Sichuanese Mandarin
    Sichuanese Pinyin
    Scuanxua Ladinxua Xin Wenz
Yue
for Cantonese
    Guangdong Romanization
    Hong Kong Government
    Jyutping
    Meyer-Wempe
    Sidney Lau
    S. L. Wong (phonetic symbols)
    S. L. Wong (romanisation)
    Cantonese Pinyin
    Standard Romanization
    Yale
    Barnett–Chao
Wu
for Shanghai and Suzhou dialects
    Long-short
for Wenzhounese

    Wenzhounese romanisation

Min Nan
for Taiwanese, Amoy, and related
    Pe̍h-ōe-jī
    Bbínpīn Hōngàn
    Daighi tongiong pingim
    Modern Literal Taiwanese
    Phofsit Daibuun
    Tâi-lô
    TLPA
for Hainanese
    Hainanhua Pinyin Fang'an
for Teochew
    Peng'im
Min Dong
for Fuzhou dialect
    Foochow Romanized
Hakka
for Moiyan dialect
    Kejiahua Pinyin Fang'an
For Siyen dialect
    Pha̍k-fa-sṳ
    TLPA
Gan
for Nanchang dialect
    Pha̍k-oa-chhi
See also:
   General Chinese
   Cyrillization
   Xiao'erjing
   'Phags-pa script
   Bopomofo
   Taiwanese kana
   Romanisation in Singapore
   Romanisation in the ROC
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Chinese Postal Map Romanization (traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; simplified Chinese: 邮政式拼音; pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì Pīnyīn) was the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the spring of 1906. This system of romanization was retained after the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912 and since it was in use in the official postal atlas of the Republic of China, it remained the most common way of rendering Chinese place names in the West (for cartographers for example) for a large part of the twentieth century. Following the establishment of the People's Republic of China, its displacement of the ROC in the UN in 1972, and the adoption of Pinyin as the international standard in 1982 by the ISO,[1] the system has gradually been replaced by pinyin for Han Chinese location names and SASM/GNC romanization for ethnic minority language location names, which is now almost universally accepted.

The system was based on Wade–Giles for postal purposes, especially for placenames in the official postal atlas, letters and stamps. It uses some already common European names of Chinese places that override the Wade-Giles system, and incorporates some dialectal and historical pronunciations.

Main differences with Wade-Giles include:

  • Complete lack of diacritic and accent marks.
  • Chi, ch'i, and hsi (pinyin ji, qi, and xi) are represented as either tsi, tsi, and si or ki, ki, and hi depending on historic pronunciation, e.g.,
    • Changkiang (Ch'ang-chiang, Changjiang)
    • Chungking (Ch'ung-ch'ing, Chongqing)
    • Peking (Pei-ching, Beijing)
    • Tientsin (T'ien-chin, Tianjin)
    • Tsinan (Chi-nan, Jinan)
  • Unless it is the sole vowel in the syllable, the Wade-Giles u becomes w, e.g.,
  • Guangdong (Kwangtung), Guangxi (Kwangsi), and Fujian (Fukien) placenames are to be Romanized from the local dialects, such as Hakka, Cantonese, and Min (systems also obtained from Giles' A Chinese-English Dictionary).
    • Amoy (Hsia-men, Xiamen)
    • Swatow (Shan-t'ou, Shantou)
    • Quemoy (Chin-men, Jinmen)
  • Popular pre-existing (from 19th century or earlier) European names for places in China are to be retained, such as those of the treaty ports.

Other orthographic peculiarities include:

  • hs- becomes sh- or -s, e.g., Kishien (from Chi-hsien)
  • (schwa) and -ei both become -eh, e.g., Chengteh (from Ch'eng-te) and Pehkiao (from Pei-ch'iao). occasionally also can be -e or -ei.
  • final u sometimes become -uh, e.g., Wensuh (from Wen-su)

See also

References

  • China postal album: showing the postal establishments and postal routes in each province. 2d ed. Peking: Directorate General of Posts, 1919.
  • Playfair, G. M. H. The Cities and Towns of China: A Geographical Dictionary. 2d. ed. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh Ltd., 1910.
  • "Yóuzhèng shì pīnyīn" (邮政式拼音) Zhōngguó dà bǎikē quánshū: Yuyán wénzì (中国大百科全书:语言文字). Beijing: Zhōngguó dà bǎikē quánshū chūbǎnshè (中国大百科全书出版社), 1998.

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