Yagi antenna


Yagi antenna

A Yagi-Uda Antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi, is a "directional antenna" system [ [http://what-is-what.com/what_is/Yagi_Uda_antenna.html What is a Yagi-Uda antenna? - An explanation of the familiar Yagi-Uda antenna from a non-technical point of view. Includes information on wifi applications of Yagi Antennas ] ] consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors). The dipole in the array is driven, and another element, 5% longer, operates as a reflector. Other shorter parasitic elements are typically added in front of the dipole as directors. This arrangement gives the antenna directionality that a single dipole lacks. Yagis are directional along the axis perpendicular to the dipole in the plane of the elements, from the reflector through the driven element and out via the director(s). If one holds out one's arms to form a dipole and has the reflector behind oneself, one would receive signals with maximum gain from in front of oneself.

Directional antennas, such as the Yagi-Uda, are also commonly referred to as beam antennas [ [http://ham-shack.com/beam.html Ham-Shack.com : Aiming Somewhere Out There ] ] or high-gain antennas (particularly for transmitting).

Description

Yagi-Uda antennas include one or more director elements, which, by virtue of their being arranged optimally at approximately a one-quarter-wavelength mutual spacing and being progressively slightly shorter than a half wavelength, direct signals of increasingly higher frequencies onto the active dipole.
* See also log-periodic antenna.

Thus, the complete antenna achieves a distinct response bandwidth determined by the length, diameter, and spacing of all the individual elements; but its overall gain is proportional to its length, rather than simply the number of elements.

All of the elements usually lie in the same plane, typically supported on a single boom or crossbar. The parasitic elements do not need to be coplanar, but can be distributed on both sides of the plane of symmetry.

The antenna gain is a function of the number of dipole elements and can be approximated (for the main lobe) as

:GT = 1.66 * N

Where N is the number of elements (dipoles) in the Yagi-Uda antenna.

Developed Yagi-Uda antennas (including the one pictured) are designed to operate on multiple bands; the resulting design is made more complicated by the presence of a resonant parallel coil and capacitor combination (called a "trap" or LC) in the elements.

Traps are used in pairs on a multiband antenna. The trap serves to isolate the outer portion of the element from the inner portion for the trap design frequency.

In practice, the higher frequency traps are located closest to the boom of the antenna. Typically, a triband beam will have 2 pairs of traps per element. For example, a typical triband Yagi-Uda beam covering the 10, 15 and 20 meter bands would have traps for the 10 and 15 meter bands.

The introduction of traps is not without cost—due to their nature, they reduce the overall bandwidth of the antenna and overall efficiency of the array on any given frequency, and radically affect its response in the desired direction.

Coverage example

Shown below is the coverage that could be provided by a 3- or 4-element Yagi-Uda array on the 41-meter shortwave radio broadcasting band. The transmitter driving the array has a power output of 20 kilowatts. The array's main lobe bearing is indicated by the red line from the proposed transmitter location in British Columbia, Canada. This predicted coverage was calculated by the VOACAP program.



History

The Yagi-Uda antenna was invented in 1926 by Shintaro Uda of Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai, Japan, with the collaboration of Hidetsugu Yagi, also of Tohoku Imperial University. Yagi published the first English-language reference on the antenna in a 1928 survey article on short wave research in Japan and it came to be associated with his name. However, Yagi always acknowledged Uda's principal contribution to the design, and the proper name for the antenna is, as above, the Yagi-Uda antenna (or array).

The Yagi was first widely used during World War II for airborne radar sets, because of its simplicity and directionality. Despite its being invented in Japan, many Japanese radar engineers were unaware of the design until very late in the war, due to internal fighting between the Army and Navy. The Japanese military authorities first became aware of this technology after the Battle of Singapore when they captured the notes of a British radar technician that mentioned "yagi antenna". Japanese intelligence officers did not even recognise that Yagi was a Japanese name in this context. When questioned the technician said it was an antenna named after a Japanese professor. (This story is analogous to the story of American intelligence officers interrogating German rocket scientists and finding out that Robert Goddard was the real pioneer of rocket technology even though he was not well known in the US at that time.)

A horizontally polarized array can be seen under the left leading edge of Grumman F4F, F6F, TBF Avenger carrier based Navy aircraft. Vertically polarized arrays can be seen on the cheeks of the P-61 and on the nose cones of many WWII aircraft, notably some versions of the German Junkers Ju 88 R1 fighter-bomber, and the British Bristol Beaufighter night-fighter, and Short Sunderland flying-boat. Indeed, the latter had so many antenna elements arranged on its back it was nicknamed the "Flying Porcupine" by German airmen.

Yagi-Uda antennas are widely used by amateur radio operators worldwide for communication on frequencies from shortwave, through VHF/UHF, and into microwave bands. Hams often homebrew this type of antenna, and have provided many technical papers and software to the engineering community.

Wireless energy transfer

Hidetsugu Yagi attempted wireless energy transfer in February of 1926 with this antenna. Yagi and Uda published their first report on the wave projector directional antenna. Yagi managed to demonstrate a proof of concept, but the engineering problems proved to be more onerous than conventional systems.

See also

*Antenna (radio)
*Cardioid
*Larmor formula
*Radio direction finder
*Radio direction finding
*Little Boy

External articles and further reading

* H .Yagi, doi-inline|10.1109/JPROC.1997.649674|Beam transmission of ultra-shortwaves, Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 16, pp. 715-740, June 1928. The URL is to a 1997 IEEE reprint of the classic article. See also doi-inline|10.1109/JPROC.1997.649661|Beam Transmission Of Ultra Short Waves: An Introduction To The Classic Paper By H. Yagi by D.M. Pozar, in Proceedings of the IEEE, Volume 85, Issue 11, Nov. 1997 Page(s):1857 - 1863.
* " [http://ieee.cincinnati.fuse.net/reiman/05_2004.htm Scanning the Past: A History of Electrical Engineering from the Past] ". Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 81, No. 6, 1993.
* Shozo Usami and Gentei Sato, " [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7598/20722/00958785.pdf?/history_center/milestones_photos/yagi.html Directive Short Wave Antenna, 1924] ". IEEE Milestones, IEEE History Center, IEEE, 2005.
* D. Jefferies, " [http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/D.Jefferies/yagiuda.html Yagi-Uda antennas] ". 2004.
* [http://yagi-uda.com/ Yagi-Uda Antenna] . Simple information on basic design, project and measure of Yagi-Uda antenna. 2008


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • yagi (antenna) — or yagi [yä′gē, yag′ē] n. 〚after H. Yagi (1886 1976), Jpn electrical engineer〛 a VHF or UHF directional antenna array in which a basic dipole antenna is supplemented by several parallel reflector and director elements: used when television… …   Universalium

  • yagi (antenna) — or yagi [yä′gē, yag′ē] n. [after H. Yagi (1886 1976), Jpn electrical engineer] a VHF or UHF directional antenna array in which a basic dipole antenna is supplemented by several parallel reflector and director elements: used when television… …   English World dictionary

  • Yagi antenna — Jagio antena statusas T sritis radioelektronika atitikmenys: angl. Yagi antenna vok. Yagi Antenne, f rus. антенна типа волновой канал , f; антенна Уда Яги, f pranc. antenne Yagi, f …   Radioelektronikos terminų žodynas

  • Yagi antenna — /yah gee, yag ee/, Radio. a sharply directional antenna array, consisting of one or two dipoles connected to the transmitting or receiving circuit, and several insulated dipoles all parallel and about equally spaced in a line. [1940 45; named… …   Universalium

  • yagi antenna — A type of directional antenna used on some types of radar and radio equipment. It consists of an array of elemental, single wire dipole antennae and reflectors. A stacked array of yagi antennas …   Aviation dictionary

  • Yagi antenna — /yah gee, yag ee/, Radio. a sharply directional antenna array, consisting of one or two dipoles connected to the transmitting or receiving circuit, and several insulated dipoles all parallel and about equally spaced in a line. [1940 45; named… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Yagi antenna — [ jα:gi] noun a highly directional narrowband radio aerial made of several short rods mounted across an insulating support. Origin 1940s: named after the Japanese engineer Hidetsugu Yagi …   English new terms dictionary

  • Yagi — (八木 eight trees ) is a Japanese surname. It may refer to:Real People*Dr. Hidetsugu Yagi (1886 1976), electrical engineer and professor at Tohoku Imperial University in Japan *Hirokazu Yagi (born 1959), former Japanese ski jumper *Jukichi Yagi… …   Wikipedia

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