Supreme Soviet


Supreme Soviet

The Supreme Soviet of the USSR ( _ru. Верховный Совет СССР, "Verkhóvnyj Sovét SSSR") was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. It elected the Presidium, formed the Soviet government, the Supreme Court, and appointed the Procurator General of the USSR.

From the formation of the USSR (1922) until the approval of the 1936 Soviet Constitution, it was named Central Executive Committee of the USSR (Центральный Исполнительный Комитет СССР or ЦИК СССР, or, romanized, TsIK SSSR) and functioned until 1938 under this name. It was made up of two chambers according to the 1924 Soviet Constitution: the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities. Beside it there were Central Executive Committees in federal repuclics, such as All-Russian Central Executive Committee (in Russia), Belorussian Central Executive Committee (in Belorussia) and All-Ukranian Central Executive Committee (in Ukraine).

The Supreme Soviet was made up of two chambers, each with equal legislative powers, with members elected for four-year terms: Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, entry on "Верховный Совет СССР", available online [http://slovari.yandex.ru/art.xml?art=bse/00013/01900.htm here] ]

*The Soviet of the Union, elected on the basis of population with one deputy for every 300,000 people in the Soviet federation
*The Soviet of Nationalities, supposed to represent the ethnic populations, with members elected on the basis of 32 deputies from each union republic (excluding the autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts, and autonomous okrugs in its territory, which would send in separate members), 11 from each autonomous republic, five from each autonomous oblast (region), and one from each autonomous okrug (district). The administrative units of the same type would send in the same number of members regardless of their size or population.

Until Perestroika and the partially free elections in 1989, the Supreme Soviet functioned as a rubber stamp to legislation originating from less representative but more powerful bodies, like the Politburo.

In 1989, there were 750 members in each chamber. The Supreme Soviet met regularly twice a year but it could be called into extraordinary session. The Presidium carried out the day-to-day operations of the Supreme Soviet when it was not in session.

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR

This position was held by four people at once.
* Mikhail Kalinin (December 30, 1922 - January 12, 1938) ("office renamed") (concurently Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR)
* Grigory Petrovsky (December 30, 1922 - January 12, 1938) (concurently Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Ukrainian SSR)
* Aleksandr Chervyakov (December 30, 1922 - June 16, 1937) (concurently Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Belorussian SSR)
* Nariman Narimanov (December 30, 1922 - March 19, 1925)
* Gazanfar Musabekov (May 21, 1925 - June 1937)
* Nedirbay Aytakov (May 21, 1925 - 21 July 1937) (concurently Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Turkmen SSR)
* Fayzulla Khodzhayev (May 21, 1925 - June 17, 1937)
* Nusratullo Maksum (or Nusratullo Lutfullayev) (March 18, 1931 - January 4, 1934) (concurently Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Tajik SSR)
* Abdullo Rakhimbayev (4 January 1934 - September 1937)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1938—1989)

*Mikhail Kalinin 1938—1946
*Nikolay Shvernik 1946—1953
*Kliment Voroshilov 1953—1960
*Leonid Brezhnev 1960—1964
*Anastas Mikoyan 1964—1965
*Nikolay Podgorny 1965—1977
*Leonid Brezhnev (second term) 1977—1982
*Yuri Andropov 1983—1984
*Konstantin Chernenko 1984—1985
*Andrey Gromyko 1985-1988
*Mikhail Gorbachev October 1, 1988 - May 25, 1989

Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1989—1991)

*Mikhail Gorbachev May 25, 1989 - March 15, 1990
*Anatoly Lukyanov March 15, 1990 - August 22, 1991
*Ivan Laptev
*+ Rafiq Nishonov (acting) August, 1991 - 1991

upreme Soviets of the Union Republics

Each republic of the Soviet Union also had its own Supreme Soviet, a one-chamber legislature functioning along similar lines. The same was the case with the ASSRs. After the dissolution of USSR, each of these bodies became the legislatures of independent countries. The Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and the Congress of Soviets of RSFSR were the legislature of Russia until being dissolved by military force during the 1993 constitutional crisis.

*Armenian SSR: "Հայկական ՍՍՀ Գերագույն Խորհուրդ"
*Azerbaijan SSR: "Азәрбаjҹан ССР Али Совети"
*Belorussian SSR: "Вярхоўны Савет Беларускай ССР"
*Estonian SSR: "Eesti NSV Ülemnõukogu"
*Georgian SSR: "უზენაესი საბჭო"
*Kazakh SSR: "Қазақ КСР-нiң Жоғарғы Кеңесi"
*Kyrgyz SSR: "Кыргыз ССР Жогорку Совети"
*Latvian SSR: "Latvijas PSR Augstākā Padome"
*Lithuanian SSR: "Lietuvos TSR Aukščiausioji Taryba"
*Moldavian SSR: "Совиетул Супрем ал РСС Молдовеняскэ"
*Russian SFSR: "Верховный Совет РСФСР"
*Tajik SSR: "Совети Олӣ РСС Тоҷикистон"
*Turkmen SSR: "???????????????????????????????"
*Ukrainian SSR: "Верховна Рада Української РСР"
*Uzbek SSR: "Ўзбекистон ССР Олий Совети"

ee also

*Transnistrian Supreme Soviet
*All-Russian Central Executive Committee

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Supreme Soviet — n. 1. the legislative body of the Soviet Union: it consisted of two equal chambers, the Soviet of the Union (whose members were elected on the basis of population) and the Soviet of Nationalities (whose members were elected by the various… …   English World dictionary

  • Supreme Soviet — Supreme′ So′viet n. gov (formerly) one of the two principal legislative bodies of the Soviet Union …   From formal English to slang

  • Supreme Soviet — the legislature of the former Soviet Union and its successor states, consisting of an upper house (Soviet of the Union or Council of the Union), whose delegates are elected on the basis of population, and a lower house (Soviet of Nationalities or …   Universalium

  • Supreme Soviet — the legislature of the former Soviet Union and its successor states, consisting of an upper house (Soviet of the Union or Council of the Union), whose delegates are elected on the basis of population, and a lower house (Soviet of Nationalities or …   Useful english dictionary

  • Supreme Soviet — /səprim ˈsoʊviət/ (say suhpreem sohveeuht) noun (formerly) the supreme legislative body of the Soviet Union, consisting of two houses, one house representative on the basis of population, the other assuring every nationality, however small, some… …   Australian English dictionary

  • Supreme Soviet — noun Date: 1936 the highest legislative body of a nation (as the former Soviet Union or former Soviet republics) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Supreme Soviet — noun The bicameral parliament of the former Soviet Union …   Wiktionary

  • Supreme Soviet — bicameral legislature of the Soviet Union …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Supreme Soviet — noun the governing council of the former USSR or one of its constituent republics …   English new terms dictionary

  • Soviet of Nationalities (Supreme Soviet of Russia) — Soviet of Nationalities Совет Национальностей Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.