Kilij Arslan II

from 1156 until his death in 1192.

As Arnold of Lubeck reports in his "Chronica Slavorum", he was present at the meeting of Henry the Lion with Kilij-Arslan during the former's pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1172. When they met near Tarsus, the sultan embraced and kissed the German duke, reminding him that they were blood cousins ('amplexans et deosculans eum, dicens, eum consanguineum suum esse'). When the duke asked for details of this relationship, Kilij Arslan informed him that 'a noble lady from the land of Germans married a king of Russia who had a daughter by her; this daughter's daughter arrived to our land, and I descend from her.' The Russian king in question is assumed to have been Svyatoslav II.

In 1159, Kilij Arslan attacked Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus as he marched past Iconium (Konya, capital of Rüm), as Manuel returned from negotiating with Nur ad-Din in Syria. In 1161 Manuel's nephew John Contostephanus defeated Kilij Arslan, and the sultan travelled to Constantinople in a show of submission. In 1173 Kilij Arslan, now at peace with the Byzantines, allied with Nur ad-Din against Mosul.

The peace treaty with the Byzantines lasted until 1175, when Kilij Arslan refused to hand over to Manuel the territory conquered from the Danishmends, although both sides had for some time been building up their fortifications and armies in preparation for a renewed war. Kilij Arslan tried to negotiate, but Manuel invaded the sultanate in 1176, intending to capture Iconium itself. Kilij Arslan was able to drive Manuel's army into a valley near Myriokephalon, and although Manuel's force was not totally annihilated, the sultan forced the emperor to negotiate a fragile peace.

In 1179 Kilij Arslan captured and held to ransom Henry I, the renowned count of Champagne, who was returning overland from a visit to Jerusalem. The ransom was paid by the Byzantine Emperor and Henry was released, but died soon afterwards.

In 1180 the sultan took advantage of the instability in the Byzantine Empire after Manuel's death to secure most of the southern coast of Anatolia, and allied with Saladin, Nur ad-Din's successor, that same year. Then in 1182, he succeeded in capturing the city of Cotyaeum from the Byzantines. In 1185 he made peace with Emperor Isaac II Angelus, but the next year he transferred power to his nine sons, who immediately fought each other for control. Despite Kilij Arslan's alliance with Saladin he was unable to stop the armies of the Third Crusade, but the remnants of the German army were in any case destroyed by the Turks after the death of Frederick Barbarossa.

Kilij Arslan died in 1192. He was succeeded by Kaykhusraw I, although his other sons continued to fight for control of the other parts of the sultanate.

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  • Kilij Arslan I — Kilij Arslan (en idioma árabe, قلج أرسلان, Qilij Arslān, y en turco, I. Kılıç Arslan); fue sultán de Rüm desde el año 1092 hasta su muerte en el año 1107. Gobernó el sultanato de Rüm en tiempos de la Primera Cruzada, debiendo hacer frente al… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Kilij Arslan I — Kilij Arslan ( ar. قلج أرسلان, Qilij Arslān; tr. I. Kılıç Arslan) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rum from 1092 until his death in 1107. He ruled the Sultanate during the time of the First Crusade and thus faced the brunt of the attack. [ Outline… …   Wikipedia

  • Kilij Arslan — Kilij Arslan, meaning Lion Sword in Turkish, was the name of four sultans of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm:*Kilij Arslan I reigned as of 1092, died 1107 *Kilij Arslan II reigned as of 1156, died 1192 *Kilij Arslan III reigned as of 1204, died 1205… …   Wikipedia

  • Kilij Arslan IV — ( ar. ركن الدين قلج ارسلان بن كيخسرو, Rukn al Dīn Qilij Arslān bin Kaykhusraw; tr. IV. Kılıç Arslan) was Seljuq Sultan of Rûm after the death of his father Kaykhusraw II in 1246. For part of his tenure as sultan he ruled with his two brothers… …   Wikipedia

  • Kilij Arslan II. — Sultanat von Rum (um 1190). Der Stern markiert die Hauptstadt Konya (Ikonion), die Jahreszahl 1176 den Ort der Schlacht von Myriokephalon Kilidsch Arslan II. (قلج أرسلان , deutsche Transliteration: Qiliğ Ārslān „Löwenschwert“, türk.: Kılıç Arslan …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Kilij Arslan — Kilidsch Arslan (arabisch: قلج أرسلان , deutsche Transliteration: Qiliğ Ārslān „Löwenschwert“, deutsch auch: Kylydsch Arslan, Kilic Arslan, Qiliğ Arslan, türkisch: Kılıç Arslan, englisch: Kilij Arslan) ist der Name folgender seldschukischer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kilij Arslan II — Kılıç Arslan II Izz ad Dîn al Malik al Mu zim Qilij Arslân ben Mas ûd[1], II. İzzeddin Kılıç Arslan ou Kılıç Arslân II est un sultan seldjoukide de Rum. Il succède à son père Mas ûd Ier en 1156[2]. Sommaire 1 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kilij Arslan I —    See Myriokephalon, Battle of; Nicaea; Rum, Sultanate of …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

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