# Lift-to-drag ratio

In

aerodynamics , the**lift-to-drag ratio**, or**L/D ratio**("ell-over-dee" in the US, "ell-dee" in the UK), is the amount of lift generated by awing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving through the air. A higher or more favorable L/D ratio is typically one of the major goals in aircraft design; since a particular aircraft's needed lift is set by its weight, delivering that lift with lower drag leads directly to better fuel economy, climb performance, andglide ratio .The term is calculated for any particular

airspeed by measuring the lift generated, then dividing by the drag at that speed. These vary with speed, so the results are typically plotted on a 2D graph. In almost all cases the graph forms a U-shape, due to the two main components of drag.**Drag**Induced drag is caused by the generation of lift by the wing. Lift generated by a wing is perpendicular to the wing, but since wings typically fly at some smallangle of attack , this means that a component of the force is directed to the rear. The rearward component of this force is seen as drag. At low speeds an aircraft has to generate lift with a higher angle of attack, thereby leading to greater induced drag. This term dominates the low-speed side of the L/D graph, the left side of the U.Profile drag is caused by air hitting the wing, and other parts of the aircraft. This form of drag, also known aswind resistance , varies with the square of speed (seedrag equation ). For this reason profile drag is more pronounced at higher speeds, forming the right side of the L/D graph's U shape. Profile drag is lowered primarily by reducing cross section and streamlining.It is the lowest point of the graph, the point where the combined drag is at its lowest, that the wing or aircraft is performing at its best L/D. For this reason designers will typically select a wing design which produces an L/D peak at the chosen

cruising speed for a powered fixed-wing aircraft, thereby maximizing economy. Like all things inaeronautical engineering , the lift-to-drag ratio is not the only consideration for wing design. Performance at highangle of attack and a gentle stall are also important.**Glide ratio**As the aircraft

fuselage and control surfaces will also add drag and possibly some lift, it is fair to consider the L/D of the aircraft as a whole. As it turns out, theglide ratio , which is the ratio of an (unpowered) aircraft's descent to its forward motion, is numerically equal to the aircraft's L/D. This is especially of interest in the design and operation of high performancegliders (calledsailplanes ), which can have glide ratios approaching 60 to 1 (60 units of distance forward for each unit of descent) in the best cases, but with 30:1 being considered good performance for general recreational use. Achieving a sailplane's best L/D in practice requires precise control of airspeed and smooth and restrained operation of the controls to reduce drag from deflected control surfaces. In zero wind conditions, L/D will equal altitude lost divided by distance traveled. Achieving the maximum distance for altitude lost in wind conditions requires further modification of the best airspeed, as does alternating cruising and thermaling. To achieve high speed across country, gliders are often loaded with water ballast to increase the airspeed (allowing better penetration against a headwind). As noted below, to first order the L/D is not dependent on speed, although the faster speed means the airplane will fly at higherReynold's number .**Maximum endurance**For maximum endurance, one should fly at the point on the graph with minimum drag. Since the lift on an aircraft must equal the weight, this point is equal to the maximum L/D point. Max endurance is achieved when the engines are using the smallest amount needed to overcome drag, and therefore the fuelflow is at the lowest at L/D max, causing the airplane to stay in the air the longest.

**Theory**Mathematically, the maximum lift-to-drag ratio can be estimated as:

:$(L/D)\_\{max\}\; =\; frac\{1\}\{2\}\; sqrt\{frac\{pi\; A\; epsilon\}\{C\_\{D,0\}$ [

*cite web|author=Loftin, LK, Jr.|title=Quest for performance: The evolution of modern aircraft. NASA SP-468|url=http://www.hq.nasa.gov/pao/History/SP-468/cover.htm|accessdate=2006-04-22*] ,where "A" is the aspect ratio, $epsilon$ is the aircraft's efficiency factor, and $C\_\{D,0\}$ is the

zero-lift drag coefficient .**upersonic/hypersonic lift to drag ratios**At very high speeds, lift to drag ratios tend to be lower.

Concorde had a lift/drag ratio of around 7 at Mach 2, whereas a 747 is around 17 at about mach 0.85.Dietrich Küchemann developed an empirical relationship for predicting L/D ratio for high Mach: [*[*]*http://www.aerospaceweb.org/design/waverider/design.shtml Aerospaceweb.org Hypersonic Vehicle Design*]:$L/D\_\{max\}=frac\{4(M+3)\}\{M\}$

Windtunnel tests have shown this to be roughly accurate.

**Examples**The following table includes some representative L/D ratios.

**References****ee also***

Specific fuel consumption the lift to drag determines the required thrust to maintain altitude (given the aircraft weight), and the SFC permits calculation of the fuel burn rate

*thrust to weight ratio

*Inductrack maglev has a higher lift/drag ratio than aircraft at sufficient speeds

*Gravity drag rocket s can have an effective lift to drag ratio while maintaining altitude

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

### Look at other dictionaries:

**lift-to-drag ratio**— noun a) The instantaneous ratio of lift to drag of an aerodynamic article such as an a wing, entire aircraft or bird. b) The maximum ratio of lift to drag of an … Wiktionary**lift/drag ratio**— The ratio of the coefficient of lift to the coefficient of drag of an airfoil at various angles of attack. It is a measure of the airfoil’s efficiency. The angle of attack that gives the best lift by drag ratio is the most efficient angle of… … Aviation dictionary**Lift-induced drag**— In aerodynamics, lift induced drag, induced drag, vortex drag, or sometimes drag due to lift, is a drag force that occurs whenever a moving object redirects the airflow coming at it. This drag force occurs in airplanes due to wings or a lifting… … Wikipedia**lift-drag ratio**— /lift drag /, Aeron. the ratio of the lift to the drag of an airfoil. [1915 20] * * * … Universalium**lift-drag ratio**— /lift drag /, Aeron. the ratio of the lift to the drag of an airfoil. [1915 20] … Useful english dictionary**Lift (force)**— For other uses, see Lift. Boeing 747 8F landing A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the … Wikipedia**Drag (physics)**— Shape and flow Form drag Skin friction 0% 100% 10% 90% … Wikipedia**lift wires**— Wires installed between the wings of a biplane to support the wings and hold them in alignment against the forces of lift. Lift wires run from the inboard end of the lower wing to the interplane struts on the upper wing. See landing wires.… … Aviation dictionary**Lift coefficient**— The lift coefficient ( or ) is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body, the dynamic pressure of the fluid flow around the body, and a reference area associated with the body. A lifting body is a foil or a… … Wikipedia**Drag equation**— In fluid dynamics, the drag equation is a practical formula used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due to movement through a fully enclosing fluid. The equation is attributed to Lord Rayleigh, who originally used L2 in place … Wikipedia