Tempeh, or tempe in Javanese, is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds
soybeans into a cake form. It is especially popular on the island of Java, where it is a staple source of protein. Like tofu, tempeh is made from soybeans, but tempeh is a whole soybean product with different nutritional characteristics and textural qualities. Tempeh's fermentation process and its retention of the whole bean give it a higher content of protein, dietary fiberand vitamins compared to tofu, as well as firmer texture and stronger flavor. Tofu, however, is thought to be more versatile in dishes. Because of its nutritional value, tempeh is used worldwide in vegetarian cuisine; some consider it to be a meat analogue. Even long before people found and realized its rich nutritional value, tempeh was referred to as “Javanese meat.”
Tempeh begins with whole soybeans, which are softened by soaking and dehulled, then partly cooked. Specialty tempehs may be made from other types of
beans, wheat, or may include a mixture of beans and whole grains.
acidulent, usually vinegar, may be added in order to lower the pH and create a selective environment that favors the growth of the tempeh mold over competitors. A fermentation startercontaining the spores of fungus" Rhizopus oligosporus" is mixed in. The beans are spread into a thin layer and are allowed to ferment for 24 to 36 hours at a temperature around 30°C (86°F). In good tempeh, the beans are knit together by a mat of white mycelia.
Under conditions of lower temperature, or higher ventilation, gray or black patches of
spores may form on the surface—this is not harmful, and should not affect the flavor or quality of the tempeh. This sporulation is normal on fully mature tempeh. A mild ammoniasmell may accompany good tempeh as it ferments, but it should not be overpowering. In Indonesia, ripe tempeh (two or more days old) is considered a delicacy.
proteinin tempeh becomes more digestible as a result of the fermentation process. In particular, the oligosaccharides that are associated with gas and indigestionare greatly reduced by the "Rhizopus" culture. In traditional tempeh making shops, the starter culture often contains other beneficial bacteria that produce vitamins such as B12 [ [http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/563702/abstract/Production_of_vitamin_B_12_in_tempeh_a_fermented_soybean_food_ Liem IT, Steinkraus KH, Cronk TC: "Production of vitamin B-12 in tempeh, a fermented soybean food" Appl Environ Microbiol 1977 Dec; 34(6):773-6.] ] [ [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119470042/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 Vitamin B12 Activity in Miso and Tempeh "Delores D. Truesdell, Nancy R. Green, Phyllis B. Acosta" Journal of Food Science Vol.52 No.2 pp.493-494, 1987] ] (though it is disputed whether this B12 is "bioavailable"Fact|date=July 2008) [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/131/4/1331S.pdf] . In western countries, it is more common to use a pure culture containing only " Rhizopus oligosporus".
In the kitchen, tempeh is often prepared by cutting it into pieces, soaking in
brineor salty sauce, and then frying. Cooked tempeh can be eaten alone, or used in chili, stir frys, soups, salads, sandwiches, and stews. Recent popular vegan cookbooks, such as Isa Chandra Moskowitz's "Vegan with a Vengeance", have come up with more creative ways of cooking tempeh, using it as a vegetariansubstitution for breakfast meats, such as sausage and bacon. Tempeh has a complex flavor that has been described as nutty, meaty, and mushroom-like. Tempeh freezes well, and is now commonly available in many western supermarkets as well as in ethnic markets and health food stores. Tempeh performs well in a cheese grater, after which it may be used in the place of ground beef (as in tacos). When thin sliced and deep fried in oil, tempeh obtains a crispy golden crust while maintaining a soft interior—its sponge-like consistency make it suitable for marinades. Dried tempeh (whether cooked or raw) provides an excellent stew base for backpackers. For the Thanksgivingholiday, tempeh (as dark meat) and tofu (as white) may each be thick-sliced and baked with a standard dressing/stuffing preparation to provide a vegan alternative to turkey.
A new form of tempeh based on
barleyand oatsinstead of soya was developed by scientists at the Swedish Department of Food Science in 2008. It can be produced in climate regions where it is not possible to grow soya beans. [ [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080528095627.htm New Vegetarian Food With Several Health Benefits] ScienceDaily (May 30, 2008). Accessed May 2008]
Tempe bongkrèk is a variety of tempeh from Central Java, notably
Banyumasregency, that is prepared with coconut. This type of tempeh occasionally gets contaminated with the bacterium " Burkholderia cocovenenans", and the unwanted organism produces toxins ( Bongkrek acidand toxoflavin) from the coconut, besides killing off the "Rhizopus" fungus due to the antibioticactivity of bongkrek acid.
Fatalities from contaminated tempe bongkrèk were once common in the area where it was produced.Fact|date=October 2007 Thus, the sale of tempeh bongkrèk is prohibited by law nowadays; clandestine manufacture continues however due to the superior culinary value. The problem of contamination is not encountered with bean or grain tempeh, which have a different composition of
fatty acidsthat is not favorable for the growth of "B. cocovenenans" but encourages growth of "Rhizopus" instead. When bean or grain tempeh has the proper color, texture and smell, it is a very strong indication that the product is safe. Tempe bongkrèk which is yellow is always highly toxic due to toxoflavin, but tempe bongkrèk with a normal coloration may still contain lethal amounts of bongkrek acid.
A variation of tempeh cooking method, often found in
Purwokerto. The origin of the word 'Mendoan' is from Banyumasregional dialect, which means "to cook instantly in very hot oil", that results in raw and limp cooking.
* Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 1979. "The book of tempeh: A super soyfood from Indonesia". New York: Harper & Row (Colophon Books). ISBN 0-06-091265-0.
* Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 1985. "The book of tempeh". Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press.
* Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 1985. "History of tempeh: A fermented soyfood from Indonesia". 2nd ed. Lafayette, California: Soyfoods Center. ISBN 0-933332-21-1.
* Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 1989. "Bibliography of tempeh and tempeh products: 1,416 references from 1815 to 1989". Lafayette, California: Soyfoods Center. ISBN 0-933332-47-5.
* [http://www.motherearthnews.com/Real-Food/1977-09-01/Tempeh-Recipes.aspx "How We Make and Eat Tempeh Down on The Farm"] - Mother Earth News, Issue # 47 - September/October 1977
* [http://www.tempeh.info "Step-by-step instructions for making tempeh"]
* [http://www.tempeh.idv.tw "Useful links about tempeh"]
* [http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/~manfred/tempeh/ "Efficient Tempeh making with Manfred"]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Tempeh — auf dem Markt in Jakarta, Indonesien. Tempeh ist ein traditionelles Fermentationsprodukt aus Indonesien, das durch die Beimpfung von gekochten Sojabohnen mit verschiedenen Rhizopus Arten, also mit Hilfe von niederen Schimmelpilzen aus der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
tempeh — [tem′pā] n. a cheeselike, high protein food, originally of Indonesia, made of cooked soybeans fermented with a rhizopus fungus and used as a meat substitute, in salads, etc … English World dictionary
Tempeh — Un trozo de tempeh crudo. El Tempeh es un producto alimenticio procedente de la fermentación de la soja que se presenta en forma de pastel. Es un producto originario de Indonesia, donde es muy popular, en especial en la isla de Java, donde se… … Wikipedia Español
Tempeh — du tempeh frais sur un marché à Jakarta Le Tempeh est un produit alimentaire à base de soja fermenté, originaire d Indonésie. Sommaire 1 Fabrication … Wikipédia en Français
tempeh — noun Etymology: Javanese témpé Date: 1950 an Asian food prepared by fermenting soybeans with a rhizopus … New Collegiate Dictionary
tempeh — /tem pay/, n. Indonesian Cookery. a fermented soybean cake. [1960 65; < Javanese témpé] * * * … Universalium
tempeh — noun An Indonesian food made from partially cooked fermented soybeans, mixed with a fungus () … Wiktionary
tempeh — n. meat substitute made from cooked soybeans … English contemporary dictionary
tempeh — [ tɛmpeɪ] noun an Indonesian dish consisting of deep fried fermented soya beans. Origin from Indonesian tempe … English new terms dictionary
tempeh — tem·peh … English syllables