name = Julius Evola
image_size = 200px
caption = Evola sporting his trademark
birth_name = Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola
19 May 1898
11 June 1974
occupation = author, metaphysician, political philosopher
title = Baron
Friedrich Nietzsche, Oswald Spengler, Rene Guenon, Joseph de Maistre, Ernst Junger
Savitri Devi, Miguel Serrano, Daniel Pinchbeck
Julius Evola, also known as Baron Giulio Cesare Evola, (
May 19, 1898– June 11, 1974) was an Italian philosopher, esotericist, occultist, author, artist, poet, political activist, soldierand most significantly described as a Radical Traditionalist. Evola is primarily known for his involvement in Italian Fascistpolitics until the movement was defeated in World War II; since the war, his works have inspired a succession of New Rightand neo-fascistgroups in Italy and beyond. [Drake, Richard. "The Red and the Black: Terrorism in Contemporary Italy," "International Political Science Review". 1984 5: 279-298.] [Ferraresi, Franco. "The Radical Right in Postwar Italy," "Politics & Society" 1988 16: 71-119.] [Weinberg, Leonard, ed. "Political Parties and Terrorist Groups". Routledge Studies in Extremism and Democracy, 1992.]
His theories were often mixed in with his
occultwritings, with themes such as Hermeticism, the metaphysics of sex, Tantra, Buddhism, Taoism, mountaineering, the Holy Grail, the essence and history of civilizations, decadenceand various philosophic and religious Traditions from the Eastand the West. He considered himself a representative and upholder of " Tradition" in an age of spiritual oblivion and organized deviancy. Evola's core trilogy of works are commonly regarded to be " Revolt Against the Modern World", " Men Among the Ruins" and " Ride the Tiger".
Evola attempted to influence both
Italian Fascismand National Socialismfrom the late 1920s through the collapse of the Italian Fascist regime in 1943, although only with a brief period of success in 1942. After the regime's collapse, Evola fled to Nazi-ruled Germany. He opposed the Salò Republic, and worked with the SS Ahnenerbeon research on Freemasonry. In the post-war period, he returned to Italy where his writings enjoyed popularity among some on the far right, especially young neo-fascistgroups. Many Radical Traditionalist, Nouvelle Droite, Conservative Revolutionary, Aryanist, and Third Positionistgroups and intellectuals have been influenced by Evola to various degrees. According to one scholar, "Evola’s thought can be considered one of the most radically and consistently antiegalitarian, antiliberal, antidemocratic, and antipopular systems in the twentieth century." [Ferraresi, Franco. "The Radical Right in Postwar Italy," "Politics & Society", 1988 16:71-119, Pg. 84]
Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola was born in
Rometo a noble Sicilian family (his father, Vincenzo Evola, was born in Cinisi). He fought in World War Ias an artilleryofficer on the Asiago plateau. After the war, attracted to the avant-garde, Evola briefly associated with Filippo Marinetti's Futurist movement, but became a prominent representative of Dadaism in Italy through his painting, poetry, and collaboration on the shortly published journal, " Revue Bleu". In 1922, after concluding that avant-garde art was becoming commercializedand stiffened into academicconvention, he reduced his focus on artistic expression such as painting and poetry. [G.Evola, "Il Camino del Cinabro", 1963] ).
Entry into esotericism
Around 1920, his interests led him into spiritual,
transcendentaland "supra-rational" studies. He began reading various esoterictexts and gradually delved deeper into the occult, alchemy, magic, and Orientalstudies, particularly Tibetan Lamaismand Vajrayanist tantric yoga.
In 1927, along with other Italian esotericists, he founded the Gruppo di Ur. The group's aim was to provide a "soul" to the burgeoning Fascist movement of the time through the revival of an ancient Roman
Paganism. [Isotta Poggi. "Alternative spirituality In Italy." In :James R. Lewis, J. Gordon Melton. "Perspectives on the New Age." SUNY Press, 1992. Page 276.]
Involvement with Fascism
In the late 1920s, Evola expressed his support for a Radical
Fascist revolutionto sweep modern Judeo-Christianityout of Italy and replace it with a "Pagan Imperialism" (à la Ancient Rome). [Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. "Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity". New York University Press, New York 2003. 54-56] He was one of a number of fascist ideologues who opposed Mussolini's Lateran Accordswith the Roman Catholic Churchand rejected the Fascist party's nationalismand its focus on mass movementmob politics; he hoped to influence the regime toward his own variation on fascist racial theories and his "Tradionalist" philosophy. Early in 1930, Evola launched " Torre", a bi-weekly review, to voice his conservative-revolutionarism and denounce the demagogictendencies of official fascism; government censorssuppressed the journal and engaged in character assassinationagainst its staff (for a time, Evola retained a bodyguardof like-minded radical fascists) until it died out in June of that year. From 1934 to 1943, he edited the cultural page of Roberto Farinacci's journal "Regime Fascista". Mussoliniread Evola's " Sintesi di dottrina della razza" in August 1941, and was impressed enough to personally meet with Evola and offer him his praise. Evola later recounted that Mussolini had found in his work a uniquely Roman form of fascist racism distinct from that found in Nazi Germany. With Mussolini's backing, Evola launched the journal "Sangue e Spirito." While not always in agreement with German racial theorists, Evola traveled to Germany in February 1942 and obtained support for German collaboration on "Sangue e Spirito" from leading Nazi race theorists. [Aaron Gillette. "Racial Theories in Fascist Italy." London Routledge 2002.]
Evola supported Fascism for his own ends, but was rebuked by the regime because his ends were not always theirs. When
World War IIbroke out, he volunteered for military service in order to fight the Communists on the Russian front; he was rejected because he had too many detractors in the bureaucracy (Hansen 2002). Italian Fascism went into decline when, during the midst of the War, Mussolini was deposed and imprisoned. Evola, although not a member of the Fascist Party, and despite his apparent problems with the Fascist regime, was one of the first people to greet Mussolini when the latter was broken out of prison by Nazi commandos in 1943.
After the Italian surrender to the Allied forces in
September 8, 1943, Evola moved to Germany, where he spent the remainder of World War II, also working as a researcher on Freemasonryfor the SSAhnenerbe in Vienna.
It was Evola's custom to walk around the city during
bombing raids in order to better 'ponder his destiny'. During one such Sovietraid, in March or April 1945, a shell fragment damaged his spinal cordand he became paralyzed from the waist down, remaining so throughout his life (Stucco 1992, xiii).
Evola and the SS
:"But in spite of all these negative aspects, there was something in National Socialism that attracted Evola: the concept of a state ruled by an Order, which he felt was embodied by the SS. 'We are inclined to the opinion that we can see the nucleus of an Order in the higher sense of tradition in the 'Black Corps,' he wrote in Vita Italiana (August 15, 1938). Again in Vita Italiana (August 1941, 'Per una profonda alleanza italo-germanica' [For a Deep Italian-Germanic Alliance] ) he writes: 'Beyond the confines of the party and of any political-administrative structure, an elite in the form of a new 'Order'—that is, a kind of ascetic-military organization that is held together by the principles of 'loyalty' and 'honor,' must form the basis of the new state.' As mentioned, Evola held the SS, which Himmler strove to design according to the model of the
Teutonic Order, to be this elite.
:The castles of the SS Order, with their 'initiations,' the emphasis on transcending the purely human element, the prerequisite of physical valor, as well as the ethical requirements (loyalty, discipline, defiance of death, willingness to sacrifice, unselfishness), strengthened Evola in his conviction. He also was of the opinion that the ethics of the SS were borrowed from the Jesuits" (Dr. H. T. Hansen in "Julius Evola's Political Endeavors" introduction to "Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist" p. 61-22).
Post-World War II
After World War II, Evola continued his work in esotericism. He wrote a number of books and articles on sexual magic and various other esoteric studies, including ' (1949), ' (1958), ' (1974), "The Path of Enlightenment According to the Mithraic Mysteries" (1977). He also wrote his two explicitly political books ' (1953), "" (1961), and his autobiography "
Il Cammino del Cinabro" (1963).
In the post-war years, Evola's writings were held in high esteem by members of the
Neo-fascistmovement in Italy, and because of this, he was put on trial from June through November 1951 on the charge of attempting to revive Fascismin Italy. He was acquitted because he could prove that he was never a member of the Fascist party, and that all accusations were made without evidence to prove that his writings glorified Fascism (Evola - "Autodifesa/Self-Defence" in appendix to "Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist" 1953).
Evola died unmarried, without children, on
June 11, 1974in Rome. His ashes were deposited in a hole cut in a glacieron Mt. Rosa.
Evola's systematic and detailed references to ancient and modern texts make it difficult to speak about influences, though affinities could exist between Evola and
Plato, Oswald Spengler, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Arthur de Gobineau, Adolf Hitler, Friedrich Nietzsche, Meister Eckhart, Homer, Jacob Boehme, René Guénonand certain Catholicthinkers like Juan Donoso Cortésand Joseph de Maistre. Italian philosopher of history Giambattista Vicoprovided Evola with the concepts of primordial heroic law, "natural heroic rights" and the meaning of the Indo-European Latin term "vir" as indicative of "wisdom, priesthood and kingship." Crucial to Evola's formulation of the idea of "solar masculinity" versus "chthonic masculinity" and matriarchalregression was the maverick 19th century Swiss scholar Johann Jakob Bachofen. Other prominent, philosophically foundational influences for Evola include the ancient Aryo- Hinduscripture that teaches the concept of "detached violence", the " Bhagavad Gita" and the Aryan kshatriyasage Siddartha Gotama, the historical Buddha (Evola, "Il Camino del Cinabro" 1963).
Like Guénon, he believed that mankind is living in the
Kali Yugaof the Hindutradition, the Dark Age of unleashed, materialistic appetites. The Kali Yuga is the last of four ages, which form a cycle from the Satya Yugaor Golden Agethrough the Kali Yuga or the Hesiodic Iron Age. Evola argued that both Italian fascism and National Socialism held hope for a reconstitution of the primordial "celestial race." [A. James Gregor. "Mussolini's Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought". Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.]
For Evola, the word Tradition had a meaning very similar to that of Truth. The doctrine of the four ages, a broad characterization of the attributes of Tradition and their manifestations in traditional societies makes up the first half of Evola's major work "
Revolt Against the Modern World". In "Revolt Against the Modern World", he expounds according to the ancient texts that there is not one Tradition, but two: An older and degenerate tradition that is feminine, matriarchal, unheroic, associated with the telluric negroid racial remnants of Lemuria (continent); and a higher one that is masculine, heroic, "Uranian" and purely Aryo- Hyperboreanin its origin. The latter one later gave rise to an ambiguous Western- Atlantictradition, which combined aspects of both through the historical Hyperborean migrations and their degenerating assimilation of exotic spiritual influences from the South.
According to Evola, in the
Golden Agethere existed in the dominating elites, the "Divine Kings", a convergence of the two powers, namely the spiritual principle and the royal principle. From the Aryo-Hindu tradition, he sees the human type of the Rajarshias an embodiment of the Golden Ageideal and quotes the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad(1.4.11): "This is why nothing is greater than the warrior nobility; the priests themselves venerate the warrior when the consecration of the king occurs." Evola argues that in the Hindu tradition there are plenty of instances of kings who already possess or eventually achieve a spiritual knowledge greater than that possessed by the later-times degenerated brahmana. This is the case, for instance, of King Jaivala, whose knowledge was not imparted by any priest, but rather reserved to the warrior caste; also, in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad(4.3.1) King Janakateaches the brahmana Yajnavalkyathe doctrine of the transcendent Self. Evola explains that, according to tradition, the primordial gnosiswas handed down, starting from Ikshvaku, in regal succession (cf. Bhagavadgita, 4. 1-2); the same Sun Dynasty("surya-vamsa") was connected with blue-eyed, fair-skinned [http://www.hsuyun.org/Dharma/zbohy/Literature/essays/czs/bluelotus.html] Gautama Buddha's aristocratic Aryan family ( Sutta Nipata, 3). In the laws of the second or Silver Age, the Laws of Manu, the text states "rulers do not prosper without priests and priests do not thrive without rulers" and that "the priest is said to be the root of the law, and the ruler is the peak" (11.321-2;11.83-4).
In reference to Christianity, Evola distinguished between 1) the mystical character of primitive Christianity and its later social history on the one hand, and 2) the primordial-Hyperborean elements and the decadent Judaic elements on the other. In "Revolt Against the Modern World", he asserts "in the symbolism of Christ there are traces of a mysteric pattern" (p. 281) and "Jesus' saying in Matthew (11:12) concerning the violence suffered by the kingdom of Heaven and the revival of the Davidic saying: 'You are gods' (John 10:34), belong to elements that exercised virtually no influence on the main pathos of early Christianity" ("Revolt", p. 284). Evola states "the Christian legend of the three magi is an attempt to claim for Christianity a traditional character in the superior sense I give to the term" ("The Mystery of the Grail", p. 45). In the same work, Evola argues "the Jewish notion of a Messiah and the Christian notion of God's Kingdom, which many people believe to have greatly influenced the medieval imperial myth, are nothing but an echo of the ancient and pre-Christian Aryo-Iranian concept" of the
Saoshyantas "lord of a future, triumphal kingdom of the God of Light" and "slayer of the Ahrimanic dark forces" (ibid., p. 39)
Evola recalls the mysterious figure of the priest-king
Melchizedekas a primary point of juncture with the primordial sacral-royal Tradition of the origins. Abraham receives an almost feudalspiritual investiturefrom Melchizedek in the biblical episode of Genesis 14, giving the mysterious priest-king tithes, thus symbolizing the Abrahamic tradition's implicit dependency (cf. St. Paul: "It is beyond dispute that the inferior is blessed by the superior", Heb. 7:1-3). Evola often notes the role of the "regal religion according to Melchizedek" in the Ghibellineideology. Evola finds the testimony of Eginhardsignificant, who states that after Charlemagnewas consecrated and hailed with the formula, "Long life and victory to Charles the Great, crowned by God, great and peaceful emperor of the Romans!" the pope "prostrated himself ("adoravit") before Charles, according to the ritual established at the time of the ancient emperors." Evola emphasizes how the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund(1368-1437), founder of the militant-Catholic chivalric Order of the Dragon, continuing a long tradition of Christian-Roman and Byzantineimperial dominance in religious matters, summoned the Council of Constance(A.D. 1413) on the eve of the Reformationin order to purify the clergy from schisms and anarchy.
The classical Traditional polity is structured according to a strict hierarchy of sociopolitical functions, where the lower functions are concerned with mere matter and organic vitality and the ascending functions progressively ruled by spirit. This order, in which powers of spirit correlate to societal status, Evola finds crystallized in the
Indian caste system, the Republic of Plato, ancient Iranian society and the medieval hierarchical class divisions between peasants, burghers, nobility and the clergy and military religious orders. The involution through the cycle of the ages was mirrored in the law of the regression of the castes, from the primal "heaven-born" kings to the deconsecrated slavish usurpers and raceless pariahs of the present. Evola saw the Ghibellinedynasty of Hohenstauffenemperors (1152-1271) as the Germanic champion of the primordial "sacred regality" in a renewed Holy Roman Empire. Once the solar, golden, sacred regality of the mythical first age fell, power devolved upon a lunar, silver, feminized priestly caste before an unconsecrated warrior nobility struggled against it, announcing the Bronze Age. Then power shifts to the mercantile caste, represented by the Italian comune, Freemasonry, the Jewish financial oligarchy of the Renaissance, and New WorldAmerican Judeo-Protestant plutocracy. By the beginning of the twentieth century, organized labor and Marxist- Trotskyitesubverters sought to transfer power to the last caste of slaves or sudras, or the consumer-pariah, reducing all values to matter, machines, dysgenic egalitarianism and the reign of abstract quantity.
Paths to Enlightenment
The path to enlightenment is the chief subject of a number of Evola's works. First and foremost is the Buddhist ascesis as he rediscovered it following over two thousand years of obstruction of the Buddha's teachings (""). He tries to show the ways that allow a man to survive spiritually intact in the modern age of obscuration and to achieve supra-human liberation or transcendence.
Even in his book "" Evola discussed
mountaineeringas a possible approach or support on the way of initiatic ascesis in which heroic action is combined with specialized knowledge and training culminating in an initiation — the climbing of the mountain. In this way, and not as a sport or a recreation, mountaineering can be a "spiritual quest," as the subtitle of the book suggests.
Ascesis and Initiation
According to Julius Evola, tradition in its purest form encompassed asceticism, which he described in "" as a discipline. He describes two basic and complementary types of asceticism — that of action and that of
contemplation. The asceticism of action is personified by the warrior while that of contemplation by the pure ascetic; he described Buddhism as the highest form of the asceticism of contemplation, a form very suitable for the warrior in his preparation for inner and outer warfare.
Metaphysics of Sex
In ' and also ', Evola described the practice of sexual magic as an asceticism of action that allows one to achieve transcendent states through physical action, primarily sex.
To explain the metaphysics of sex, Evola cites the original meaning of the word "orgy" as "the state of inspired exaltation that began the initiatory process in the ancient Greek mysteries. But when this exaltation of eros, itself akin to other experiences of a supersensual nature, becomes individualized as a longing that is only carnal, then it deteriorates and ends finally in the form constituted by mere "pleasure, or venereal lust" ("The Metaphysics of Sex", p. 48).
In his sexual philosophy, Evola followed the esoteric Hindu and Buddhist schools in the teaching of retention of semen as a means of ontological energization and ultimate self-mastery. "
Virya, or spiritual manhood, if lost or wasted results in death and if withheld and conserved leads to life" (ibid., p. 219). Evola considered Traditional chastity as signifying "control, limit, anti-titanic purity, overcoming of pride, and immaterial unshakability, rather than a moralistic and sexuophobic concept" ("The Mystery of the Grail", p. 80).
Evola considered sex as being "the greatest magical force in nature", but he fiercely opposed
homosexuality, viewing it as a dysfunctional undermining of the magnetic polarity and complementary nature of the two sexes, and thus of the possibility of erotic transcendence. "In a civilization where equality is the standard, where differences are not linked, where promiscuity is in favor, where the ancient idea of 'being true to oneself' means nothing anymore--in such a splintered and materialistic society, it is clear that this phenomenon of regression and homosexuality should be particularly welcome, and therefore it is no way a surprise to see the alarming increase in homosexuality and the ' third sex' in the latest 'democratic' period, or an increase in sex changes to an extent unparalleled in other eras" ("The Metaphysics of Sex", p. 64). Evola refers to Plotinus, who deemed homosexual loves to be shameful and abnormal, like diseases of degenerate persons "which do not arise from the essence of being and are not the outcome of the development thereof" ( Enneads, III). The draconian harshness of the ancient Aryo- Zoroastrianview on homosexuality, as exemplified in the Vendidad, elicits Evola's full approval: sodomites were classed among the ranks of those criminals to be destroyed on the spot: "Four men can be put to death by any one without an order from the Dastur(high priest): the Nasu-burner (cannibal), the highwayman, the Sodomite, and the criminal taken in the deed" (Vendidad, 8:73-74 [http://www.avesta.org/vendidad/vd8sbe.htm] ). With equal vehemence, Evola scorned modern pornography, denouncing it as "dreadfully squalid not only in the facts and scenes described, but in its essence" ("The Metaphysics of Sex", p. 4).
Evola held that politics, like everything else in life, should look upward and beyond the self. His political philosophy was more or less close to
Joseph de Maistre, Hermann Wirth, Otto Weininger, Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, Ernst Jünger, Gottfried Benn, René Guénon, Oswald Spengler, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Evola's main argument against modern "demagogic" politics is its inverted materialistic focus and mentality, stemming from an inverted order of castes. According to Evola, in modernity, due to what he calls the "regression of the castes", the once-preeminent warrior caste (crystallized in the medieval
military religious ordersand ethical chivalry) has been downgraded into the figures of the mere democratic soldier and mercenary, who are servants of the artificial, soulless needs of the now-dominant mercantile and industrial interests. As Evola states, "Opposite to the 'soldier' was the type of the warrior and the member of the feudalaristocracy; the caste to which this type belonged was the central nucleus in a corresponding social organization. This caste was not at the service of the bourgeois class but rather ruled over it, since the class that was protected depended on those who had the right to bear arms" [Men Among the Ruins specify citequote page number]
On the meaning of his anti-middle-class stance, Evola stated:
We are "anti-bourgeois" not in the descending sense of
subversivecollectivists but in the sense of opposing the dominance of the lower manifestations of the modern bourgeois spirit (effeminate materialism, commercialism, gangsterism, etc). The bourgeois tendency has its inevitable role in society, but must not be absolutized; rather, the bourgeoisie must be purified, contained, its values given their space but subordinated to superior values. We are anti-bourgeois because the bourgeois type, while ranking above the proletarian, yet stands inferior to the soldierly-heroic and spiritual-priestly orders. The bourgeois type, compared to the sacral-warrior, only represents a lesser degree of progressive manhood (unedited Italian edition of "Men Among the Ruins").
Evola's earliest endeavors in politics occurred in the late 1920s, when he supported some European anti-democratic and anti-
Jewish political currents. He participated in the promotion of Mussolini's National Fascist Party dictatorshipin Italy, albeit as a wary supporter of the regime. He saw in Fascism the barest trace of what he believed to be the true path that the country (and civilization) should follow. He therefore attempted to influence the party in the conservative-revolutionary direction he believed it should go — the direction of radical Traditionalism; i.e. away from the exoteric modern Christian Church, the bourgeoisie, and the masses. His efforts to influence the regime were a failure, and he believed that by not following his advice, Mussolini's party failed to fulfill its function. He would maintain the view that a revolutionary movement, similar to Fascism but in harmony with "Tradition", was necessary for the return to a higher form of civilization.
When Evola met with
esoteric Hitlerist Miguel Serrano, he denied that he was a fascist or Hitlerist, but rather saw Metternichas a conservative ideal. (Goodrick-Clarke 2001, 337)
In the decade immediately following the war, Evola wrote two books which fall loosely into the categories "asceticism of action" and "asceticism of contemplation" in their prescriptions for political action.
Men Among the Ruins", Evola described a Traditional and aristocratic attitude — possibly leading to a reactionary revolution — like what he had hoped Fascism could have been with the right leaders. This attitude is a sort of asceticism of action calling for political action to reform current society in a conservative-revolutionary / radical Traditional direction. But he also felt that the acceleration of modernity following World War II's outcome and thus, the elimination of any truly opposing forces, made any such revolution rather impossible, unless the 'unforeseeable' imposes a radical change of circumstances.
Ride the Tiger", he prescribed a so-to-speak apolitical asceticism of contemplation in which a man is advised to act in the modern world, while remaining intellectually and spiritually detached from and above it. Evola argued that in order to survive in the modern world an enlightened or "differentiated man" should "ride the tiger". As a man, by holding onto the tiger's back, may survive the confrontation once the animal ends exhausted, so too might a man, by letting the world take him on its inexorable path, be able to turn the destructive forces around him into a kind of inner liberation.
Alleged racism and antisemitism
Evola called his work "racist",Fact|date=October 2007 and indeed a number of his articles and books deal explicitly with the subject of race.
A.J. Gregor comments: "In the [German translation of "Imperialismo pagano"] , Evola considered principled anti-Semitism one of the essentials of a salvific 'racial rebirth' in the modern world. Not only did Evola make a point of identifying
Karl Marx, one of the architects of the modern world of materialism, inferiority, pretended equality, and cultural decay, as a Jew--but he spoke of a "Jewish capitalistic yoke" that obstructed every effort at racial regeneration" ("Mussolini's Intellectuals", pps. 200-201).
In "Revolt Against the Modern World", he said that he considered himself to be a critic of the "racist worldview" by which he meant the demagogically-minded, simplistic, antisemitic theories of mainstream Nazis and others of his contemporaries. However, he wrote an introduction to an
Italian languageversion of " The Protocols of the Elders of Zion", a notorious antisemiticdocument, long proven to be a Tsaristforgery [ Norman Cohn, " Warrant for Genocide", 1967] , that alleges a Jewishconspiracy to run the world through control of the media and finance, and replace the traditional social order with one based on mass manipulation.
Evola was indifferent as to whether the document was authentic or not. He classified it as a 'myth' [ Myth here does not have its contemporary connotation of a 'falsehood'. In Fascist parlance, "myths" were stories that, properly cultivated, were productive of a reality that an elite desired, such as the mobilisation of the masses. See
A. James Gregor, "Italian Fascism and Developmental Dictatorship", 1979, pp.44ff.] . In 1937, a year after the publication of Giovanni Preziosi's Italian edition of the forgery in 1936, when it was known to be a fiction, Evola wrote as follows:
In short, he was unconcerned that it was a forgery, because, in his hermetic mode of understanding, that did not alter what he believed was the essential truth enciphered in what the public and scholarly world declared to be a lie.
In his introduction to the 1938 Italian edition of the "Protocols", Evola wrote that the tract had "the value of a spiritual tonic," that Jews "destroy every surviving trace of true order and superior civilization," and that, "above all, in these decisive hours of western history, [the "Protocols" tract] cannot be ignored or dismissed without seriously undermining the front of those fighting in the name of the spirit, of tradition, of true civilization."
For Evola this text represented a manipulation by occult powers trying to hide behind the Jewish and Freemasonic historical drive toward a merchant society soon to be replaced by the chaos of "mass society" which could eventually turn against both.Evola, "Men Among the Ruins", 1953 specify citequote page number]
Evola accused Jews, as well as what he termed the "semitic spirit," [A. James Gregor. "Mussolini's Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought." Princeton UniversityPress, 2005.] of having a corrosive effect on the "Nordic" race (a race that was, in Evola's mythology, analogous to the Nazi's "Aryans"). Evola argued that not only Jews, but even non-Jews "Judaicized in their souls" must be combated by a "coherent, complete, impartial" anti-Semitism given the means to "identify and combat the Jewish mentality." [Quoted in Aaron Gillette. Racial Theories in Fascist Italy. Routledge, 2002.] Evola supported the Nazi anti-Semitic view that there was a hidden form of Jewish power and influence in the modern world; he thought this Jewish power was a symptom of the "modern" world's lack of true aristocratic leadership. Evola further held that Jewish people denigrated lofty "Aryan" ideals (of
faith, loyalty, courage, devotion, and constancy) through a "corrosive irony" that ascribed every human activity to economic or sexual motives (à la Marxand Freud) (Kevin Coogan, "Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International", p. 309). In a 1938 article Evola accused Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, and Cesare Lombrosoof being "proponents of Jewish materialistic culture in the nineteenth century;cite book
author = Zimmerman, Joshua D.
title = Jews in Italy Under Fascist and Nazi Rule, 1922-1945
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=8WGZ0MWIgUwC&printsec=frontcover#PPA139,M1
year = 2005
publisher = University of Cambridge Press
location = New York
isbn = 0521841011
oclc = 56876639
pages = pp. 139
ref = ] two years later, in an essay entitled "Jews and Mathematics," Evola characterized Judaism as the antithesis of "Aryan civilation," and broadly attacked a range of what he considered examples of Jewish influences, from
Pythagoreanismto mathematics. The article was illustrated with pictures of notable Jews interspersed with classic anti-Semitic representations.
In "The Metaphysics of Sex" (Inner Traditions, 1st US edition 1983, pps. 9-10), Evola discoursed on his philosophy of de-evolutionary spiritual racism: "Our starting point will be not the modern theory of evolution but the traditional doctrine of involution. We do not believe the man is derived from the ape by evolution. We believe that the ape is derived from man by involution. We agree with
Joseph De Maistrethat savage peoples are not primitive peoples, in the sense of original peoples, but rather the degenerating remains of more ancient races that have disappeared. We concur with the various researchers (Kohlbrugge, Marconi, Dacque, Westenhofer, and Adloff) who have rebelled against the evolutionary dogma, asserting that animal species evince the degeneration of primordial man's potential. These unfulfilled or deviant potentials manifest as by-products of the true evolutionary process that man has led since the beginning."
Evola believed that a race of "Nordic" people, anciently emanating from
Golden Age Arctic Hyperborea, originally semi-immaterial and "soft-boned", had played a crucial founding role in Atlantisand the high cultures both of the East and West. In Evola's eyes, half-remembered, cryptic memories of a "more-than-human race" once existing in a "northern paradise" constitute the patrimony of the traditions of many diverse peoples. [cf. in section 3, [http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/dp5/inner4.htm#s3 A northern paradise] , of part 4, "Mythology, Paradise, and the Inner World", of "Mysteries of the Inner Earth" by David Pratt, 2001.] In this occult belief, Evola was additionally influenced by "Arctic Home in the Vedas" by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, which posited the polar North as the original home of the white Ur-Aryan tribes before their later separation into Western ( Hellenic, Roman, Celtic, Germanic) and Eastern ( Iranian, Indo-Aryan) divisions.
Joscelyn Godwin's research: "the basic outlines of Evola's prehistory resemble those of Theosophy, with Lemurian, Atlantean, and Aryanroot-races succeeding each other, and a pole-shift marking the transition from one epoch to another" ("Arktos", p. 60). Evola's dualism between the Northern Light and the Southern Light, and also the capture of the Atlanteans by the latter, is also found in the writings of Theosophy's co-founder Helena Petrovna Blavatsky:
Victor A. Shnirelman, a cultural anthropologistand ethnographer, has noted that cosmological racial ideas also appear in the Neo-Theosophical writings of H. P. Blavatsky's one-time disciple Alice Bailey. Shnirelman wrote that in Bailey's teachings, "Jews were depicted as the 'human product of the former Solar system,' linked with 'World Evil'"; he identifed "similar ideas" in the works of Bailey and Evola. [Shnirelman, Victor A. (1998), ' [http://sicsa.huji.ac.il/13shnir.html Russian Neo-pagan Myths and Antisemitism] ', in "ACTA" ( Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism) no. 13, a special research unit of " SICSA" (The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism), Hebrew University of Jerusalem.]
According to Evola, the hierarchy of races is really a hierarchy of embodied spiritualities; the spirit, rather than ethnic substance, determines culture; but at the same time race is the biological "memory" of a certain spiritual orientation. In order to describe what he called the lower,
telluric, Negroidraces, he frequently made use of the term "Southern" whereas to him higher races were "Northern." "North" and "South" are indicated as having simultaneously metaphysical, geographical and anthropologicalmeanings:
Evola quotes the
Confucian Chung Yung(10.4) to reinforce his point:
According to Evola, the more recent Northern, White and
Indo-European peoples (despite racial mixing) implicitly preserved more of the primordial Arctic Hyperboreanblood-memory and are objectively spiritually superior to the archaic, matter-obsessed degenerate remnants of the races of the South. Evola ("Revolt", p. 245) sees the sign of the Hyperborean Tradition and its antagonism with the forces of Antitradition in the Indian mythology surrounding the Vedic divinity Indra(cf. Thor), who is "fair of cheek" ( Rig Veda, I. [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv01009.htm 9] .3) and with his "fair-complexioned friends" (I. [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv01100.htm 100] .18) annihilates the lawless black Dasyu, "giving protection to the Aryan color" (III. [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv03034.htm 34] .9), blowing to nothingness "the swarthy skin which Indra hates" (IX. [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv09073.htm 73] .5).
On the "demonic" nature of the lower
negroidraces and their degenerating remnants, Evola relies on an old Aryo- Zoroastriantradition that teaches negroids belonged to the dark side owing to their alleged origin in the union between a demonand a wicked witch: " Zohak, during his reign, let loose a dev (demon) on a young woman, and let loose a young man on a parik (witch). They performed coitionwith [the sight] of the apparition; the negro came into being through that [novel] kind of coition" ( Bundahishn, [http://www.avesta.org/mp/grb12.htm XIVB] ).
Flowering forth in the Greek, pre-Celtic, Indo-Aryan, Aryo-Persian, Armenic, Roman, Germanic,
Tiwanaku, Teotihuacán, early Chinese, Aztec- Nahua, Incaand first Egyptian dynasties' representatives, with more or less ethnic but great spiritual purity, the "Northern Light" was considerably lost to the Atlantean offshoot which defiled itself through spiritual integration into the spiritual lunar sphere of the world of the "Mother" or "Earth" of the "Southern Light" and further miscegenationwith bestial, dark Lemurian stocks. "Revolt Against the Modern World" presents world-history to be the saga of dualistic conflict between the "Northern Light" and the "Southern Light": on one side stand the Uranian, patriarchalstocks of purer Hyperborean lineage, climatically harshly conditioned and heroic-minded celebrators of the winter solstice(cf. Rene Guenon: "The starting-point given to the year that one can call normal, as being in direct conformity with primordial tradition, is the winter solstice", "Traditional Forms and Cosmic Cycles", p. 24); on the other stand the chthonicand titanized inferior races and the spiritually/ethnically bastardized heirs of the fallen Atlantean civilization captured by the "Southern Light" and its sacerdotal and naturalistic- pantheistreligion of promiscuous vegetal and animal fertility.
Plato's description of the fall of Atlantis by Atlantean miscegenationwith humankind ( Critias, 110c; 120d-e; 121a-b) and the biblical myth of the "benei elohim", the Sons of Godcatastrophically mixing with the "daughters of men" ( [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Bible_%28King_James%29/Genesis#Chapter_6 Genesis 6] : 4-13) as support for his esoteric, Aryanist anthropogenesis. Evola interprets archeologicalfindings of semi-human hominidfossils as not purely primordial but evidence of the mismating of the celestial boreal race with inferior animalistic breeds as well, and most often, as remnants of degenerating, bestialized races in their final involutionary stages preceding extinction.
Just as Evola affirmed the natural hierarchy between different individuals of the same race, so he affirmed a natural rank ordering of the different human races. As the best-preserved remnants of the primordial celestial Hyperboreans, Evola affirmed the white race in its different branches as the creator of the greatest planetary civilizations:
"We have to remember that behind the various caprices of modern historical theories, and as a more profound and primordial reality, there stands the unity of blood and spirit of the white races who created the greatest civilizations both of the East and West, the Iranian and Hindu as well as the ancient Greek and Roman and the Germanic" ("The Doctrine of Awakening", p. 14).
In fact, Evola publicly celebrated Italian Fascism as a means to ensure and restore in a modern decadent world
"And if Fascist Italy, among the various Western nations is the one which first wished for a reaction against the degeneration of the materialist, democratic and capitalist civilisation, against the League of Nations ideology, there are grounds for thinking, without even any scintilla of chauvinistic infatuation, that Italy will be on the front line among the forces which will guide the future world and will restore the supremacy of the white race" ("Il Problema della supremazia della razza bianca" [The Problem of the Supremacy of the White Race] , "Lo Stato", 1936).
While characterizing race as something hereditary and biological, Evola also claimed that race was not simply and linearly defined by mere skin color and the various other hereditary factors. In other words, in addition to predominantly "Aryan" or, more broadly, "Northern" biology, the initial necessary precondition for further racial differentiation, one must prove oneself spiritually "Aryan". The fact that in India the term
Aryawas the synonym of dwija, "twice-born" or "regenerated" supports this point. To him higher race implied something akin to supra-human, spiritual caste. Evola wrote, "the supernatural element was the foundation of the idea of a traditional patriciate and of legitimate royalty."
In 'Myth and Violence: The Fascism of Julius Evola and Alain de Benoist,' Thomas Sheehan points out that "Evola prided himself on developing a theory of races that went beyond the merely biological to the spiritual. What constitutes a superior race for Evola is the spiritual orientation of a given stock, the subsumption of the requisite biological material (and that did mean the Aryan races) under a qualitatively elevating form, namely reference to the realm of the spirit. But in fact all that Evola's theory does is to promote biological-ethnic racism a step higher. There are enough references in his works to the 'inferior, non-European races,' to the 'power of inferior strata and races,' to disgusting 'Negro syncopations' in jazz, to 'Jewish psychoanalysis'--and enough adulation of the Aryans--for us to divine that Evola's 'spiritual' racism may have had something other than disinterested Apollonian origins."
In "Mussolini's Intellectuals",
A. James Gregordiscusses Evola's racism as follows: " [In the German rendering of "Imperialismo pagano"] , Evola argues that it is out of the creativity of an 'ur-Aryan' and 'solar-Nordic' blood that world culture emerges. Conversely, culture decline is a function of the feckless mixture of Aryan, with lesser 'animalistic,' blood ... According to "Imperialismo pagano", the 'natural' and endogamous caste system of antiquity that sustained the 'purity' of the culture-creating 'Hyperborean-Nordics' slowly disintegrated over time under the corrosive influence of Semitic religion and the 'Semitic spirit' ...
While Evola was clear about the relative insignificance of the physical attributes of race, he did acknowledge that the 'original Hyperboreans,' which he was critically concerned, were probably 'dolichocephalic, tall and slender, blond and blue-eyed' ("
Sintesi di dottrina della razza", p. 67) ...
Evola held that the physical mixture of races, particularly between Aryans and races that were 'alien' (i.e., non-Aryan), was always hazardous — but mixture between 'related' races might produce hybrid vigor. Given his generous notion of what constituted an Aryan race (Evola was convinced of the Hyperborean origins of most Europeans, the indigenous peoples of North and South America, as well as those of the Indian subcontinent), those candidate races Evola considered to be truly 'alien' were never explicitly catalogued—except in terms of Semites and the deeply pigmented peoples of sub-Saharan Africa (see Evola, 'Psicologia criminale ebraica,' "Difesa della razza" 2, no. 18, pp. 32-35; "
Sintesi di dottrina della razza", pp. 74, 237). What seemed eminently clear, for all the qualifiers, was that all the material races Evola identified as capable of serving as hosts for the extrabiological and supernatural spiritual elements were purportedly biological descendents of the 'Aryan-Nordics' of Hyperborea ...
In the golden age, the celestial race was spiritual--only gradually, over time, taking on material properties ... As a necessary consequence of
miscegenation, there was a continual and irreversible decline of the celestials in ancient times (Evola identifies the Jews as providing a 'ferment of decomposition, dissolution and corruption' in antiquity; see Evola, "Sintesi di dottrina della razza" p. 160; "Rivolta contro il mondo moderno", p. 314), a tenuous revival under the Romans, and another by the Nordic-Germans during the course of the Holy Roman Empire--but by the time of the Renaissance, with its humanism, rationalism, universalism and its gradual submission to the theses of the equality of all humans, humankind had entered the "kali-yuga", the terminal age of 'obscurity,' the end of this current race cycle. For Evola, given the fateful path traversed by history, there remained only one course for contemporary humanity: an attempt at reconstitution of the primordial celestial race, amid the debris of previous race cycles, employing the racial remnants of the Hyperboreans ...
For Evola, spiritual forces shaped races for their own inscrutable purposes. The notion that mutations, governed from 'on high,' might be the source of raciation was a relatively common conviction among German esoterics (See Pauwels and Bergier, The Morning of the Magicians, pp. 400-5). Geneticists, Evola argued, failed to provide a compelling account of how mutations occur. He maintained, as a consequence, that 'the cause is to be found elsewhere, in the actions of a superbiological element not reducible to the determinism of the physical transmission of genetic materials.' The true cause of hereditary variation was to be found 'rather by starting from another point of view that affords one an entirely different set of laws' than those of empirical science.
Given this supposition, Evola proceeded to argue that Fascism or National Socialism--with their heroism, their sacrificial and ascetic ethic, their authoritarian and hierarchical order, together with their appeal to myth and ritual--provided an environment compatible with the 'spirit' of the celestials. That might be enough to prompt a cosmic, if gradual, reemergence of the celestial race. In such circumstances, the formative spiritual principle that, in the ultimate analysis, governs the transcendent 'superhistory' of humankind might literally reconstitute the individuals of the primordial creative race of Hyperborea. Evola sought to show that such an outcome would not be essentially determined by biology, but by the cosmic spirit--that its formative influence could transform individuals into persons accommodating a properly corresponding soul and spirit--to render them once again 'pure.'"
The eminent scholar of Fascism,
Renzo De Felice, maintained that while Evola's spiritual, neo-idealist racial theories were wrong, they had a notable intellectual ancestry, and Evola defended them in an honorable way: "Evola for his part completely refused any racial theorizing of a purely biological kind, which went so far as to draw to himself the attacks and sarcasms of a Landra, for example. This does not mean that the 'spiritual' theory of race is acceptable, but it had at least the merit of not totally failing to see certain values, to refuse the German aberrations and the ones modeled after them and to try to keep racism on a plane of cultural problems worthy of the name" ("Storia degli Ebrei Italiani sotto il Fascismo", or "The History of Italian Jews under Fascism" [Milan, 1977] ; 465). Christophe Boutin, in his major work on Evola, "Politique et Tradition: Julius Evola dans le siècle, 1898-1974" (Paris, 1992), discusses Evola's views on racism and Negroes(Boutin, pp. 197-200). Boutin mentions that in Evola's 1968 collection of essays, "L’Arco e la clava" (Milan, 1968, revised 1971), there is a chapter on "America Negrizzata," in which Evola criticizes the "Telluric" Negroid influence on popular American culture, while acknowledging that there has been little actual miscegenation. Evola also argues against American racial integrationin this chapter. The unadulterated 1972 Italian edition of "Men Among the Ruins" ends with an appendix entitled "Appendix on the Myths of our Time," of which number 4 is "Taboos of our Times" ("Gli uomini e le rovine", Rome, 1953, revised 1967, with the new appendix, 1972). In this section Evola argues that modern irrational taboos forbid an honest, frank discussion on the working classes and Negroes. Evola notices that the mere word 'Negro' had connotations of offensiveness in the left-wing atmosphere of the era: "la tabuizzazione che porta fino ad evitare l'uso della designazione 'negro,' per le sue implicazioni 'offensive'" (ibid., p. 276). Evola opines that a true Rightist movement will not compromise with this sort of moralistic development. (The Inner Traditions English translation suppressed Evola's appendix, ironically bearing out Evola's thoughts on the "taboos of our times.")
Evola and the Grail
To Evola the Grail was based on the
Ghibellinetradition, being the apex of Western Civilisation. The Ghibelline tradition during the medieval period was represented by the German Hohenstaufen imperial line in opposition to the papacy. [Julius Evola, "The Mystery of the Grail: Initiation and Magic in the Quest for the Spirit" (Inner Traditions, Bear and Company; 1996)]
Evola's writings have continued to have an influence both within occult intellectual circles and in European far-right politics. He is widely translated in French, Spanish and partly in German. Although his impact on Italian Fascism and/or German
Nazismwas minor, his impact on post-War Neofascist, Nazi occultist, white supremacistand extreme right-wing terrorist groups Fact|date=October 2007 has been more considerable. Amongst those he has influenced are Miguel Serrano, Savitri Devi, GRECE, "The Scorpion", the Movimento sociale italiano (MSI), Falange Espanola, Gaston Armand Amaudruz's Nouvel Ordre Européen, Guillaume Faye, Pino Rauti's Ordine Nuovo, Alain de Benoist, Michael Moynihan, Giorgio Freda, the Armed Revolutionary Nuclei(Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari) and Forza Nuova. Giorgio Almirantereferred to him as "our Marcuse — only better". [Thomas Sheehan. [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/7178 Italy: Terror on the Right] . "The New York Review of Books", Volume 27, Volume 27, Number 21 & 22 · January 22, 1981] . according to one leader of the neofascist and terrorist Ordine Nuovo, "Our work since 1953 has beento transpose Evola’s teachings into direct political action." [Quoted in: Franco Ferraresi: The Radical Right in Postwar Italy. "Politics & Society". 1988 16:71-119. (Page 84)] The violent French fascist group Troisième Voie, which is active among skinhead gangs which attack black people and gays, has also been inspired by Evola. [Institute of Race relations. The far Right in Europe: a guide. "Race & Class", 1991, Vol. 32, No. 3:125-146 (Page 132).]
Evola remains relatively unknown in the
U.S.A., where almost all of his books have been published in English by New age publishers Inner Traditions. He has also gained some attention in Russia, where some of his work has been analyzed by Alexander Duginand others from a nationalistic Russian view, with but few translations of some of his shorter texts. His work, still according to translation, is also read in the U.K., Spain, Poland, Scandinavia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Mexico, Argentine, rest of South Americaand Turkeywhere his opus "Revolt Against the Modern World" has been published in 2006.
Books and selected articles
Books listed with titles in English are available in translation.
Arte Astratta, Posizione Teoretica" (1920)
Le Parole Oscure du Paysage Interieur" (1920)
Saggi sull'idealismo magico" (1925)
Teoria dell'Individuo Assoluto" (1927)
Fenomenologia dell'Individuo Assoluto" (1930)
Three Aspects of the Jewish Problem" (1936)
Il Mito del Sangue. Genesi del Razzismo" (1937)
Sintesi di Dottrina della Razza" (1941)
The Elements of Racial Education" (1941)
Die Arische Lehre von Kampf und Sieg" (1941)
Gli Ebrei hanno voluto questa Guerra" (1942)
Il Cammino del Cinabro" (1963)
Il Fascismo. Saggio di una Analisi Critica dal Punto di Vista della Destra" (1964)
L'Arco e la Clava" (1968)
Il Taoismo" (1972)
Ultimi Scritti" (1977)
#"The Path of Enlightenment According to the Mithraic Mysteries" (1977) ISBN 1558182284
*Aprile, Mario (1984), 'Julius Evola: An Introduction to His Life and Work', "The Scorpion" No. 6 (Winter/Spring): 20-21.
*Bolton, Kerry (1997), 'Julius Evola — Above the Ruins', "The Nexus", issue 10.
*Coletti, Guillermo (1996), 'Against the Modern World: An Introduction to the Work of Julius Evola', "
Ohm Clock" No. 4 (Spring): 29-31.
*Coogan, Kevin (1998), "
Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockeyand the Postwar Fascist International" (Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, ISBN 1-57027-039-2).
*Drake, Richard H. (1986), 'Julius Evola and the Ideological Origins of the Radical Right in Contemporary Italy', in
Peter H. Merkl(ed.), " Political Violence and Terror: Motifs and Motivations" ( University of CaliforniaPress, ISBN 0-520-05605-1) 61-89.
*Drake, Richard H. (1988), 'Julius Evola, Radical Fascism and the Lateran Accords', "
The Catholic Historical Review" 74: 403-419.
*Drake, Richard H. (1989), 'The Children of the Sun', in "
The Revolutionary Mystique and Terrorism in Contemporary Italy" (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-35019-0), 114-134.
*Faerraresi, Franco (1987), 'Julius Evola: Tradition, Reaction, and the Radical Right', "
European Journal of Sociology" 28: 107-151.
*Godwin, Joscelyn (1996), "
Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival" (Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, ISBN 0-932813-35-6), 57-61.
*Godwin, Joscelyn (2002), 'Julius Evola, A Philosopher in the Age of the Titans', "" Volume 1 (Atlanta, GA: Ultra Publishing, ISBN 0-9720292-0-6), 127-142.
*Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2001), "Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity" (New York:
New York University Press, ISBN 0-585-43467-0, ISBN 0-8147-3124-4, ISBN 0-8147-3155-4), 52-71.
*Griffin, Roger (1985), 'Revolts against the Modern World: The Blend of Literary and Historical Fantasy in the Italian New Right', "
Literature and History" 11 (Spring): 101-123. [http://www.rosenoire.org/articles/revolts.php]
*Griffin, Roger (1995) (ed.), "Fascism" (
Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-289249-5), 317-318.
*Hansen, H. T. (1994), 'A Short Introduction to Julius Evola', "
Theosophical History" 5 (January): 11-22; reprinted as the introduction to Julius Evola, " Revolt Against the Modern World", (Vermont: Inner Traditions, 1995).
*Hansen, H. T. (2002), 'Julius Evola's Political Endeavors', introduction to Julius Evola, "
Men Among the Ruins", (Vermont: Inner Traditions).
*Moynihan, Michael (2003), 'Julius Evola's Combat Manuals for a Revolt Against the Modern World', in
Richard Metzger(ed.), "Book of Lies: The Disinformation Guide to Magick and the Occult" ( The Disinformation Company, ISBN 0-9713942-7-X) 313-320.
*Rees, Philip (1991), "
Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890" (New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-13-089301-3), 118-120.
*Sedgwick, Mark (2004) "Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual History of the Twentieth Century" (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-515297-2).
*Sheehan, Thomas (1981) 'Myth and Violence: The Fascism of Julius Evola and
Alain de Benoist', "Social Research", 48 (Spring): 45-83.
*Stucco, Guido (1992), 'Translator's Introduction', in Evola, "
The Yoga of Power" (Vermont: Inner Traditions), ix-xv.
*Stucco, Guido (1994), 'Introduction', printed in Julius Evola, "The Path of Enlightenment According to the Mithraic Mysteries", ', ', and "" (
Edmonds, WA: Holmes Publishing Group)
author = Stucco, Guido
year = 2002
title = The Legacy of a European Traditionalist: Julius Evola in Perspective
volume = Vol. 3
issue = No. 2
url = http://theoccidentalquarterly.com/archives/vol2no3/gs-evola.html
*Wasserstrom, Steven M. (1995), 'The Lives of Baron Evola', "
Alphabet City" 4 + 5 (December): 84-89.
*Waterfield, Robin (1990), 'Baron Julius Evola and the Hermetic Tradition', "
Gnosis" 14, (Winter): 12-17.
* [http://www.gnosticliberationfront.com/julius_evola%20southgate.htm Julius Evola, A Radical Traditionalist]
* [http://www.gnosticliberationfront.com/julius_evolas%20political%20testament.htm Julius Evola's Political Testament By Nigel Jackson]
* [http://www.gnosticliberationfront.com/julius_evola_page_2.htm Julius Evola, Magic and Awakening]
* [http://www.geocities.com/integral_tradition/texts.html Integral Tradition - Conservative Revolution: Texts]
* [http://www.centrostudilaruna.it/evolacodreanuschwarz.html Corneliu Codreanu and the New European Empire According to Julius Evola]
* [http://www.juliusevola.net/ JuliusEvola.NET] , contains pictures of Evola, his paintings and a large text archive
* [http://thompkins_cariou.tripod.com/ Evola As He Is] , many previously unpublished texts in English
* [http://www.geocities.com/raaga_blanda/ Raaga Blanda: The Poetry of Julius Evola in English]
* [http://www.ariyabuddhism.com/ ariyaBuddhism.com] , dedicated to Julius Evola's 'Doctrine of Awakening'
* [http://www.evola.org/ Evola.ORG] , links to Evola websites worldwide
* [http://www.juliusevola.it Julius Evola Unofficial Website] , Italian with texts in other languages
* [http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1404/archive.html Julius Evola text archive] , texts in German, English, French, Italian, Spanish
* [gopher://kalb.ath.cx/1/Julius_Evola Julius Evola texts] , a comprehensive archive of texts in German and English
* [http://juliusevola.pl.googlepages.com/index.htm Julius Evola - teksty wybrane] , Polish text archive
* [http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/6824/evola.htm Evola text:] "The American Civilisation"
* [http://web.mac.com/juliusevola/iWeb/excerpts/The%20Secret%20Causes%20of%20History%20and%20the%20'Protocols%20of%20the%20Learned%20Elders%20of%20Zion'.html Evola text:] "The secret causes of history and 'The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion'"
* [http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,12084,775668,00.html The poisonous Protocols] , by
Umberto Ecoon Evola, Italian intellectuals and " The Protocols of the Elders of Zion"
* [http://www.disinfo.com/archive/pages/dossier/id736/pg1/ Matthew Mitchem:] Julius Evola: Tradition's Triumphant Caesar
* [http://www.arrakis.es/~fsln/evolabib.htm arrakis.es] , Evola bibliography in Italian
* [http://www.oswaldmosley.com/people/evola.html OswaldMosley.com] , contains
Kerry Bolton's presentation of Evola
* [http://www.centrostudilaruna.it/jenseitseng.html CentroStudiLaRuna.it] contains an 'Appreciation for Julius Evola's 100th Anniversary'
* [http://www.rosenoire.org/articles/militant.php RoseNoire.ORG] , contains an extensive chapter-by-chapter summary of Evola's "Men Among the Ruins"
* [http://www.spitfirelist.com/f233.html Kevin Coogan's Conceptualization of the Order] , a
Dave Emorybroadcast presenting Coogan's view of Evola's connection to the Fascist International.
* [http://www.trimondi.de/SDLE/Part-2-12.htm Fascist Occultism and its Close Relationship to Buddhist Tantrism] , chapter 12 of Part II of "
The Shadow of the Dalai Lama" by Victor and Victoria Trimondi.
* [http://www.futurism2.fsnet.co.uk/evola/evola_frames.htm Selection of Evola's Futurist and Dada works, 1917-20]
* [http://www.juliusevola.com/ Julius Evola fansite]
* [http://www.codeschaos.0catch.com/juliusevola.html A Guide to English-Language Websites]
* [http://upasika.com/julius_evola.htm Upasika.com: Julius Evola]
NAME= Evola, Julius
ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Evola, Giulio Cesare Andrea
SHORT DESCRIPTION= author, metaphysician, political philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH=
19 May 1898
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
11 June 1974
PLACE OF DEATH=
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Julius Evola — Nom de naissance Giulio Cesare Evola Activités Philosophe, Écrivain, Poète, Dessinateur Naissance 19 mai 1898 Rome Décès 11 juin 1974 Rome … Wikipédia en Français
Julius Evola — (eigentlich Baron Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola; * 19. Mai 1898 in Rom; † 11. Juni 1974 ebendort) war ein italienischer Kulturphilosoph und Kulturpessimist, Esoteriker, „metaphysischer“ Rassentheoretiker und politischer Traditionalist. Evola war… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Evola — Julius Evola (eigentlich Baron Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola; * 19. Mai 1898 in Rom; † 11. Juni 1974 ebendort) war ein italienischer Kulturphilosoph und Kulturpessimist, Esoteriker, „metaphysischer“ Rassentheoretiker und politischer Traditionalist.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
EVOLA (J.) — EVOLA GIULIO dit JULIUS (1898 1974) Très jeune, Giulio Evola pense à une carrière artistique et fréquente à Rome l’atelier de Balla. De la même époque datent ses premières compositions poétiques qu’il signe Julius Evola, suivant son penchant pour … Encyclopédie Universelle
Evola, Julius — (Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, Roma 1898 1974) filosofo; poeta e pittore … Dizionario biografico elementare del Novecento letterario italiano
Andrea Evola, Giulio Cesare — detto Evola, Julius … Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione
Эвола, Юлиус — Юлиус Эвола Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola философ эзотерик … Википедия
Эвола — Эвола, Юлиус Юлиус Эвола философ традиционалист, политик. Дата рождения: 19 мая 1898(1898 05 19) … Википедия
Perennialisme — Pérennialisme Le pérennialisme, encore appelé école traditionaliste (ou traditionisme ou encore traditionnisme) (à ne pas confondre avec le traditionalisme catholique) est une école de pensée qui a pris sa forme actuelle avec les œuvres de René… … Wikipédia en Français