Mordant


Mordant
A French Indienne, a printed or painted textile in the manner of Indian productions, which used mordants to fix the dyes.

A mordant is a substance used to set dyes on fabrics or tissue sections by forming a coordination complex with the dye which then attaches to the fabric or tissue.[1] It may be used for dyeing fabrics, or for intensifying stains in cell or tissue preparations. The term mordant comes from the Latin word, "mordere", to bite. In the past, it was thought that a mordant helped the dye bite onto the fiber so that it would hold fast during washing. A mordant is often a polyvalent metal ion.[2] The resulting coordination complex of dye and ion is colloidal and can be either acidic or alkaline.

Contents

Common dye mordants

Mordants include tannic acid, alum, urine, chrome alum, sodium chloride, and certain salts of aluminium, chromium, copper, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium, and tin.

Iodine is often referred to as a mordant in Gram stains but is in fact a trapping agent.[3]

Dyeing methods

The three methods used for mordanting are:

  • Pre-mordanting (onchrome): The substrate is treated with the mordant and then dyed.
  • Meta-mordanting (metachrome): The mordant is added in the dye bath itself.
  • Post-mordanting (afterchrome): The dyed material is treated with a mordant.

The type of mordant used changes the shade obtained after dyeing and also affects the fastness property of the dye. The application of mordant, either pre-, meta- or post-mordant methods, is influenced by:

  • The action of the mordant on the substrate: if the mordant and dye methods are harsh (e.g. an acidic mordant with an acidic dye), pre- or post- mordanting limits the potential for damage to the substrate.
  • The stability of the mordant and/or dye lake: the formation of a stable dye lake means that the mordant can be added in the dye without risk of losing the dye properties (meta-mordanting).

Dye results can also rely on the mordant chosen as the introduction of the mordant into the dye will have a marked effect on the final color. Each dye can have different reactions to each mordant. For example, cochineal scarlet, or Dutch scarlet as it came to be known, used cochineal along with a tin mordant to create a brilliant orange-hued red.[4]

The dye lake

The dye lake is an insoluble molecule formed when the complex of dye and mordant are combined, which then attaches to the substrate. Mordants increase the fastness of the dye since the larger molecule is now bonded to the fiber.[2]

The term "lake" is derived from the term lac, the secretions of the Indian wood insect Laccifer lacca (formerly known as the Coccus lacca). This is the same insect from which shellac is obtained.[5] The type of mordant used can change the colour of both the dye-plus-mordant solution and influence the shade of the final product.

Wool

Unlike cotton, wool is highly receptive toward mordants. Due to its amphoteric nature wool can absorb acids and bases equally effectively. When wool is treated with a metallic salt it hydrolyses the salt into an acidic and basic component. The basic component is absorbed at –COOH group and the acidic component is removed during washing. Wool also has a tendency to absorb fine precipitates from solutions; these cling to the surface of fibres and dye particles attached to these contaminants result in poor rubbing fastness.

Silk

Like wool, silk is also amphoteric and can absorb both acids as well as bases. However, wool has thio groups (-SH) from the cystine amino acid, which act as reducing agent and can reduce hexavalent chromium of potassium dichromate to trivalent form. The trivalent chromium forms the complex with the fibre and dye. Therefore potassium dichromate cannot be used as mordant effectively.

Animal and plant Tissues

In Histology, mordants are indispensable in adhering dyes to tissues for microscopic examination.

Methods for mordant application depend on the desired stain and tissues under study; pre-, meta- and post-mordanting techniques are used as required.

The most commonly used stain used in diagnostic histology of animal tissues is Harris' haematoxylin as part of a haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain.

References

  1. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (1993) "mordant".
  2. ^ a b Llewellyn, Bryan D. (May, 2005). "Stain Theory – How mordants work". http://web.archive.org/web/20070814015208/stainsfile.info/StainsFile/theory/mordant.htm. 
  3. ^ Llewellyn, Bryan D. (May, 2005). "Stain Theory – Trapping agents". http://web.archive.org/web/20080620165727/stainsfile.info/StainsFile/theory/trapping.htm. 
  4. ^ Phipps, Elena (2010). Cochineal Red The Art History of a Color, p34. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN978-0-30015513-6.
  5. ^ Llewellyn, Bryan D. (May, 2005). "Stain Theory – Lac". http://web.archive.org/web/20070813220846/stainsfile.info/StainsFile/dyes/75450.htm. 

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  • mordant — mordant, ante [ mɔrdɑ̃, ɑ̃t ] adj. et n. m. • XIIe; de mordre I ♦ Adj. Qui mord, attaque. 1 ♦ Vén. Bêtes mordantes, qui se défendent en mordant (blaireau, loup, loutre, ours …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • mordant — mordant, ante 1. (mor dan, dan t ) adj. 1°   Qui mord, qui entame. •   J entends crier la dent de la lime mordante, DELILLE Géorg. I.    Terme de chasse. Bête mordante, nom donné à certaines bêtes qui se défendent avec les dents ; telles que le… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • mordant — MORDÁNT, Ă, mordanţi, te, adj., s.m. 1. adj. (Rar; despre note muzicale) Care se execută printr un mic ornament melodic, un fel de tril neterminat. 2. s.m. Substanţă chimică care fixează coloranţii pe fibrele textile. [var.: mordént s.m.] – Din… …   Dicționar Român

  • mordant — [môr′dənt] adj. [ME mordent < OFr mordant, prp. of mordre, to bite < L mordere < IE * merd , var. of base * mer : see MORBID] 1. biting, cutting, caustic, or sarcastic, as speech, wit, etc. 2. causing corrosion 3. acting as a mordant n.… …   English World dictionary

  • Mordant — Mor dant, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Mordanted}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Mordanting}.] To subject to the action of, or imbue with, a mordant; as, to mordant goods for dyeing. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • mordant — (adj.) late 15c., caustic (of words, speech), from M.Fr. mordant, lit. biting, prp. of mordre to bite, from L. mordere to bite, bite into; nip, sting; figuratively to pain, cause hurt (see MORDACIOUS (Cf. mordacious)). Related: Mordantly. The… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Mordant — Mor dant, a. [F., p. pr. of mordere to bite; L. mordere. See {Morsel}.] 1. Biting; caustic; sarcastic; keen; severe. [1913 Webster] 2. (Dyeing & Calico Printing) Serving to fix colors. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Mordant — Mor dant, n. [F., originally, biting.] 1. Any corroding substance used in etching. [1913 Webster] 2. (Dyeing & Calico Printing) Any substance, as alum or copperas, which, having a twofold attraction for organic fibers and coloring matter, serves… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Mordant — (fr., spr. Mordang), 1) der Grund zum Vergolden u. Versilbern; 2) (Mus.), so v.w. Mordent …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Mordant — Mordant, in der Zeugfärberei u. dem Zeugdruck so v.w. Beize; vgl. Färbekunst S. 109 u. Kattun C); daher Mordanciren, so v.w. Beizen 1) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Mordant — (franz., spr. dāng), soviel wie Beize, Beizmittel, Ätzwasser etc. (s. Beizen und Färberei) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon


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