Haridwar


Haridwar

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Haridwar
type = city
latd = 29.96 | longd = 78.16| state_name = Uttarakhand
district = Haridwar
skyline = Haridwar Aerial view.jpg
skyline_caption = Aerial view of Haridwar
locator_position = right
leader_title =
leader_name =
altitude =249.7
population_as_of = 2001 | 14,44,213 [http://haridwar.nic.in/history.htm#Geography Geography of Haridwar] ] population_total = 175,010
population_density =
area_magnitude=
area_total = 2360
area_telephone = 01334
postal_code = 249403
vehicle_code_range =
sex_ratio =
unlocode =
website = haridwar.nic.in
footnotes = [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/39/Haridwar.html] [http://haridwar.nic.in/history.htm#Geography] [http://www.euttaranchal.com/uttaranchal/haridwar.php]

Haridwar (also spelled Hardwar, Hindi: हरिद्वार भारत) audio|Haridwar.ogg|pronunciation) is a holy city and municipal board in the Haridwar District of Uttarakhand, India. In Hindi, Haridwar stands for "Dwar of Hari" or "Gateway to God," with 'Hari' meaning god and 'dwar' meaning gate [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/romadict.pl?table=molesworth&page=514&display=utf8 Dictionary] Molesworth, J. T. (James Thomas). A dictionary, Marathi and English. Bombay Education Society's press, 1857, Page 888.] [http://sahajaharidwar.tripod.com/About_Haridwar.html About Haridwar] sahajaharidwar.] . Haridwar is regarded as one of the seven holiest places to Hindus.

After travelling, 253 km (157 mi) from its source, at Gaumukh, 3,139 m (10,300 ft) above sea level, situated at the edge of the Gangotri Glacier, Ganga enters the Indo-Gangetic Plain of North India for the first time at Haridwar, , and this is what gave the city its ancient name, "Gangadwára" (गंगाद्वार), as the place where the Ganges descends to the plains [ [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp043.htm Gangadwára, the place where the Ganges descends to the plains..] SACRIFICE OF DAKSHA (From the Vayu Purana.) The Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840. p. 62, 62:2.] .

According to Hindu mythology, Haridwar is one among the four sites where drops of the elixir of immortality, Amrita, accidentally spilled over from the pitcher, in which it was being carried away by the celestial bird Garuda, after the Samudra manthan . These four spots -- Ujjain, Haridwar, Nasik, and Allahabad -- have today become places, where the Kumbha Mela is celebrated once every 3 years in any of these 4 places and after a period of 12 years, the Maha Kumbha Mela is celebrated on the 12th year at Prayag in Allahabad. Millions of pilgrims, devotees, and tourists congregate here from all over the world to celebrate the event. They perform ritualistic bathing on the banks of the river Ganga.

The spot where the nectar fell is considered to be the "Brahma Kund" at Har-ki-Pauri (literally, "footsteps of the Lord," and symbolically the footprints of the Amrita), the most sacred ghat of Haridwar; thousands of devotees and pilgrims flock here during festivals or "snan" from all over India to take a holy dip. This act is considered to be the equivalent of washing away one's sins to attain Moksha.

The Haridwar district came into existence on 28 December 1988 as part of Saharanpur Divisional Commissionary , and on 9 November , 2000 [ [http://india.gov.in/business/investment_incentives/uttarakhand/uttarakhand.php Uttarakhand] Govt. of India, Official website.] , it became part of Uttarakhand, the 27th state in the Republic of India.

Today, it is developing beyond its religious importance, as a major industrial destination of state, with the fast developing Industrial Estate of State Infrastructure & Industrial Development Corporation, SIDCUL , and the close by township of BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited) and its affiliated ancillaries.

Haridwar in History and today

A paradise for nature lovers, Haridwar presents a kaleidoscope of Indian culture and civilization. In mythology it has been variously mentioned as Kapilsthan, Gangadwar [http://www.sacredsites.com/asia/india/hardwar.html Places of peace and power] sacred sites.] and Mayapuri [ [http://www.sanatansociety.org/india_travels_and_festivals/hardwar.htm Hardwar] sanatansociety.] . It is also a entry point to the Char Dham (the four main centers of pilgrimage in Uttarakhand "viz", Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri), hence, Shaivaites (followers of Lord Shiva) and Vaishnavites (followers of Lord Vishnu) call this place Hardwar and Haridwar respectively, corresponding to Har being Shiv and Hari being Vishnu .

In the Vanaparva of the Mahabharat, where sage Dhaumya tells Yudhisthira about the tirthas of India, Gangadwar, i.e., Haridwar and Kankhal, have been referred to [ [http://ignca.nic.in/cd_07006.htm Historical, Cultural and Social Perspectives] Chapter 3, The Cultural Dimension Of Ecology, Baidyanath Saraswati, 1998, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. ISBN 81-246-0102-x. ignca.nic.in. Vanaparva (The Book of the Forest) is third parva , book of Mahabharata.]

Sage Kapila is said to have an ashram here giving it, its ancient name, Kapila or Kapilastan [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V13_058.gifHardwar] The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 13, p. 52.] .

The legendary King, Bhagirath, the great-grandson of the Suryavanshi King Sagar (an ancestor of Rama) [ [http://www.indiantemples.com/beliefs/gangadesc.htm Story of Bhagirata] ] , is said to have brought the river Ganga down from heaven, through years of penance in Satya Yuga, for the salvation of 60,000 of his ancestors from the curse of the saint Kapila [http://www.gangotri.org/ "Uttarakhand Information Centre - Gangotri Information"] "The Complete Uttarakhand Travel Guide"] [Mankodi, Kirit (1973) "Gaṅgā Tripathagā" "Artibus Asiae" 35(1/2): pp. 139-144, p. 140] , a tradition continued by thousands of devout Hindus, who brings the ashes of their departed family members, in hope of their salvation [ [http://www.hardwar.com/ Hardwar, About City] ] . Lord Vishnu is said to have left his footprint on the stone that is set in the upper wall of Har-Ki-Pauri, where the Holy Ganga touches it at all times.

Haridwar came under the rule of the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), and later under the Kushan Empire (c. 1st–3rd centuries) [http://www.mouthshut.com/Review/PrintThisReview.php?rid=68227 Review on: Haridwar] ] . Archaeological findings have proved that terra cotta culture dating between 1700 BCE and 1200 BCE existed in this region [http://haridwar.nic.in/history.htm#history Haridwar History] haridwar.nic.in.] . First modern era written evidence of Haridwar is found in the accounts of a Chinese traveller, Huan Tsang, who visited India in 629 AD. [ [http://www.channel4.com/life/microsites/K/kumbhmela/intro_trad.html Kumbh Mela] ] during the reign of King Harshavardhan (590–647) records Haridwar as 'Mo-yu-lo', the remains of which still exist at Mayapur, a little to the south of the modern town. Among the ruins are a fort and three temples, decorated with broken stone sculptures [ [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Hardwar Haridwar] 1911] [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/ Digital Library] The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Oxford, 1908, Vol.13, p.51.] , he also mentions the presence of a temple, north of Mo-yu-lo called 'Gangadwara', Gateway of the Ganga .

The city was also invaded by Timur Lang (1336-1405), a Turkish invader on January 13, 1399 [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V02_401.gif&volume=2 History] The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 570.] .

During his visit to Haridwar, first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak (1469-1539) bathed at 'Kushwan Ghat', wherein the famous, 'watering the crops' episode took place [ [http://www.gurmat.info/sms/smspublications/gurunanakforchildren/chapter7/. Guru Nanak (for Children) - A New Way of Teaching ] ] , his visit is today commemorated by a gurudwara (Gurudwara Nanakwara), according to two Sikh Janamsakhis, this visit took place on the Baisakhi day in 1504 AD, he later also visited Kankhal enroute to Kotdwara in Garhwal [http://www.globalsikhstudies.net/pdf/janamsakhi.pdf Janasakhi] Janamsakhis of "Miharban" and "Mani Singh", Janamsakhi Tradition, Dr. Kirpal Singh, 2004, Punjabi University, Patiala. ISBN 81-7205-311-8. www.globalsikhstudies.net.] . Besides this third Guru, Sri Amar Das also visited Hardwar twenty two times during his life time [ [http://www.punjabkesari.com/Religion/Gurudwara%20Nanakwara.htm] - Punjabkesari.] . Pandas of the Haridwar have been known to keep genealogy records of most of the Hindu population. Known as vahis, these records are updated on each visit to the city, and are a repository of vast family trees of family in North India .

"Ain-e-Akbari", written by Abul Fazal in the 16th century during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar, refers to it as Maya (Mayapur), known as Hardwar on the Ganges”, as seven sacred cities of Hindus. It further mentions it is eighteen kos (each approx. 2 kms) in length, and large numbers of pilgrims assemble on the 10th of Chaitra. [ [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main?url=pf%3Ffile%3D00702050%26ct%3D0 Sacred Places of Pilgrimage] Ain-e-Akbari, Vol. III, p. 306.] . It also mentions that during his travels and also while at home, Mughal Emperor, Akbar drank water from the Ganga river, which he called ‘the water of immortality’. Special people were stationed at Sorun and later Haridwar to dispatch water, in sealed jars, to wherever he was stationed [ [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main?url=pf%3Ffile%3D00702015%26ct%3D48%26rqs%3D60 Hardwar] Ain-e-Akbari, by Abul Fazl 'Allami, Volume I, A´I´N 22. The A´bda´r Kha´nah. P 55. Translated from the original persian, by H. Blochmann, and Colonel H. S. Jarrett, Asiatic society of Bengal. Calcutta, 1873 – 1907. “His Majesty calls this source of life “the water of immortality,” and has committed the care of this department to proper persons…. Both at home and on travels, he drinks Ganges water.”] During the Mughal period, there was mint for Akbar's copper coinage at Haridwar [ [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main?url=pf%3Ffile%3D00702015%26ct%3D35%26rqs%3D135 Ain # 10. The Coins of This Glorious Empire] C. Copper Coins, Ain-e-Akbari, by Abul Fazl 'Allami, Volume I, p31, ib. ] [ [http://www.onsnumis.org/publications/M.shtml Newsletter 106, 1987, Goron, S & Wiggins, K.] Mughal coins struck in the name of the pretender Muhammad Akbar, at Hardwar. The Oriental Numismatic Society (ONS). UK.] [ [http://www.britac.ac.uk/institutes/SSAS/pdf/annual_reports/annualreport01.pdf The Society for South Asian Studies] British Academy, Annual Report 2001, p. 8. The British Museum is also in the possession of a unique rupee of the Mughal puppet Muhammad Akbar, issued from the mint of Haridwar (North India), during his short reign of about 45 days.] [ [http://numismatics.org/numlit/dates149.html The American Numismatic Society] Oriental Numismatic Society Newsletter 178 (Winter 2004), Bhandare, S. "Hardwar: a new mint for Akbar's copper coinage," pp. 27-28, illus.] . It is said that Raja Man Singh of Amber, laid that foundation of the present day city of Haridwar and also renovated the ghats at Har-ki-pauri. After his death, his ashes are also said to have been immersed at Brahma Kund by Mughal emperor Akbar himself . Thomas Coryat, an English traveller, who visited the city in the reign of Emperor Jahangir (1596-1627) mentions it as 'Haridwara', the capital of Shiva .

Being one of the oldest living cities, Haridwar finds its mention in the ancient Hindu scriptures as it weaves through the life and time stretching from the period of the Buddha, to the more recent British advent. Haridwar has a rich and ancient religious and cultural heritage. It still has many old havelis and mansions bearing exquisite murals and intricate stonework.

One of the two major dams on the river Ganga, the ‘Bhimgoda Dam’, is situated here. Built in 1840s, to divert the waters of Ganga, to the ‘Upper Ganges Canal’ which irrigated the surrounding lands. Though this caused severe deterioration to the Ganga water flow, and is a major cause for the decay of Ganga as an inland waterway, which till 18th century was used heavily by the ships of the East India Company, and a town as high up as Tehri, was considered a port city [http://haridwar.nic.in/gangaji.htm Gangaji] Official website of Haridwar.] [ [http://www.cs.albany.edu/~amit/ganges.html The Ganga Basin] Dams on the Ganga, www.cs.albany.edu.] The headworks of the Ganga Canal system are located in Haridwar. The Upper Ganga Canal was opened in 1854 after the work began in April 1842 [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V12_144.gifUpper Ganges Canal] The Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909, v. 12, p. 138.] , prompted by the famine of 1837-38 . The unique feature of the canal is the half-kilometre-long aqueduct over Solani river at Roorkee, which raises the canal 25 metres above the original river.
United Province, 1903

'Haridwar Union Municipality' was constituted in 1868, which included the then villages of Mayapur and Kankhal. Haridwar was first connected with railways, via Laksar, through branch line in 1886, when the Awadh and Rohilakhand Railway line was extended through Roorkee to Saharanpur, this was later extended to Dehradun in 1900 [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V21_381.gifTrade and Communications] The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 375.] .

In 1901, it had a population of 25,597 and was a part of the Roorkee tehsil, in Saharanpur district of the United Province [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V21_330.gifRoorkee Town] The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 324.] , and remained so till the creation of Uttar Pradesh in 1947 [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V13_059.gifHistory] The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 13, p. 53.] .

Haridwar has been an abode of the weary in body, mind and spirit. It has also been a centre of attraction for learning various arts, science, and culture. The city has a long-standing position as a great source of Ayurvedic medicines and herbal remedies and is home to the unique Gurukul (school of traditional education).Haridwar already has a temple of modern civilization, BHEL, a 'Navratna PSU' to its credit. The University of Roorkee, now IIT Roorkee, is one of the oldest and most prestigious institutes of learning in the fields of science and engineering. Another university of the district, Gurukul Kangri, which has a vast campus, gives traditional education of its own kind.

Administrative background

The Haridwar district is ringed by Saharanpur in the west, Dehradun in the north and east, Pauri Garhwal in the east, Roorkee, Muzaffarnagar and Bijnor in the south. Prior to its inclusion in the newly created state of Uttarakhand in 2000, this district was a part of Saharanpur Divisional Commissionary.

The district has a single Parliament Constituency, and 9 Uttarakhand State Legislative Assembly constituencies including, Bhaghwanpur, Roorkee, Iqbalpur, Manglaur, Landhaura, Laksar, Bhadhrabad, Haridwar, and Laldang [http://haridwar.nic.in/publicrepresentatives.htm List of Public Representatives from Haridwar] Official wesbite.] .

The district is administratively subdivided into three tehsils: Haridwar, Roorkee, and Laksar. It is further divided into six development blocks: Bhagwanpur, Roorkee, Narsan, Bahadrabad, Laksar, and Khanpur [ [http://www.north-india.in/uttaranchal/districts/haridwar.htm Haridwar district] ] . Current Member of Parliament (MP) from Haridwar is 'Rajendra Kumar', and Member of State Legislative Assembly from Haridwar city is 'Madan Kaushik' [ [http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/feb/27uttarpoll1.htm Uttarakhand: Winners list] Rediff News, February 27, 2007.] .

The district headquarters is situated in the Roshnabad, at a distance of about 12 km from Haridwar railway station. The office of Chief Development Officer is located in Vikas Bhawan, Roshnabad. The Collectorate, Vikas Bhawan, District Judiciary, S.S.P. Office, Police line, District Jail, District sports stadium, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya etc. are the prime establishments of this area. Many other administration offices like Lok Sewa Ayog and Sanskrit Academy are established here.

Geography

Haridwar is one of the first towns where Ganga emerges from the mountains to touch the plains. The water in the river Ganges is mostly clear and generally cold, except in the rainy season, during which soil from the upper regions flows down into it.

The river Ganga flows in a series of channels separated from each other called aits, most of which are well wooded. Other minor seasonal streams are Ranipur Rao, Pathri Rao, Rawii Rao,Harnaui Rao, Begam Nadi etc [http://www.jnnurm.nic.in/toolkit/CDP_HARIDWAR.PDF City Development Plan: Haridwar] Urban Development Department, Government of Uttarakhand. p.20.] . A large part of the district is forested, and Rajaji National Park is within the bounds of the district, making it an ideal destination for wildlife and adventure lovers. Rajaji is accessible through different gates; the Ramgarh Gate and Mohand Gate are within 25 km of Dehradun, while the Motichur, Ranipur and Chilla Gates are just about 9 km from Haridwar. Kunao Gate is 6 km from Rishikesh, and Laldhang gate is 25 km from Kotdwara.

Haridwar district, covering an area of about 2360 km², is in the southwestern part of Uttarakhand state of India. Its latitude and longitude are 29.96 degree north and 78.16 degree east respectively [ [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/39/Haridwar.html Haridwar, India Page] fallingrain.com.] [ [http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1861 Haridwar weather and coordinates] timeanddate.com/worldclock.] .

Haridwar is situated at height of 249.7 metres from the sea level [ [http://haridwar.nic.in/history.htm#Geography Geography] Official website.] , between Shivalik Hills in the North and Northeast and Ganga River in the South .

Hindu genealogy registers at Haridwar

Something that is not well known today to Indians and to those settled abroad, in an ancient custom detailed family genealogies of Hindu families for the past several generations are kept by professional Hindu Brahmin Pandits, popularly known as "Pandas", at the Hindu holy city of Haridwar in hand written registers passed down to them over generations by their Pandit ancestors which are classified according to original districts and villages of ones ancestors, with special designated Pandit families being in charge of designated district registers, even for cases where ancestral districts and villages that have been left behind in Pakistan after Partition of India with Hindus having to migrate to India. In several cases present day decedents are now Sikhs and many maybe Muslims or even Christians. It is not uncommon for one to find details of up to or even more then ones seven past generations in these genealogy registers kept by the "Pandas of Haridwar".

For centuries when Hindu ancestors visited the holy town of Haridwar for any purpose which may have mostly been for pilgrimage purposes or/and for cremation of their dead or for immersion of ashes and bones of their kin after cremation into the waters of the holy river Ganga as required by Hindu religious custom, it has been an ancient custom to go to the Pandit who is in charge of ones family register and update the family's genealogical family tree with details of all marriages, births and deaths from ones extended joint family.

In present day India people visiting Haridwar are dumbfounded when Pundits out of the blue solicit them to come and update their very own ancestral genealogical family tree, news travels like wildfire among the Pandits with ones family's designated Pandit being quickly notified of ones visit. Nowadays with Hindu joint family system having broken down with people preferring more nuclear families, record keeping Pandits prefer visitors to Haridwar to come prepared after getting in touch with all of ones extended family and bringing all relevant details regarding ones ancestral district and village, names of grand parents and great grand parents and marriages, births and deaths that have occurred in the extended family, even with as much details as possible of the families married into. A visiting family member is required to personally sign the family genealogical register furnished by ones "Family Panda" after updating it for future family visitors and generations to see and to authenticate the updated entries, friends and other family members accompanying on the visit may also be requested to sign as witnesses.

Climate

Temperatures:

* Summers: 15 °C - 39.8°C
* Winters: 6°C - 16.6°C [ [http://www.gmvnl.com/newgmvn/districts/haridwar/ New District] Haridwar, www.gmvnl.com.]

Demographics

As of 2001 India census [GR|India] , Haridwar district had a population of 14,44,213. Males constitute 54% of the population and females, 46%. Hardwar has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 75%, and female literacy is 64%. In Hardwar, 12% of the population is under six years of age.

Places of Interest

In Hindu traditions, the 'Panch Tirth' (Five Pilgrimages) within Haridwar, are Gangadwara ("Har-ki-pauri"), Kushwart ("Ghat"), Kankhal, Bilwa Teerth ("Mansa Devi") and Neel Parvat ("Chandi Devi") [ [http://www.asiarooms.com/travel-guide/india/popular-india-destinations/haridwar.html Travel guide Haridwar] ] [http://www.indiainfoweb.com/uttranchal/kankhal/ Kankhal] www.indiainfoweb.com.] .

HAR-KI-PAURI -1.5 km. This sacred Ghat was constructed by King Vikramaditya (1st century BC) in memory of his brother Bhrithari. It is believed that Bhrithari came to Haridwar and meditated on the banks of holy Ganga. When he died, his brother constructed a Ghat in his name, which later came to be known as Hari-Ki-Pauri. The most sacred ghat within Har-ki-Pauri is Brahmakund. The evening prayer at dusk (Aarti) offered to Goddess Ganga at Hari-Ki-Pairi (steps towards God Hari) is an enchanting experience for any visitor. A spectacle of sound and colour is seen when, after the ceremony, pilgrims float diyas (floral floats with lamps) and incense on the river, commemorating their deceased ancestors. Thousands of people from all round the world do make a point to attend this prayer on their visit to haridwar. A majority of present ghats were largely developed in the 1800s [ [http://personal.carthage.edu/jlochtefeld/indiajterm/hd.html Haridwar History] ] . CHANDI DEVI TEMPLE - 6 km.

The temple is dedicated Goddess, Chandi, sits atop the 'Neel Parvat' on the eastern bank of river Ganga. It was constructed in 1929 A.D. by the king of Kashmir, Suchat Singh. Skanda Purana mentions a legend, in which "Chanda-Munda", the Army Chief of a local Demon Kings "Shumbh" and "Nishumbha" were killed by goddess Chandi here, after which the place got the name Chandi Devi [ [http://www.blessingsonthenet.com/newtemple/temple.asp?serialno=3&tempid=T027&desctitle=Legend Legend] Chandi Devi Temple.] . It is believed that the main statue was established by the Adi Shankracharya in 8th century A.D. The temple is a 3 km trek from Chandighat and can also be reached through a ropeway, Ph: 01334-220324, Time-8.30 AM to 6 PM.

MANSA DEVI TEMPLE - 0.5 km.

Situated at the top of Bilwa Parwat, the temple of Goddess Mansa Devi, literally meaning the Goddess who fulfills desires (Mansa), is a popular tourist destination, especially because of the cable cars, which offer a picturesque view of the entire city. The main temple houses two idols of the Goddess, one with three mouths and five arms, while the other one has eight arms. Ph: 01334-227745. [ [http://www.tourtravelworld.com/hot_spots/haridwar/manasa_devi/ Manasa Devi Temple] ]

MAYA DEVI TEMPLE - 0.5 km.

Dating to the 11th century, this ancient temple of Maya Devi, the Adhisthatri deity of Hardwar [ [http://gov.ua.nic.in/uttaranchaltourism/districts/haridwar/haridwar_temple.htmlHaridwar sites] Uttarakhand Govt. Official website.] , is considered one of the Siddhapethas and is said to be the place where the heart and navel of Goddess Sati had fallen. It is one of few ancient temples still standing in Haridwar, along with Narayani Shila temple and Bhairav Temple [ [http://www.mydivineplanet.com/city.asp?city=Haridwar Temples in Haridwar] ] .

DAKSHA MAHADEV TEMPLE -4 km.

The ancient temple of Daksha Mahadev is situated in the south Kankhal town. According to Hindu mythology, King Daksha Prajapati, father of Dakshayani (Sati), Lord Shiva's first wife, performed a yagna here, to which he deliberately did not invite Lord Shiva. When he arrived uninvited, he was further insulted by the king, seeing this Sati felt was infuriated and self-immolated herself in the yagna kund.

King Daksha was later killed by the demon Virabhadra, born out of Shiva's anger. Later the king was brought to life and given a goat's head by Shiva. Daksha Mahadev temple is a tribute to this legend.

NEEL DHARA PAKSHI VIHAR - 3.5 KM

This Bird Sanctuary is situated on the main Ganga river, or Neel Dhara, at the Bhimgoda barrage, it is a paradise for bird watchers and home to many migratory birds during the winter season. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/329300.cms Neel Dhara Bird Sanctuary] ]

SATI KUND - 4 km.

Sati Kund, another well-known mythological heritage worth a visit is situated in the Kankhal. Legend has it that Sati immolated herself in this kund.

BHIMGODA TANK

This tank is situated at a distance of about 1 km from Har-ki Pauri. It is said that while Pandavas were going to Himalayas through Haridwar, prince Bhima drew water from the rocks here by thrusting his knee, or goda, to the very ground.

JAIRAM ASHRAM

Famous for its diorama exhibition, and a massive white statue depicting the famous Samudra manthan episode, a must-see for any visitor.

SAPT RISHI ASHRAM & SAPT SAROVAR - 7 km

A picturesque place near Haridwar, where seven great sages or Saptarishis, namely Kashyapa, Vashisht, Atri, Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja and Gautam, said to have meditated. Ganga split herself into seven currents at this place so that the Rishis would not be disturbed by the flow.

PARAD SHIVLING - 2 km

Situated in Harihar Ashram, Kankhal. Shivling weighing about 150 kg and Rudraksha tree are the main attractions here.

DOODHADHARI BARFANI TEMPLE

Part of the ashram of Doodhadhari Barfani Baba, this temple complex in white marble is one of most beautiful in Haridwar, especially the temples of Ram-Sita and Hanuman.

SURESHVARI DEVI TEMPLE

Temple of Goddess Sureshwari, situated in midst of beautiful Rajaji National Park. Serene and religious makes this temple abode of worshipers, saints etc. Located at outskirts of Haridwar in Ranipur and permission from forest rangers is necessary.

PAAVAN DHAM पावन धाम

A modern temple, made entirely of glass pieces, and now a popular tourist destination.

BHARAT MATA MANDIR

A multi-storey temple, dedicated to Bharat Mata, Mother India, with each floor depicting an era in the Indian History, from the days of Ramayan till India's independence.

ANANDAMAYI MA ASHRAM

Situated in Kankhal, one of five sub-cities of Haridwar, the ashram houses the smaadhi shrine of Sri Anandamoyi Ma (1896-1982), a noted saint of India.

PIRAN KALIYAR - 20 km.

Built by Ibrahim Lodhi, a ruler of Delhi [ [http://haridwar.nic.in/piran.htm Piran] Haridwar Official website.] , this 'Dargah' of Hazrat Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari, a 13th century, Sufi Saint of Chishti Order (also known as Sarkar Sabir Pak), in Kaliyar village, 7 km. from Roorkee [ [http://www1.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/40144201.cms Piran Kaliyar] Times of India, 13 Mar 2003.] [ [http://210.212.78.56/roorkee/English/local_attractions.html Local Attractions Roorkee] ] , is a living example of religious harmony in India, visited by devotees from all over the world, during the annual 'Urs' festival, which is celebrated from 1 st day of sighting the moon to 16th day of Rabeeull month Islamic calendar.

There are several other temples in and around the city. Also it is important to know that Haridwar is a DRY city which means that neither alcohol nor non-veg found is allowed here.

Educational institutions

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee - 30 km.

Former Roorkee Engineering College, is one of the premier institute of India providing Higher Education. Boasts of large and beautiful campus and is half hour drive from Haridwar.

Gurukul Kangri University - 4 km.

Situated in Kankhal, on the banks of river Ganga, on Haridwar-Jwalapur bypass road, Gurukul Kangri is one of the oldest Universities of India, it was founded in 1902 by Swami Shraddhananda (1856-1926), according to the tenets of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of Arya Samaj. It has also been visited by British Trade Union leader Charles Freer Andrews and British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald , to study the unique Gurukul based education system. Here Ancient Vedic and Sanskrit literature, Ayurveda, Philosophy are part of the curriculum besides Modern Sciences and Journalism. Its 'Archaeological Museum', (estb. 1945) [ [http://www.indiatourism.com/uttar-pradesh-tourism/archeological-museum-haridwar.html Archeological Museum, Haridwar] indiatourism.com.] houses some rare statues, coins, paintings, manuscripts and artefacts, starting from Harappa culture (c.2500-1500 BC) [ [http://gkvharidwar.org/museum.htm Artefacts in the Museum] Gurukul Kangri, Archaeological Museum.] . Mahatma Gandhi visited the campus three times [http://haridwar.nic.in/gurukul.htm Gurukul] Official website of Haridwar.] , and stayed in its sprawling and serene campus for extended periods of time, most notably during the 1915 Kumbh mela [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Story_of_My_Experiments_with_Truth/Part_V/Lakshman_Jhula Kumbh Mela 1915] The Story of My Experiments with Truth/Part V/Lakshman Jhula.] , followed by a visit in 1916, when on March 20, he spoke at Gurukul Anniversary [ [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Chronology_of_Mahatma_Gandhi%27s_life/India_1916 Chronology of Mahatma Gandhi's life/India 1916] Wiki Source.] .

Chinmaya Degree College

Situated in Shivalik Nagar, 10km from Haridwar city. one of the science colleges in Haridwar.

Vishwa Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya

Only university in World dedicated to studies of ancient Sanskrit scriptures, books. Also has curriculum covering ancient Hindu rituals, culture and tradition. Boasts of a beautiful building inspired by ancient Hindu design style

St. Mary's Senior Secondary School

St. Mary's School, located in Jwalapur, encourages students continually to strive after excellence in every field and instills in them a keen civic and social sense.

Delhi Public School, Ranipur

One of the premier educational institutes in the region and part of worldwide Delhi Public School Family. Known for excellent academic achievements and sports and extracurricular activities along with best facilities, labs and environment provided.

D.A.V Centenary Public School

DAV School in Jagjeetpur Area not only provide education but also provide moral to its students, so that each one can light up every corner of the world.

Kendriya Vidyalaya, B.H.E.L.

Kendriya Vidyalaya, B.H.E.L., a premier educational institute in Hardwar, was established on 7th July 1975. Affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education, the school has more than 2000 students on roll from pre-primary to senior secondary (class XII).

Important Areas within the City

B.H.E.L. TownshipThe campus of this Navratna Public Sector Unit is spread across an area of 12 sq. km. The main factory consists of two divisions: The Heavy Electricals Equipment Plant (HEEP), and The Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP). Together they employ over 8000 skilled employees. Divided into six sectors providing excellent residential, schooling and medical facilities.

Bahadrabad - 7 km.It is located on the Haridwar-Delhi National Highway at a distance of 7 km from Haridwar. Close by, in village Pathri, lies the Pathri Power Station built on the Upper Ganga Canal in 1955. It also has block development office under which many developed villages(e.g. Khedli, Kisanpur Rohalki , Bongla , Sitapur , Alipur etc.) comes.

SIDCUL - 5 km.A massive industrial area, spread over 2034 Acres, developed by State Industrial Development Corporation Uttaranchal Limited (SIDCUL), a state government body. With big enterprises like Hindustan Liver Limited, Dabur, Mahindra & Mahindra, Havells, moving in SIDCUL is set to develop into another industrial township within the city. 3 km away from the Delhi-Hardwar National Highway, SIDCUL lies adjacent to the BHEL Township, an important Public Sector township.

JwalapurAn old part of the city, Jwalapur is the financial & industrial capital of the city , and now an important trading and shopping centre for the locals.

Cheela DamA good picnic spot with a dam and a manmade lake nearby. Elephants and other wild animals could be easily spotted.

Shivalik NagarOne of the newest and biggest residential areas of Haridwar. Is divided into various clusters. Mainly developed as residential colony for BHEL employees but with the advent of SIDCUL, population and financial activity has exploded in the area due to its proximity.

Festivals

Being a place of intense religious significance, Haridwar is also hosts several religious festivals throughout the year; popular among them are the Kavad Mela, Somvati Amavasya Mela, Ganga Dashara, Gughal Mela ,in which around 20-25 lacs people take part. [ [http://haridwar.nic.in/fair.htm Fairs in Haridwar] ]

Apart from this, there is the Kumbh Mela which takes place once in every twelve years, when the planet Jupiter (Brahaspati) comes to the sign Aquarius (Kumbh). First written evidence of the Kumbha Mela can be found in the accounts of Chinese traveller, Huan Tsang or Xuanzang (602 - 664 A.D.) who visited India in 629 AD. [ [http://www.archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/kumbha-mela.html Kumbh Mela] www.archaeologyonline.net.] [ [http://www.channel4.com/life/microsites/K/kumbhmela/intro_trad.html Kumbh Mela channel 4] ] The 1998 Maha Kumbh Mela saw over 10 million pilgrims visiting this city, to take a dip in the holy river, Ganga. [ [http://courses.missouristate.edu/JLlewellyn/kumbhmela.html Kumbh Mela, a study] ]

Transport

Haridwar, is well connected by road to National Highway 58, between Delhi and Manapass. Nearest railway stations are at Haridwar, with direct links to all major cities of India. The nearest airport is Jolly Grant Airport, Dehradun, though Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi is preferred.

Industry

Haridwar is rapidly developing as an important industrial township of Uttaranchal since the state government agency, SIDCUL (State Infrastructure & Industrial Development Corporation of Uttranchal Ltd.) [http://www.sidcul.com/sidculweb/inner_pages.aspx?cat_id=3&art_id=6 Integrated Industrial Estate - Haridwar] SIDCUL Offical site] ] set up the Integrated Industrial Estate in a district attracting many important industrial houses which are setting up manufacturing facilities in the area.

Haridwar already has a thriving Industrial area situated at the Bypass road, comprising mainly ancillary units to PSU, BHEL, which was established here in 1964 and now employs over 8000 people.

Further reading

* "Haridwar - Gangadware Mahatirthe", Ed. Shalini Saran. Haridwar Development Authority, Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, 1992. [http://lccn.loc.gov/93906667]
* "Gateway to the Gods: Haridwar-Rishikesh". Rupinder Khullar, Reeta Khullar. 2004, UBS Publishers. ISBN 8174764607.

References

External links

* [http://haridwar.nic.in/ The Official Website of District Haridwar.]
* [http://wikitravel.org/en/Haridwar Haridwar at Wikitravel]
* [http://sss.vn.ua/india/uttarakhand/haridwar/indexen.htm Photos of Haridwar, 1280x960, published by the author]


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