bridge_name= Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
carries= 12 lanes (6 lanes upper and 6 lanes lower) of I-278
New York City( Staten Island– Brooklyn)
maint= Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority
clearance= convert|15|ft|m|1 (upper level)
convert|14.4|ft|m|1 (lower level)
below= convert|228|ft|m|1 at mean high water [cite web | url=http://www.nycroads.com/crossings/verrazano-narrows/ | accessdate=2007-05-28 | title=Verrazano-Narrows Bridge (I-278)]
traffic= 194,000 [cite web | url=https://www.nysdot.gov/portal/page/portal/divisions/engineering/technical-services/hds-respository/appendixctdr.pdf | accessdate=2007-05-05 | title=2005 NYSDOT Traffic Data Report: AADT Values for Select Toll Facilities]
November 21, 1964(upper level) June 28, 1969(lower level)
toll= $10.00 as of March 16, 2008 (westbound only per car in cash); discount available with
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is a double-decked
suspension bridgethat connects the boroughs of Staten Islandand Brooklynin New York Cityat the Narrows, the reach connecting the relatively protected upper bay with the larger lower bay.
The bridge is named for Italian explorer
Giovanni da Verrazzano, the first known European navigator to enter New York Harborand the Hudson River, while crossing The Narrows. It has a center span of convert|4260|ft|m|0 and was the largest suspension bridge in the world at the time of its completion in 1964, until it was surpassed by the Humber Bridgein the United Kingdomin 1981. It now has the eighth longest center span in the world, and is the largest suspension bridge in the United States. Its massive towers can be seen throughout a good part of the New York metropolitan area, including from spots in all five boroughs of New York City.
The bridge furnishes a critical link in the local and regional highway system. It is the starting point of the
New York City Marathon. The bridge marks the gateway to New York Harbor; all cruise ships and most container ships arriving at the Port of New York and New Jersey must pass underneath the bridge and thus must be built to accommodate the clearance under the bridge.
Among local residents, it is often referred to as simply "the Verrazano".
The bridge is owned by
New York Cityand operated by the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, an affiliate agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Interstate 278passes over the bridge, connecting the Staten Island Expresswaywith the Brooklyn-Queens Expresswayand the Belt Parkway. The Verrazano, along with the other three major Staten Island bridges, created a new way for commuters and travelers to reach Brooklyn, Long Island, and Manhattan by car from New Jersey.
The bridge was the last great
public worksproject in New York City overseen by Robert Moses, the New York State ParksCommissioner and head of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, who had long desired the bridge as means of completing the expressway system which was itself largely the result of his efforts. The bridge was the last project designed by Chief Engineer Othmar Ammann, who had also designed most of the other major crossings of New York City, including the George Washington Bridge, the Bayonne Bridge, the Bronx Whitestone Bridge, the Triborough Bridge, and the Throgs Neck Bridge. The plans to build the bridge caused considerable controversy in the neighborhood of Bay Ridge, because many families had settled in homes in the area where the bridge now stands and were forced to relocate.
Construction on the bridge began
August 13, 1959, and the upper deck was opened on November 21, 1964at a cost of $320 million. New York City Mayor Robert F. Wagner cut the ribbon at the opening ceremony, which was attended by over 5,000 people. The lower deck opened on June 28, 1969. The bridge took over the title of the longest suspension bridge in the world (previously held by the Golden Gate Bridge) from 1964 until 1981, when it was eclipsed by the Humber Bridgein England. Fort Lafayettewas an islandcoastal fortificationin New York Harbor, built next to Fort Hamiltonat the southern tip of what is now Bay Ridge. It was destroyed as part of the bridge's construction in 1960; the Brooklyn-side bridge pillars now occupy the fort's former foundation site.
According to the
United States Department of Transportation:
*Each of the two towers contains 1,000,000 bolts and 3,000,000 rivets.
*The diameter of each of the four suspension cables is 36 inches. Each cable is composed of 26,108 wires amounting to a total of 143,000 miles in length
*Due to the height of the towers (693 ft) and their distance apart (4260 ft), the curvature of the earth's surface had to be taken into account when designing the bridge -- the towers are frac|1|5|8 inches farther apart at their tops than at their bases.cite web |url=http://www.mta.info/bandt/html/veraz.htm |title=Verrazano-Narrows Bridge |publisher=
Metropolitan Transit Authority|date= 2005|accessdate=2008-06-01]
*Due to thermal expansion/contraction of steel, the bridge roadway is 12 feet lower in summer than its winter elevation.
The bridge is more vulnerable to the elements than any other bridge in the city, because of its size and isolated location close to the open ocean. It is occasionally closed (either partially or entirely) during strong wind and snow storms.
Queen Mary 2had to revise its smokestack height in order for it to pass under the bridge, and still has barely 3 m (9.75 ft) of clearance. [ [http://www.cruiseserver.net/travelpage/ships/cu_qm2.asp Cruise Ship Profile] , accessed July 13, 2006]
The bridge was also responsible for bringing a significant amount of vehicles to the
Outerbridge Crossingand the Goethals Bridge, both of which connect Staten Islandwith New Jersey. Before its opening, traffic counts were significantly lower on both bridges.
The naming of the bridge for Verrazzano was highly controversial at the time. It was first proposed in 1951 by the
Italian Historical Society of America, when the bridge was in the planning stage. After the initial proposal was turned down by Moses, the society undertook a public relations campaign to both re-establish the reputation of the largely-forgotten Verrazano and to promote the idea of naming the bridge for him. The promotional campaign was largely the effort of Society director John N. LaCorte, who in 1954 successfully lobbied New York Governor W. Averell Harrimanto proclaim April 17(the anniversary of Verrazano's arrival in the harbor) as Verrazano Day. Subsequent efforts by LaCorte resulted in similar proclamations by governors of states along the East Coast. After these successes, LaCorte approached the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority again, but was turned down a second time. The manager of the authority, backed by Moses, stated that the name was too long and that he had never heard of Verrazano.
The society later succeeded in lobbying to get a bill introduced in the
New York State Assemblythat would name the bridge for the explorer. After the introduction of the bill, the Staten Island Chamber of Commerce joined the society in promoting the name. The bill was signed into law in 1960 by Governor Nelson Rockefeller. Although the controversy seemed settled, the naming issue rose again in the last year of construction after the assassination of John F. Kennedy. A petition to name the bridge for Kennedy received thousands of signatures and threatened the naming for the explorer. In response, LaCorte contacted United States Attorney General Robert Kennedy, the president's brother, who told LaCorte that he would make sure the bridge would not be named for his brother. (What had been known as Idlewild Airport, New York's major international airport, was named for him instead.)
Despite the success of LaCorte, the official name was widely ignored by local news outlets at the time of the dedication. Some radio announcers and newspapers omitted any reference to Verrazano, referring to the bridge as the Narrows Bridge, or the Brooklyn-Staten Island Bridge. The society continued its lobbying efforts to promote the name in the following years until the name became firmly established.
The one-way toll (paid westbound into Staten Island only) in cash is $10 per car or $4.50 per motorcycle.
E-ZPassusers get a discount of $1.70 per car. As of March 2007, there is a reduced toll of $4.80 for Staten Island residents. There is also a significant carpool discount. From 1964 to 1986, the toll was collected in both directions, until Staten Island residents concerned about pollution from idling vehicles called for one way tolls. However, as of 2007the eastbound toll booths are still in place, requiring drivers to slow down. While the high cost of the toll between Brooklyn and Staten Island has always been an issue for residents, someWho|date=May 2008 favor the toll because they see it as a way to curb population growth on Staten Island.
Recently, residents living on both ends of the bridge have lobbied for pedestrian access. In October 2003, Mayor
Michael Bloombergpromised to look into establishing the long-awaited pedestrian and bicycle access.
Primary individuals involved
* [http://www.mta.nyc.ny.us/bandt/html/veraz.htm New York City MTA official site]
* [http://www.nycroads.com/crossings/verrazano-narrows/ nycroads.com]
* [http://www.transalt.org/bridges/verrazano.html Transportation Alternative's Verrazano Bridge Profile]
* [http://www.italianhistorical.org/VerrazzanoBridgeStory.htm The Naming of the Verrazano]
* [http://www.wnyc.org/news/articles/40927 WNYC: Verrazano Bridge turns 40]
* [http://www.bridgemeister.com/pic.php?pid=1127 Patrick S. O'Donnell's Verrazano Narrows Bridge photos on bridgemeister.com]
structure = Crossings
New York Harbor
bridge = Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
bridge signs =
Kill Van Kull)
Downtown Hudson Tubes
upstream signs =
Lower New York Bay
downstream signs = LongestBridge
type = suspension
start = 1964
end = 1981
previous = Golden Gate Bridge
current = Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
next = Humber Bridge
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Look at other dictionaries:
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