John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll
- For other persons of the same name, see John Campbell (disambiguation) or Duke of Argyll.
The Duke of Argyll
KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO, PC
4th Governor General of Canada
25 November 1878 – 23 October 1883
Monarch Victoria Prime Minister John A. Macdonald Preceded by The Earl of Dufferin Succeeded by The Marquess of Lansdowne Personal details Born 6 August 1845
London, United Kingdom
Died 2 May 1914(aged 68)
Cowes, Isle of Wight
Nationality British Political party Spouse(s) Princess Louise of the United Kingdom Alma mater
John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO, VD, PC (6 August 1845 – 2 May 1914), usually better known by the courtesy title Marquess of Lorne, by which he was known between 1847 and 1900, was a British nobleman and was the fourth Governor General of Canada from 1878 to 1883. He is now remembered primarily for the place names bestowed on Canadian geography in honour of his wife and for his metrical paraphrase of Psalm 121, "Unto the hills around do I lift up".
Background and career
He was born in London, the eldest son of George, Marquess of Lorne and the former Lady Elizabeth Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, daughter of the 2nd Duke of Sutherland, and was styled Earl of Campbell from birth. In 1847, when he was 21 months old, his father succeeded as 8th Duke of Argyll and he assumed the courtesy title Marquess of Lorne, which he bore until he was 54. He was educated at Edinburgh Academy, Eton, St Andrews and at Trinity College, Cambridge, as well as at the National Art Training School.
For ten years before coming to Canada, Campbell travelled throughout North and Central America, writing travel literature and poetry. In the UK, he represented, since 1868, the constituency of Argyllshire as a Liberal Member of Parliament in the House of Commons. He made little impression there, however; the London World referred to Campbell as "a non-entity in the House of Commons, and a non-entity without."
Campbell married Queen Victoria's fourth daughter, Princess Louise, on 21 March 1871. This was the first time a Princess had married a commoner since 1515. The pair shared a common love of the arts, but tended to live apart and never had children. Further, Campbell formed close friendships with men who were rumoured to be homosexually inclined, which raised questions about Campbell's marriage and fuelled rumours around London that Campbell was bisexual, if not largely homosexual in predisposition.
Governor General of Canada
When Lord Lorne's appointment was announced, there was great excitement throughout Canada. For the first time, Rideau Hall would have a royal resident. The Canadian Prime Minister relaxed his busy campaign schedule to prepare for her arrival and to organise a special carriage and corps of guards to protect the Princess. An author wrote in 1880 that "the appointment was hailed with satisfaction in all parts of the Dominion, and the new Governor General entered upon his term of office with the hearts of the people strongly prepossessed [sic] in his favour." However, Campbell and his wife were initially not received well by the Canadian press, which complained about the imposition of royalty on the country's hitherto un-regal society, a position that was only exasperated by mishaps and misunderstandings. The worries of a rigid court at the Queen's Canadian residence turned out to be unfounded; the royal couple were found to be more relaxed than their predecessors, as demonstrated at the many ice skating and tobogganing parties, balls, dinners, and other state occasions hosted by the Marquess and Marchioness.
During Lorne's term of office, the recession plaguing the Canadian economy ended and Sir John A. Macdonald returned as Prime Minister. Canada was experiencing a renewal of optimism and an upswing of nationalism.
At age 33, Lord Lorne was Canada's youngest Governor General, but he was not too young to handle the marginal demands of his post. He and Princess Louise made many lasting contributions to Canadian society especially in the arts and sciences. They encouraged the establishment of the Royal Society of Canada, the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and the National Gallery of Canada, even selecting some of its first paintings. Campbell was also involved in the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway and other projects, such as a hospital for British Columbia. In addition to acting as a patron of arts and letters in Canada, Lorne was the author of many books of prose and poetry. His writings show a deep appreciation of Canada's physical beauty.
Throughout his term of office, Lorne was intensely interested in Canada and Canadians. He travelled throughout the country encouraging the establishment of numerous institutions, and met with members of Canada's First Nations and with other Canadians from all walks of life. At Rideau Hall, he and Princess Louise hosted many social functions, including numerous ice skating and tobogganing parties as well as balls, dinners and State occasions.
Princess Louise returned to England in 1881 and Lord Lorne followed two years later in 1883. Lorne was Governor and Constable of Windsor Castle from 1892 to 1914, and he sat as MP for Manchester South from 1895 until the death of his father on 24 April 1900, when he succeeded as 9th and 2nd Duke of Argyll (his father had been created Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1892). He and Princess Louise lived at Kensington Palace until his death from pneumonia in 1914.
One of his close friends was Frank Shackleton (brother of the explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton), who was a key suspect in the theft of the Irish Crown Jewels. There is clear evidence that official investigation of the theft of the Crown Jewels was suppressed. It has been suggested by John Cafferky and Kevin Hannafin, that this is because authorities became aware of the Lorne connection to Shackleton.[page needed]
Ancestors of John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll 16. John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll 8. John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll 17. Mary Kerr 4. John Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll 18. John Gunning 9. Elizabeth Gunning, 1st Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon 19. Bridget Bourke 2. George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll 10. John Glassel 5. Joan Glassel 22. John Buchan 11. Helen Buchan 1. John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll 24. Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford 12. George Leveson-Gower, 1st Duke of Sutherland 25. Louisa Egerton 6. George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland 26. William Sutherland, 18th Earl of Sutherland 13. Elizabeth Sutherland, 19th Countess of Sutherland 27. Mary Maxwell 3. Elizabeth Leveson-Gower 28. Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle 14. George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle 29. Margaret Granville Leveson-Gower 7. Harriet Howard 30. William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire 15. Georgiana Dorothy Cavendish 31. Georgiana Spencer
- ^ London Gazette, 13 December 1892.
- ^ Campbell, John Douglas Sutherland, Marquess of Lorne in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
- ^ a b c d e Sandwell 2006, p. 47.
- ^ Rowse 1977, p. 157.
- ^ Sandwell 2006, p. 48.
- ^ a b Longford 1991, p. 45.
- ^ Hubbard 1977, p. 125.
- ^ Cafferky & Hannafin 2003.
- Cafferky, John; Hannafin, Kevin (2003). Scandal & Betrayal: Shackleton and the Irish Crown Jewels. Collins Press.
- Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0773503106.
- Longford, Elizabeth (1991). Darling Loosy: Letters to Princess Louise 1856–1939. New York: Little Brown & Co. ISBN 978-0297811794.
- Rowse, A.L. (1977). Homosexuals In History. New York: Macmillan.
- Sandwell, R.W. (2006). "Dreaming of the Princess: Love, Subversion, and the Rituals of Empire in British Columbia, 1882". In Coates, Colin MacMillan. Majesty in Canada: Essays on the Role of Royalty. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd. ISBN 978-1-55002-586-6. http://books.google.com/?id=FhFyvhpPx8MC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA44#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- London Gazette: . 13 December 1892.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Marquess of Lorne
- Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
- Website of the Governor General of Canada
- Works by John Douglas Sutherland Campbell at Project Gutenberg
- Archival material relating to John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll listed at the UK National Register of Archives
Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Argyllshire
Lord Colin Campbell
Sir Henry Roscoe
Member of Parliament for Manchester South
Hon. William Peel
Government offices Preceded by
The Earl of Dufferin
Governor General of Canada
The Marquess of Lansdowne
Honorary titles Preceded by
Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Governor of Windsor Castle
The Marquess of Cambridge
The Duke of Argyll
Lord Lieutenant of Argyllshire
The Marquess of Breadalbane
Peerage of Scotland Preceded by
Duke of Argyll
Peerage of the United Kingdom Preceded by
Duke of Argyll
Governors General of Canada 20th century
George Taubman Goldie · Leonard Darwin · George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston · Douglas Freshfield · Thomas Holdich · Francis Younghusband · Lawrence Dundas, Earl of Ronaldshay · David George Hogarth · Charles Close · William Goodenough · Percy Zachariah Cox · Henry Balfour · Philip Chetwode, 1st Baron Chetwode · George Clark · Francis Rodd, 2nd Baron Rennell · Harry Lindsay · James Wordie · James Marshall-Cornwall · Roger Nathan, 2nd Baron Nathan · Raymond Priestley · Dudley Stamp · Gilbert Laithwaite · Edmund Irving · Edward Shackleton, Baron Shackleton · Duncan Cumming · John Hunt, Baron Hunt · Michael Wise · Vivian Fuchs · George Bishop · Roger Chorley, 2nd Baron Chorley · Crispin Tickell · George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe · John Palmer, 4th Earl of Selborne
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