The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed) using various types of
guns such as firearms and airguns (see Archeryfor more information on shooting sports that make use of bows and arrows). Huntingis also a shooting sport, and indeed shooting live pigeons was an Olympic event (albeit only once, in 1900). The shooting sports are categorized by the type of firearm or target used.
Concerned over poor marksmanship during the
American Civil War, veteran Union officers Col. William C. Church and Gen. George Wingate formed the National Rifle Associationin 1871 for the purpose of promoting and encouraging rifle shooting on a "scientific" basis. In 1872, with financial help from New York state, a site on Long Island, the Creed Farm, was purchased for the purpose of building a rifle range. Named Creedmoor, the range opened in 1872, and became the site of the first National Matchesuntil New York politics forced the NRA to move the matches to Sea Girt, New Jersey. The popularity of the National Matchessoon forced the event to be moved to its present, much larger location: Camp Perry. In 1903, the U.S. Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice(NBPRP), an advisory board to the Secretary of the Army, with a nearly identical charter to the NRA. The NBPRP (now known as the Civilian Marksmanship Program) also participates in the National Matches at Camp Perry.
In 1903, the NRA began to establish rifle clubs at all major colleges, universities and military academies. By 1906, youth programs were in full swing with more than 200 boys competing in the
National Matches. Today, more than one million youth participate in shooting sports events and affiliated programs through groups such as 4-H, the Boy Scouts of America, the American Legion, U.S. Jaycees, NCAA, the [http://www.nssf.org/sctp/ Scholastic Clay Target Program] , National Guard Bureau, ROTCand JROTC. These programs have all continued to thrive despite political pressures to disband. The success of these programs is often attributed to an emphasis on safety and education that has resulted in an unprecedented scholastic and collegiate athletic safety record.
French pistol champion and founder of the modern Olympics,
Pierre de Coubertin, participated in many of these early competitions. This fact certainly contributed to the inclusion of five shooting events in the 1896 Olympics. Over the years, the events have been changed a number of times in order to keep up with technology and social standards. For example, targets that formerly resembled humans or animals in their shape and size have are now a circular shape in order to avoid associating the sport with any form of violence. At the same time, some events have been dropped and new ones have been added. The 2004 Olympics featured three shooting disciplines (rifle, pistol and shotgun) where athletes competed for 51 medals in 10 men's and 7 women's events -- slightly fewer than the previous Olympic schedule.
The Olympic Games continue to provide the shooting sports with its greatest public relations opportunity. The sport has always enjoyed the distinction of awarding the first medals of the Games. Internationally, the
International Shooting Sport Federation(ISSF) has oversight of all Olympic shooting events worldwide, while National Governing Body's (NGB) administer the sport within each country.
Having originally established shooting as an organized sport, the NRA was the obvious choice to administer the United States participation in the Olympic games. The NRA dutifully managed and financially supported international and conventional shooting sports (ie,
National Matches) for over 100 years until the formation of USA Shooting.
Because of its long heritage and broad appeal, the shooting sports are enjoyed by a large number of participants around the world. In recent years, however, the shooting sports have become increasingly threatened by social and political reforms. In some countries, voters have declared their disapproval toward the private ownership and possession of handguns. This is generally motivated by the perception that handguns are associated with violent crime instead of sportsmanship. Some governments, such as the British, have enacted restrictive gun control legislation that directly effects the shooting sports.
More recently, a rise in the number of
concealed carrypermit-holders in the US has led to a surge in interest in various handgun competitions that foster defensive skills, accuracy drills, and personal protection tactics.
Rifle shooting sports
* The four Rifle
ISSF shooting events(including two Olympic events) consist of long-time target shooting from distances of 10, 50 and 300 m.
* The two Running Target ISSF shooting events consist of rapid shooting at a target that moves sideways from distances of 10 and 50 m.
Biathlonis an Olympic sport combining shooting and cross-country skiing.
CISMRapid Fire match is a speeded version of the ISSF 300 m Standard Rifleevent.
Muzzle loadingand Cowboy action shootingare concerned with shooting replica(or antique) guns.
Gallery rifle shootingis popular in the UK and was introduced as a substitute for many pistol shooting disciplines following the 1997 handgun ban.
Benchrest shootingis concerned with shooting small groups with the rifleman sitting on a chair (bench) and the rifle supported from a table. Of all shooting disciplines, this is the most demanding equipment-wise.
* Fullbore target shooting is concerned with shooting at targets at ranges of 300–1200 yards.
Field Targetis an outdoor air gun discipline originating in the United Kingdom, but gaining popularity worldwide.
* There are a vast number of nationally recognized sports, including:
** Full bore and small bore, rifle shooting in the United Kingdom.
** Three position airgun competitions, popular in the
** Field shooting, often at very long distances, popular in
** Running target shooting at 80 m, on a target depicting an elk, popular in
Swedenas a hunting exercise.
** Summer biathlon, with skiing replaced by running, popular in
* Military Service Rifle is a shooting discipline that involves the use of rifles that are used by military forces and law-enforcement agencies, both past and present use. Ex-military rifles, sniper rifles (both past and present) and civilian versions of current use service rifles are commonly used in the Military Service Rifle shooting competitions. It is popular in the United States and culminates each year with the National Matches being held at Camp Perry, Ohio. Some countries have outlawed civilian shooting at human-silhouette targets, though. Silhouette targets are not used in the National Match Course of Fire. Bullseye targets are used. High Power Rifle competition often is held at the same events as Service Rifle, such as the U.S. national championships each year at Camp Perry. High Power competitors generally are civilians using whatever rifles they prefer within the rules, whereas Service Rifle entrants are limited to current or previous U.S. armed forces weapons.
* Palma competition dates from 1876, featuring long-range rifle shooting, out to 1,000 yards. The first Palma match was contested by teams from the U.S. and Ireland, and continues in various nations today.
* One other air rifle event is the 3-position (3P), which consists of the standing, kneeling and prone (lying down) positions.
* Finally, there is a different air rifle class, not yet in the olympics, called the sporter class. This is where you shoot under strict rules, and are not allowed much of the stiff clothing precision shooters use. You can also get sporter 3P events.
Handgun shooting sports
* The six Pistol ISSF shooting events (including four Olympic events) consist of both precision and rapid-fire target shooting from distances of 10, 25, and 50 metres. In the UK it is not possible to practice for some of the Olympic events following the
Firearms (Amendment) (No. 2) Act 1997.
Modern pentathlonincludes timed shooting with an air pistol as the first of its five parts.
CISMRapid Fire match is similar to the ISSF 25 m Rapid Fire Pistolevent.
Practical shooting, developed by civilian marksmen and later used as a basis for military and police exercises, is a variation where the shooter often moves during shooting, and hit scores and shooting time are equally important.
PPC 1500, also developed into police exercises, is standard precision shooting, as opposed to practical shooting, but somewhat imitating real-life conditions.
Muzzle loadingand Cowboy Action Shooting, as above, also use revolvers.
Metallic silhouetteshooting, developed to loosely simulate hunting, is shooting at heavy animal-shaped steel silhouettes that must be knocked down to score, typically at long range using very powerful pistols.
ActionAirgunis an indoor action shooting sport using semi-automatic airsoft pistols and courses of fire downloaded from a central hub. Shooters upload shooting times to a website to resolve competitions.
* Here also there are a vast number of nationally recognized sports, including:
** The National Rifle Association (NRA)
Conventional Pistol, shot with up to three different handguns, popular in the United States and Canadaand also some other countries. This is sometimes termed Bullseye (shooting competition).
** Field shooting, a type of variable rapid-fire competition, popular in Scandinavia.
* Other, less formally organized shooting sports include:
** Knocking bowling pins off a table top,
** Steel "reactive" targets,
** and general "plinking" at miscellaneous objects.
Shotgun shooting sports
* The three Shotgun ISSF shooting events (presently all Olympic) are based on quick reaction to clay targets thrown by a machine.
* Other shotgun sports with (at least partial) international recognition include Sporting Clays, providing more variation than the standard ISSF events, and
Down-The-Line. Five Standis also a shotgun shooting sport similar to skeet, but with more target variety. There are five stations, or stands. At each station there is normally a card that lets the shooter know the sequence of birds he or she will be shooting at.
* Cowboy Action Shooting also may involve shotguns.
Action shooting sports
"Action Shooting" is a generic term applicable to non-traditional shooting sports, generally characterized by rapid movement within each shooting stage, where most or all begins with holster draw in the case of handguns. Examples include 'practical pistol' as in the
International Practical Shooting Confederation(IPSC), the United States Practical Shooting Association(USPSA) and the International Defensive Pistol Association(IDPA), as well as cowboy action shooting, ActionAirgun(AAG), and 'three-gun' events noted below. The latter two involve use of rifles, handguns, and shotguns within the same event.
However, fast AND accurate shooting as opposed to just fast shooting - requiring less physical movement than IPSC, IDPA, and Cowboy Action Shooting, also belongs to the action shooting category owing to the rapidity of firing and mandatory holster draw. Discipline such as National Rifle Association's Action Pistol, also known as the
Bianchi Cup, is one example where extreme accuracy fired within tight, predetermined time limits is more paramount than raw speed.
3-Gun shooting sports
3-Gun shooting events (not to be confused with NRA 3-gun "
Conventional Pistol" events fired with a rim-fire, center-fire and .45 caliber pistol) are practical shootingevents where the stages are shot with a combination of a rifle, handgun, and/or shotgun. Although 3-gun competitions take place in most local areas, the largest national annual events are the USPSA3-Gun Nationals, the MGM Ironman, the Rocky Mountain 3-Gun, the DPMS Tri-Gun Challenge, and the Superstition MountainMystery 3-Gun.
Submachine gun shooting sports
Submachine Gun competition have been around for over 20 years and are growing in popularity every year.Fact|date=August 2008
International governing bodies
* [http://www.issf-shooting.org/ International Shooting Sport Federation]
* [http://www.esc-shooting.org/ ESC - European Shooting Confederation]
* [http://www.mlaic.org/ Muzzle Loaders Associations International Committee]
* [http://www.international-benchrest.com/ The International Benchrest Shooters Association]
* [http://www.ipsc.org/ International Practical Shooting Confederation]
* [http://www.idpa.com/ International Defensive Pistol Association]
* [http://www.wa1500.org/ World Association PPC 1500]
* [http://www.ihmsa.org/ International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Association]
* [http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/showthreaded.php/Cat/0/Number/524830/an//page/0/vc/1 Worldwide Fullbore and High Power Ranges on Google Earth]
* [http://www.ausvarmint.com/ Australian Varminting Website]
* [http://www.targetshootingireland.org/ National Target Shooting Association (of Ireland)]
* [http://www.paragonschool.com/ The Paragon School of Sporting]
* [http://www.nssf.org/ National Shooting Sports Foundation]
* [http://www.funshoot.com/ Firearm User Network]
* [http://www.nsra.co.uk/ UK Small Bore Rifle Shooting (0.22" Rim Fire and Air Guns)]
* [http://www.cpsa.co.uk/ UK Clay Pigeon Shooting Association]
* [http://www.nra.org.uk/ National Rifle Association UK]
* [http://www.airsoft-reviews.net/ Airsoft Sports Equipment Reviews]
* [http://www.digitalreview.com.ar/target Collection of targets to print and use in archery and shooting]
* [http://www.ukahft.org.uk/ United Kingdom Association for Hunter Field Target]
* [http://www.huntandshoot.org/ HuntandShoot.org]
* [http://www.huntershooter.com/ Field shooting sports for hunters]
* [http://www.shootingwiki.org/ ShootingWiki.org]
* [http://shotgunshoot.org/ ShotgunShoot.com - clay target shotgun sports competitions]
* [http://www.airsoft-shooting.org/ IAPS - International Airsoft Practical Shooting]
* [http://www.tenrings.co.uk/ Tips and information on precision competition air pistol target shooting]
* [http://www.conventionalshooter.com/ Conventional (Bullseye) Shooting]
* [http://www.bullseyepistol.com/ Encyclopedia of Bullseye Shooting]
* [http://www.nrahq.org/compete/highpower.asp NRA High Power Rifle Competition information page]
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