Congress of the Philippines


Congress of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
Kongreso ng Pilipinas
15th Congress of the Philippines
Type
Type Bicameral
Houses Senate
House of Representatives
Leadership
Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile, PMP
since July 26, 2010
House Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr., Liberal
since July 26, 2010
Structure
Members 310 (list)
24 Senators
286 Representatives
Philippine Senate composition.svg
Senate Political groups
Philippine House of Representatives composition.svg
House of Representatives Political groups
Joint committees Joint committees are chaired by senators
Authority Article VI, Constitution of the Philippines
Elections
Senate Last election May 10, 2010
House of Representatives Last election May 10, 2010
Meeting place
Senate:
GSIS building
Government Service Insurance System Building, Pasay

House of Representatives:
,
Batasang Pambansa Complex, Quezon City
Website
Senate of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines

The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas; also known in its Spanish name Congreso de Filipinas) is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate (upper chamber), and the House of Representatives (lower chamber) although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.

The Senate is composed of 24 senators half of which are elected every three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years. The senators are elected by the whole electorate and do not represent any geographical district.

The House of Representatives is composed of a maximum of 250 congressmen. There are two types of congressmen: the district and the sectoral representatives. The district congressmen represent a particular geographical district of the country. All provinces in the country are composed of at least one congressional district. Several cities also have their own congressional districts, with some composed of two or more representatives.

The sectoral congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population. This enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Also known as party-list representatives, sectoral congressmen represent labor unions, rights groups, and other organizations.

The Constitution provides that the Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July. A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session in the succeeding year. The President may, however, call special sessions which are usually held between regular legislative sessions to handle emergencies or urgent matters.

Contents

History

Spanish era

When the Philippines was under Spanish colonial rule, the colony was not given representation to the Spanish Cortes. It was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. On March 19, 1812, the Constitution of Cadiz was approved, which led to the colony's first representatives at the Cortes in September 24, 1812 by Pedro Perez de Tagle and Jose Manuel Coretto. However, with Napoleon I's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, his brother Joseph Bonaparte was removed the Spanish throne, and the Cadiz Constitution was rejected by the Cortes on May 24, 1816 with a more conservative constitution that removed Philippine representation on the Cortes, among other things. Restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the Illustrados, the educated class during the late 19th century.

Revolutionary era

The Illustrados' campaign transformed into the Philippine Revolution that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule. Proclaiming independence on June 12, 1898, President Emilio Aguinaldo then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at Malolos. The Malolos Congress, among other things, approved the 1899 Constitution of the Philippines. With the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish sold the Philippines to the United States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the Philippine-American War, but were defeated when Aguinaldo was captured on 1901.

American era

When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from 1900 to 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission. Furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights.

The Philippine Bill of 1902 mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907. Through the leadership of then Speaker Sergio Osmeña and then Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature.

In 1916, the Jones Law changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished, and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established.

Commonwealth and Second Republic era

The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution, aside from instituting the Commonwealth which gave the Filipinos more role in government, established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was created. Those elected in 1941 would not serve until 1945, as World War II intervened. The invading Japanese set up the Second Philippine Republic and convened its own National Assembly. With the Japanese defeat in 1945, the Commonwealth and its Congress was restored. The same set up will continue until the Americans granted independence on July 4, 1946.

Independent era

Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. Successive Congresses were elected until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law on September 23, 1972. Marcos then ruled by decree.

As early as 1970, Marcos had convened a constitutional convention to revise the 1935 constitution; on 1973, the Constitution was approved. It abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be known as the Batasang Pambansa in a parliamentary system of government. The parliament elected a prime minister. The Batasang Pambansa first convened on 1978.

Marcos was overthrown after the 1986 People Power Revolution; President Corazon Aquino then ruled by decree. Later that year she appointed a constitutional commission that drafted a new constitution. The Constitution was approved in a plebiscite the next year; it restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. It first convened on 1987.

Summary

In operation Authority Legislature Type Upper house Lower house
1900–07 Appointment by the President of the United States Philippine Commission Unicameral Philippine Commission
1907–16 Philippine Bill of 1902 Philippine Legislature Bicameral Philippine Commission Philippine Assembly
1916–35 Philippine Autonomy Act Philippine Legislature Bicameral Senate House of Representatives
1935–41 1935 Constitution National Assembly Unicameral National Assembly
1943–44 1943 Constitution National Assembly Unicameral National Assembly
1945–46 Amendments to the 1935 Constitution Commonwealth Congress Bicameral Senate House of Representatives
1946–73 Congress Bicameral Senate House of Representatives
never convened 1973 Constitution National Assembly Unicameral National Assembly
1978–86 Amendments to the 1973 Constitution Batasang Pambansa Unicameral Batasang Pambansa
1987–present 1987 Constitution Congress Bicameral Senate House of Representatives

Powers

The powers of the Congress of the Philippines may be classified as:

General legislative power

It consists of the enactment of laws intended as a rule of conduct to govern the relation between individuals (i.e., civil laws, commercial laws, etc.) or between individuals and the state (i.e., criminal law, political law, etc.)

Implied powers

It is the essential to the effective exercise of other powers expressly granted to the assembly.

Inherent powers

These are the powers which though not expressly given are nevertheless exercised by the Congress as they are necessary for its existence such as:

  • to determine the rules of proceedings;
  • to compel attendance of absent members to obtain quorum to do business;
  • to keep journal of its proceedings; etc.

Specific legislative powers

It has reference to powers which the Constitution expressly and specifically directs to perform or execute.

Powers enjoyed by the Congress classifiable under this category are:

  • Power to appropriate;
  • Power to act as constituent assembly; (The Senate and the House of Representatives must convene and vote on joint or separate session to do this.[citation needed])
  • Power to impeach; (to initiate all cases of impeachment is the power of the House of Representatives; To try all cases of impeachment is the power of the Senate.)
  • Power to confirm treaties;(Only the Senate is authorized to use this power.)
  • Power to declare the existence of war; (The Senate and the House of Representatives must convene in joint session to do this.)
  • Power to concur amnesty; and
  • Power to act as board of canvasser for presidential/vice-presidential votes. (by creating a joint congressional committee to do the canvassing.)
  • Power to contempt
  • Blending of power
  • Delegation of power
  • Budgetary power
  • Power to taxation

Executive power

Powers of the Congress that are executive in nature are:

  • Appointment of its officers;
  • Affirming treaties;
  • Confirming presidential appointees through the Commission on Appointments;
  • Removal power; etc.

Director/Suprevisory power

The Congress of the Philippines exercises considerable control and supervision over the administrative branch - e.g.:

  • To decide the creation of a department/agency/office;
  • To define powers and duties of officers;
  • To appropriate funds for governmental operations;
  • To prescribe rules and procedure to be followed; etc.

Electoral power

Considered as electoral power of the Congress of the Philippines are the Congress' power to:

  • Elect its presiding officer/s and other officers of the House;
  • Act as board of canvassers for the canvass of presidential/vice-presidential votes; and
  • Elect the President in case of any electoral tie to the said post.

Judicial power

Constitutionally, each house has judicial powers:

  • To punish its Members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member
  • To concur and approve amnesty declared by the President of the Philippines;
  • To initiate, prosecute and thereafter decide cases of impeachment; and
  • To decide electoral protests of its members through the respective Electoral Tribunal.

Miscellaneous powers

The other powers of Congress mandated by the Constitution are as follows:

  • To authorize the Commission on Audit to audit fund and property;
  • To authorize the President of the Philippines to fix tariff rates, quotas, and dues;
  • To authorize the President of the Philippines to formulate rules and regulations in times of emergency;
  • To reapportion legislative districts based on established constitutional standards;
  • To implement laws on autonomy;
  • To establish a national language commission;
  • To implement free public secondary education;
  • To allow small scale utilization of natural resources;
  • To specify the limits of forest lands and national parks;
  • To determine the ownerships and extent of ancestral domain; and
  • To establish independent economic and planning agency.

Lawmaking

  • Preparation of the bill
    The Member or the Bill Drafting Division of the Reference and Research Bureau prepares and drafts the bill upon the Member's request.
  • First reading
    1. The bill is filed with the Bills and Index Service and the same is numbered and reproduced.
    2. Three days after its filing, the same is included in the Order of Business for First Reading.
    3. On First Reading, the Secretary General reads the title and number of the bill. The Speaker refers the bill to the appropriate Committee/s.
  • Committee consideration / action
    1. The Committee where the bill was referred to evaluates it to determine the necessity of conducting public hearings.
    • If the Committee finds it necessary to conduct public hearings, it schedules the time thereof, issues public notices and invites resource persons from the public and private sectors, the academe, and experts on the proposed legislation.
    • If the Committee determines that public hearing is not needed, it schedules the bill for Committee discussion/s.
    1. Based on the result of the public hearings or Committee discussions, the Committee may introduce amendments, consolidate bills on the same subject matter, or propose a substitute bill. It then prepares the corresponding committee report.
    2. The Committee approves the Committee Report and formally transmits the same to the Plenary Affairs Bureau.
  • Second reading
    1. The Committee Report is registered and numbered by the Bills and Index Service. It is included in the Order of Business and referred to the Committee on Rules.
    2. The Committee on Rules schedules the bill for consideration on Second Reading.
    3. On Second Reading, the Secretary General reads the number, title and text of the bill and the following takes place:
    • Period of Sponsorship and Debate
    • Period of Amendments
    • Voting, which may be by
    1. viva voce
    2. count by tellers
    3. division of the House
    4. nominal voting
  • Third reading
    1. The amendments, if any, are engrossed and printed copies of the bill are reproduced for Third Reading.
    2. The engrossed bill is included in the Calendar of Bills for Third Reading and copies of the same are distributed to all the Members three days before its Third Reading.
    3. On Third Reading, the Secretary General reads only the number and title of the bill.
    4. A roll call or nominal voting is called and a Member, if he desires, is given three minutes to explain his vote. No amendment on the bill is allowed at this stage.
    • The bill is approved by an affirmative vote of a majority of the Members present.
    • If the bill is disapproved, the same is transmitted to the Archives.
  • Transmittal of the approved bill to the Senate
    The approved bill is transmitted to the Senate for its concurrence.
  • Senate action on approved bill of the House
    The bill undergoes the same legislative process in the Senate.
  • Conference committee
    1. A Conference Committee is constituted and is composed of Members from each House of Congress to settle, reconcile or thresh out differences or disagreements on any provision of the bill.
    2. The conferees are not limited to reconciling the differences in the bill but may introduce new provisions germane to the subject matter or may report out an entirely new bill on the subject.
    3. The Conference Committee prepares a report to be signed by all the conferees and the Chairman.
    4. The Conference Committee Report is submitted for consideration/approval of both Houses. No amendment is allowed.
  • Transmittal of the bill to the President
    Copies of the bill, signed by the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives and certified by both the Secretary of the Senate and the Secretary General of the House, are transmitted to the President.
  • Presidential action on the bill
    If the bill is approved by the President, it is assigned an RA number and transmitted to the House where it originated.
  • Action on approved bill
    The bill is reproduced and copies are sent to the Official Gazette Office for publication and distribution to the implementing agencies. It is then included in the annual compilation of Acts and Resolutions.
  • Action on vetoed bill
    The message is included in the Order of Business. If the Congress decides to override the veto, the House and the Senate shall proceed separately to reconsider the bill or the vetoed items of the bill. If the bill or its vetoed items is passed by a vote of two-thirds of the Members of each House, such bill or items shall become a law.

Voting requirements

The vote requirements in the Congress of the Philippines are as follows:

Requirement Senate House of Representatives Joint session All members
One-fifth
  • Request of recording of yeas and nays on any question
N/A N/A
One-third N/A
  • Pass an articles of impeachment
N/A N/A
Majority (50% +1 member)
  • Election of the Senate President
  • Election of the Speaker
  • Revocation of martial law
  • Revocation of the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus
  • Concurrence of a grant of amnesty
  • Submit to the electorate the question of calling a constitutional convention
  • Grant a tax exemption
  • Passage of laws
  • Election of the president in case of a tie vote.
  • Confirmation of an appointment of the president to a vice president
Two-thirds
  • Suspend or expel a member
  • Designation of the vice president as acting president
  • Override a presidential veto
  • Declaration of a state of war
  • Call a constitutional convention
  • Conviction of impeached officials
  • Concurrence on a treaty
N/A
Three-fourths N/A N/A N/A
  • Passage of amendments to, or revision of the constitution

In most cases, such as the approval of bills, only a majority of members present is needed; on some cases such as the election of presiding officers, a majority of all members, including vacant seats, is needed.

Latest elections

Philippines

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Philippines



Other countries · Atlas
 Philippine Government Portal
view · talk · edit

Senate

In the Philippines, the most common way to illustrate the result in a Senate election is via a tally of candidates in descending order of votes. The twelve candidates with the highest number of votes are elected.

e • d Summary of the May 10, 2010 Philippine Senate election results
Rank Candidate Party Votes %
1. Bong Revilla Lakas-Kampi 19,513,521 51.15%
2. Jinggoy Estrada PMP 18,925,925 49.61%
3. Miriam Defensor Santiago PRP 17,344,742 45.47%
4. Franklin Drilon Liberal 15,871,117 41.60%
5. Juan Ponce Enrile PMP 15,665,618 41.06%
6. Pia Cayetano Nacionalista 13,679,511 35.86%
7. Ferdinand Marcos, Jr. Nacionalista 13,169,634 34.52%
8. Ralph Recto Liberal 12,436,960 32.60%
9. Tito Sotto NPC 11,891,711 31.17%
10. Sergio Osmeña III Independent 11,656,668 30.56%
11. Lito Lapid Lakas-Kampi 11,025,805 28.90%
12. Teofisto Guingona III Liberal 10,277,352 26.94%
13. Risa Hontiveros-Baraquel Liberal 9,106,112 23.87%
14. Ruffy Biazon Liberal 8,626,514 22.61%
15. Joey de Venecia PMP 8,375,043 21.95%
16. Gilbert Remulla Nacionalista 7,454,557 19.54%
17. Danilo Lim Independent 7,302,784 19.14%
18. Sonia Roco Liberal 6,774,010 17.76%
19. Ariel Querubin Nacionalista 6,547,925 17.16%
20. Gwendolyn Pimentel PDP-Laban 6,394,347 16.76%
21. Nereus Acosta Liberal 5,921,111 15.52%
22. Alexander Lacson Liberal 5,242,594 13.74%
23. Adel Tamano Nacionalista 4,059,748 10.64%
24. Emilio Mario Osmeña PROMDI 3,980,370 10.43%
25. Liza Maza Independent 3,855,800 10.11%
26. Satur Ocampo Bayan Muna 3,539,345 9.28%
27. Francisco Tatad GAD 3,331,083 8.73%
28. Ramon Mitra III Nacionalista 2,744,090 7.19%
29. Apolinario Lozada PMP 2,730,279 7.16%
30. Rey Langit Lakas-Kampi 2,694,213 7.06%
31. Silvestre Bello III Lakas-Kampi 2,468,276 6.47%
32. Yasmin Lao Liberal 2,081,895 5.46%
33. Imelda Papin Bangon Pilipinas 1,972,667 5.17%
34. Susan Ople Nacionalista 1,930,038 5.06%
35. Martin Bautista Liberal 1,890,152 4.95%
36. Rodolfo Plaza NPC 1,517,905 3.98%
37. JV Larion Bautista PMP 1,415,117 3.71%
38. Ramon Guico Lakas-Kampi 1,264,982 3.32%
39. Raul Lambino Lakas-Kampi 1,156,294 3.03%
40. Hector Villanueva KBL 979,708 2.57%
41. Ramoncito Ocampo Bangon Pilipinas 944,725 2.48%
42. Kata Inocencio Bangon Pilipinas 888,771 2.33%
43. Jovito Palparan, Jr. Independent 825,208 2.16%
44. Alex Tinsay Bangon Pilipinas 728,339 1.91%
45. Zafrullah Alonto Bangon Pilipinas 712,628 1.87%
46. Reginald Tamayo Ang Kapatiran 680,211 1.78%
47. Nanette Espinosa KBL 607,569 1.59%
48. Regalado Maambong KBL 545,967 1.43%
49. Shariff Ibrahim Albani KBL 508,558 1.33%
50. Rizalito David Ang Kapatiran 504,259 1.32%
51. Israel Virgines Bangon Pilipinas 455,332 1.19%
52. Zosimo Paredes Bangon Pilipinas 437,439 1.15%
53. Adrian Sison Ang Kapatiran 418,055 1.10%
54. Reynaldo Princesa Independent 364,245 0.95%
55. Jo Aurea Imbong Ang Kapatiran 362,457 0.95%
56. Adz Nikabulin Bangon Pilipinas 346,848 0.91%
57. Henry Caunan PDP-Laban 240,676 0.63%
58. Manuel Valdehuesa, Jr. Ang Kapatiran 201,118 0.53%
59. Hector Tarrazona Ang Kapatiran 168,386 0.44%
60. Ma. Gracia Riñoza-Plazo Ang Kapatiran 151,755 0.40%
61. Alma Lood KBL 128,045 0.34%
Total turnout 38,149,371 100.00%
Total votes 297,036,114 N/A
Registered voters 51,317,073 74.34%

House of Representatives

For party-list election results, see Philippine House of Representatives party-list election, 2010

A voter has two votes in the House of Representatives: one vote for a representative elected in the voter's congressional district (first-past-the-post), and one vote for a party in the party-list system (closed list), the so-called sectoral representatives; sectoral representatives shall comprise not more than 20% of the House of Representatives.

To determine the winning parties in the party-list election, a party must surpass the 2% election threshold of the national vote; usually, the party with the largest number of votes wins the maximum three seats, the rest two seats. If the number of seats of the parties that surpassed the 2% threshold is less than 20% of the total seats, the parties that won less than 2% of the vote gets one seat each until the 20% requirement is met.

e • d Summary of the May 10, 2010 Philippine House of Representatives election results for representatives from congressional districts
Party Popular vote Up[n 1] Entered Seats won Change
Total % Total %[n 2]
Lakas-Kampi (Strength-Partner of Free Filipinos-Christian Muslim Democrats) 13,110,440 38.23% 120 164 106 36.93% decrease 15
KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress) 70,852 0.21% 1 1 1 0.35% steady
SARRO (Sarangani Reconciliation and Reformation Organization) 60,899 0.18% 1 1 0 0.00% decrease 1
Lakas Kampi CMD coalition 13,242,191 38.62% 122 166 107 37.28% decrease 16
Liberal (Liberal Party) 6,741,310 19.66% 30 131 42 14.67% increase 12
KKK (Struggle for Peace, Progress and Justice) 181,852 0.53% 1 4 3 1.04% increase 2
Liberal Party coalition 6,923,162 20.19% 31 135 45 15.85% increase 14
Nacionalista (Nationalist Party) 3,703,279 10.80% 24 64 25 9.08% increase 1
Kusug (Promote Progress for Cebu) 126,144 0.37% 0 2 0 0.00% steady
PCM (People's Champ Movement) 120,052 0.35% 0 1 1 0.35% increase 1
Ugyon Kita Capiz (Unite Capiz) 45,859 0.13% 0 1 0 0.00% steady
Nacionalista Party coalition 3,995,334 11.65% 24 68 26 9.09% increase 2
PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses) 895,150 2.61% 2 46 5 1.74% increase 3
Navoteño (Party of the People of Navotas) 76,276 0.22% 0 1 1 0.35% increase 1
PMP coalition 971,026 2.84% 2 47 6 2.10% increase 4
NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition) 5,227,075 15.24% 25 72 31 10.76% increase 6
Independents 2,437,480 7.11% 4[n 3] 228 7 2.43% increase 3
PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party – People's Power) 285,317 0.83% 5[n 4] 14 2 0.69% decrease 3
Bigkis Pinoy (Bundle Pinoy) 207,384 0.60% 0 7 0 0.00% steady
PDSP (Philippine Social Democratic Party) 171,345 0.50% 0 4 1 0.35% increase 1
LDP (Struggle of the Democratic Filipinos) 162,434 0.47% 1 3 2 0.69% increase 1
KBL (New Society Movement) 158,416 0.46% 0 10 1 0.35% increase 1
Aksyon (Democratic Action) 151,434 0.44% 0 10 0 0.00% steady
Lapiang Manggagawa (Workers' Party) 88,981 0.26% 1 3 1 0.35% steady
Bagumbayan-VNP (New Nation-Volunteers for a New Philippines) 74,319 0.22% 0 4 0 0.00% steady
GAD (Grand Alliance for Democracy) 47,677 0.14% 0 1 0 0.00% steady
Ang Kapatiran (Alliance for the Common Good) 45,631 0.13% 0 2 0 0.00% steady
Aton Tamdon Utod Negrosa-non (Let’s Take Care of our Brother Negrenses) 42,796 0.12% 0 2 0 0.00% steady
PGRP (Philippine Green Republican Party) 21,636 0.06% 0 10 0 0.00% steady
Lingkod Taguig (Service to Taguig) 16,990 0.05% 1 1 0 0.00% decrease 1
Bangon Pilipinas (Rise Up Philippines) 11,257 0.03% 0 3 0 0.00% steady
Lapiang Manggagawa Workers and Peasants Party 8.894 0.03% 0 1 0 0.00% steady
Buklod (Bond) 876 0.00% 0 1 0 0.00% steady
Vacant 4 decrease 4
New districts 10 increase 10
Valid votes 34,292,055 91.61%
Sandugo (Blood Compact) 1,486 0.00% 0 1[n 5] 0 0.00% steady
Invalid or blank votes[n 6] 3,369,828 8.39%
Total turnout[n 6] 37,293,960 74.25% 215 792 229 80.07% increase 14
Registered voters[n 6] 50,723,733[n 7] 100.00%
  1. ^ If a congressman is a member of two or more parties, the national or the main party the congressman is identified with will take precedence.
  2. ^ Of all 286 House members, including party-list representatives.
  3. ^ Includes Jose de Venecia, who currently has no party.
  4. ^ Includes United Opposition members.
  5. ^ Sandugo's only candidate withdrew but remained on the ballot. Votes cast for him are spoiled.
  6. ^ a b c Numbers for invalid votes in Bulacan–1st, both Camarines Norte districts and both Lanao del Sur districts were not released.
  7. ^ Excludes overseas absentee voters (568,732) who are ineligible to vote for district representatives.

Seat

The Legislative Building during the 1930s.
Congress of the Philippines is located in Metro Manila
Senate
House of Representatives
Congress Building
Japanese Schoolhouse
Ayuntamiento
Locations of the historical (blue) and current (red) seats of Congress in Metro Manila.

In what could be a unique setup, Congress' two houses meet at different places in Metro Manila, the seat of government: the Senate sits at a building shared with the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) at Pasay, while the House of Representatives sits at the Batasang Pambansa Complex.

Historically, when Congress is composed of two houses, it sat on one building. The Philippine Legislature convened at the Ayuntamiento in Intramuros, Manila from 1907 to 1926, when it transferred to the Manila Legislative Building outside Intramuros. In the Legislative Building, the Senate occupied the upper floors while the House of Representatives used the lower floors. However the Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan serve as a meeting place of unicameral congress of the First Philippine Republic

Destroyed during the Battle of Manila of 1945, the Commonwealth Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Sampaloc. Congress met at the school auditorium, with the Senate convening on evenings and the House of Representatives meeting every morning. Congress would return to the Legislative Building, which will be renamed as the Congress Building, on 1949 up to 1973 when President Marcos ruled by decree. Marcos built a new seat of a unicameral parliament at Quezon City, which would eventually be the Batasang Pambansa Complex. The parliament that will eventually be named as the Batasang Pambansa (National Legislature), first met at the Batasang Pambansa Complex on 1978.

With the overthrow of Marcos after the People Power Revolution, the bicameral Congress was restored. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate returned to the Congress Building. On May 1997, the Senate moved to the newly constructed building owned by the GSIS on land reclaimed from Manila Bay at Pasay; the Congress Building was eventually transformed into the National Museum of the Philippines.

Congresses of the Philippines

Party control of Congress

Senate
The Senate, when it is in existence, is always composed of 24 senators, including vacancies. The 1935 constitution abolished the Senate, but a 1940 amendment restored bicameralism. The 1978 constitution, the Senate was abolished a new in favor of a unicameral parliament; it was restored with the approval of the 1987 constitution.
House of Representatives
The House of Representatives (National Assembly/Batasang Pambansa) originally had 98 members; the 1935 Constitution limited the membership to 120. The adoption of the 1973 Constitution raised the membership to 200, while the 1987 constitution allowed increases from the 250-seat limit by means of statutes.
Nominally center-left to left-wing parties are above the bars for the independents, (for the House of Representatives only) others and party-lists; those nominally center-right to right-wing parties are below those. Members of Congress often switch parties in favor of the ruling president after the election in what is locally known as the Padrino System or patronage politics.

Timeline

See also

Sources

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Senate of the Philippines — Infobox Parliament name = Senate of the Philippines coa pic = Senate Seal.png coa pic = session room = house type = Upper house houses = Senate leader1 type = Senate President leader1 = Manuel B. Villar, Jr. party1 = Nacionalista election1 = July …   Wikipedia

  • University of the Philippines — Infobox University name = |native name = Unibersidad ng Pilipinas | |motto = Honor and Excellence |established = June 18, 1908 |type = National University |president = Dr. Emerlinda R. Román |campus = 11 Campuses, 1 Open University city = Diliman …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Philippines — The History of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans via land bridges at least 30,000 years ago.Harvnb|Dolan|1991 3] The first recorded visit from the West is the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan on Homonhon… …   Wikipedia

  • Cities of the Philippines — Philippines This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the Philippines …   Wikipedia

  • Politics of the Philippines — The political system in the Philippines takes place in an organized framework of a presidential, representative, and democratic republic whereby the president is both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi party… …   Wikipedia

  • Municipalities of the Philippines — Philippines This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the Philippines …   Wikipedia

  • Elections in the Philippines — The Philippines elects on national level a head of state (the President) and a legislature. The president is elected for a six year term by the people. The vice president is elected at the same time on a separate ballot. The Philippines elects on …   Wikipedia

  • Commonwealth of the Philippines — Komonwelt ng Pilipinas (tl) Mancomunidad de Filipinas (es) Associated state of the United States Commonwealth …   Wikipedia

  • President of the Philippines — Infobox Political post post = President body = the Philippines insignia = PhilippinePresidentialSeal.png insigniasize = 100px insigniacaption = Official seal incumbent = Gloria Macapagal Arroyo formation = March 22, 1897 ( de facto ) January 20,… …   Wikipedia

  • Languages of the Philippines — See also: Philippine languages Languages of the Philippines Map of the dominant ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.