Sikhism (: ]
Guru Nanak Dev Ji described God's revelation—the path to salvation—with terms such as "nām" (the divine "Name") and "śabad" (the divine Word) to emphasise the totality of the revelation. Nanak designated the word "guru" (meaning "teacher") as the voice of God and the source and guide for knowledge and salvation.cite book | last=Parrinder | first=Geoffrey | authorlink=Geoffrey Parrinder | year=1971 | title=World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present | publisher=Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited | location=United States | id = ISBN 0-87196-129-6 | pages=254] Salvation can be reached only through rigorous and disciplined devotion to God. Nanak distinctly emphasised the irrelevance of outwardly observations such as rites, pilgrimages or
asceticism. He stressed that devotion must take place through the heart, with the spirit and the soul.
A key practice to be pursued is "unicode|nām simraṇ": remembrance of the divine Name. The verbal repetition of the name of God or a sacred syllable is an established practice in religious traditions in India, but Nanak's interpretation emphasised inward, personal observance. Nanak's ideal is the total exposure of one's being to the divine Name and a total conforming to
Dharmaor the "Divine Order". Nanak described the result of the disciplined application of "unicode|nām simraṇ" as a "growing towards and into God" through a gradual process of five stages. The last of these is "unicode|sac khaṇḍ" ("The Realm of Truth")—the final union of the spirit with God.
Nanak stressed "
kirat karō": that a Sikh should balance work, worship, and charity, and should defend the rights of all creatures, and in particular, fellow human beings. They are encouraged to have a "unicode| caṛdī kalā", or "optimistic", view of life. Sikh teachings also stress the concept of sharing—"unicode| vaṇḍ chakkō"—through the distribution of free food at Sikh gurdwaras ("unicode|laṅgar"), giving charitable donations, and working for the good of the community and others ("sēvā").
The ten gurus and religious authority
gurucomes from the Sanskrit"gurū", meaning teacher, guide or mentor. The traditions and philosophy of Sikhism were established by ten specific gurus from 1507 to 1708. Each guru added to and reinforced the message taught by the previous, resulting in the creation of the Sikh religion. Nanak was the first guru and appointed a disciple as successor. Gobind Singh was the final guru in human form. Before his death, Gobind Singh decreed that the Gurū Granth Sāhibwould be the final and perpetual guru of the Sikhs.cite book | last=Mann | first=Gurinder Singh | year=2001 | title=The Making of Sikh Scripture | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=United States | id = ISBN 0-19-513024-3 | pages=21] The Sikhs believe that the spirit of Nanak was passed from one guru to the next, " just as the light of one lamp, which lights another and does not diminish ", [cite web
title= Sikh Gurus
Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee
quote= ] and is also mentioned in their holy book.
After Nanak's passing, the most important phase in the development of Sikhism came with the third successor, Amar Das. Nanak's teachings emphasised the pursuit of salvation; Amar Das began building a cohesive community of followers with initiatives such as sanctioning distinctive ceremonies for birth, marriage and death. Amar Das also established the "manji" (comparable to a
diocese) system of clerical supervision.Amar Das's successor and son-in-law Ram Das founded the city of Amritsar, which is home of the Harimandir Sahiband regarded widely as the holiest city for all Sikhs. When Ram Das's youngest son Arjan Dev succeeded him, the line of male gurus from the "Sodhi Khatri" family was established: all succeeding gurus were direct descendants of this line. Arjan Dev was responsible for compiling the Sikh scriptures. Arjan Dev was captured by Mughal authorities who were suspicious and hostile to the religious order he was developing. [cite book | last=Parrinder | first=Geoffrey | authorlink=Geoffrey Parrinder | year=1971 | title=World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present | publisher=Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited | location=United States | id = ISBN 0-87196-129-6 | pages=255] His persecution and death inspired his successors to promote a military and political organization of Sikh communities to defend themselves against the attacks of Mughal forces.
The Sikh gurus established a mechanism which allowed the Sikh religion to react as a community to changing circumstances. The sixth guru, Har Gobind, was responsible for the creation of the
Akal Takht("throne of the timeless one") which serves as the supreme decision-making centre of Sikhdom and sits opposite the Harimandir Sahib. The "unicode|Sarbat Ḵẖālsā" (a representative portion of the Khalsa Panth) historically gathers at the Akal Takht on special festivals such as Vaisakhi or Diwali and when there is a need to discuss matters that affect the entire Sikh nation. A "gurmatā" (literally, "guru's intention") is an order passed by the unicode|Sarbat Ḵẖālsā in the presence of the Gurū Granth Sāhib. A gurmatā may only be passed on a subject that affects the fundamental principles of Sikh religion; it is binding upon all Sikhs. [cite web | url=http://www.sgpc.net/sikhism/tankah.asp | title=Sikh Reht Maryada - Method of Adopting Gurmatta | accessdate=2006-06-09] The term "hukamnāmā" (literally, "edict" or "royal order") is often used interchangeably with the term gurmatā. However, a hukamnāmā formally refers to a hymn from the Gurū Granth Sāhib which is given as an order to Sikhs.
Nanak (1469–1538), the founder of Sikhism, was born in the village of "Rāi Bhōi dī Talvaṇḍī", now called
Nankana Sahib, near Lahore(in what is present-day Pakistan). [cite book | last=Singh | first=Khushwant | authorlink=Khushwant Singh | year=2006 | title=The Illustrated History of the Sikhs | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=India | id = ISBN 0-19-567747-1 | pages=12–13 According to the Purātan Janamsākhī (the birth stories of Nanak).] His father, Mehta Kaluwas a "Patwari" ( an accountantof land revenue in the government ). Nanak's mother was Tripta Devi and he had one older sister, Nanaki. His parents were Khatri Hindus of the Bediclan. As a boy, Nanak was fascinated by religion, and his desire to explore the mysteries of life eventually led him to leave home.
Sikh tradition states that at the age of thirty, Nanak went missing and was presumed to have drowned after going for one of his morning baths to a local stream called the "Kali Bein". Three days later he reappeared and would give the same answer to any question posed to him: "There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim" (in Punjabi, "nā kōi hindū nā kōi musalmān"). It was from this moment that Nanak would begin to spread the teachings of what was then the beginning of Sikhism. [cite book | last=Shackle | first=Christopher | coauthors= Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh | year=2005 | title=Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures | publisher=Routledge | location=United Kingdom | id = ISBN 0-415-26604-1 | pages=xiii-xiv] Although the exact account of his itinerary is disputed, he is widely acknowledged to have made four major journeys, spanning thousands of kilometres. The first tour being east towards
Bengaland Assam, the second south towards Tamil Nadu, the third north towards Kashmir, Ladakhand Tibet, and the final tour west towards Baghdadand Mecca. [cite book | last=Singh | first=Khushwant | authorlink=Khushwant Singh | year=2006 | title=The Illustrated History of the Sikhs | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=India | id = ISBN 0-19-567747-1 | pages=14]
Nanak was married to Sulakhni, the daughter of Moolchand Chona, a rice trader from the town of
Batala. They had two sons. The elder son, Sri Chand, was an ascetic, and he came to have a considerable following of his own, known as the Udasis. The younger son, Lakshmi Das, on the other hand, was totally immersed in worldly life. To Nanak, who believed in the ideal of "unicode|rāj maiṁ jōg" (detachment in civic life), both his sons were unfit to carry on the Guruship.
Growth of the Sikh community
In 1538, Nanak chose his disciple "unicode|Lahiṇā", a
Khatriof the Trehan clan, as a successor to the guruship rather than either of his sons. unicode|Lahiṇā was named Angad Devand became the second guru of the Sikhs. [cite book | last=Shackle | first=Christopher | coauthors= Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh | year=2005 | title=Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures | publisher=Routledge | location=United Kingdom | id = ISBN 0-415-26604-1 | pages=xv] Nanak conferred his choice at the town of Kartarpur on the banks of the river Ravi, where Nanak had finally settled down after his travels. Though Sri Chand was not an ambitious man, the Udasis believed that the Guruship should have gone to him, since he was a man of pious habits in addition to being Nanak's son. They refused to accept Angad's succession. On Nanak's advice, Angad shifted from Kartarpur to Khadur, where his wife Khivi and children were living, until he was able to bridge the divide between his followers and the Udasis. Angad continued the work started by Nanak and is widely credited for standardising the Gurmukhī scriptas used in the sacred scripture of the Sikhs.
Amar Das, a
Khatriof the Bhalla clan, became the third Sikh guru in 1552 at the age of 73. Goindvalbecame an important centre for Sikhism during the guruship of Amar Das. He preached the principle of equality for women by prohibiting purdahand sati. Amar Das also encouraged the practice of unicode| langarand made all those who visited him attend laṅgar before they could speak to him. [cite book | last=Duggal | first=Kartar Singh | year=1988 | title=Philosophy and Faith of Sikhism | publisher=Himalayan Institute Press | id = ISBN 0-89389-109-6 | pages=15] In 1567, Emperor Akbarsat with the ordinary and poor people of Punjab to have unicode|laṅgar. Amar Das also trained 146 apostles of which 52 were women, to manage the rapid expansion of the religion. [cite web | last=Brar | first=Sandeep Singh | year=1998 | title=The Sikhism Homepage: Guru Amar Das | url=http://www.sikhs.org/guru3.htm | accessdate=2006-05-26] Before he died in 1574 aged 95, he appointed his son-in-law unicode|Jēṭhā, a Khatri of the Sodhiclan, as the fourth Sikh guru.
"unicode|Jēṭhā" became Ram Das and vigorously undertook his duties as the new guru. He is responsible for the establishment of the city of Ramdaspur later to be named
Amritsar. In 1581, Arjan Dev—youngest son of the fourth guru—became the fifth guru of the Sikhs. In addition to being responsible for building the Harimandir Sahib(often called the Golden Temple), he prepared the Sikh sacred text known as the Ādi Granth (literally "the first book") and included the writings of the first five gurus. In 1606, for refusing to make changes to the Granth and for supporting an unsuccessful contender to the throne, he was tortured and killed by the Mughal ruler, Jahangir. [cite book | last=Shackle | first=Christopher | coauthors= Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh | year=2005 | title=Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures | publisher=Routledge | location=United Kingdom | id = ISBN 0-415-26604-1 | pages=xv-xvi]
Har Gobind, became the sixth guru of the Sikhs. He carried two swords—one for spiritual and the other for temporal reasons (known as "mīrī" and "pīrī" in Sikhism). [cite book | last=Mahmood | first=Cynthia | year=2002 | title=A Sea of Orange | publisher=Xlibris | location=United States | id = ISBN 1-4010-2856-X | pages=16] Sikhs grew as an organised community and always had a trained fighting force to defend their independence. In 1644, Har Rai became guru followed by Har Krishan, the boy guru, in 1661. No hymns composed by these three gurus are included in the Sikh holy book. [cite book | last=Shackle | first=Christopher | coauthors= Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh | year=2005 | title=Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures | publisher=Routledge | location=United Kingdom | id = ISBN 0-415-26604-1 | pages=xvi]
Tegh Bahadur became guru in 1665 and led the Sikhs until 1675. Teg Bahadur was executed by
Aurangzebfor helping to protect Hindus, after a delegation of Kashmiri Pandits came to him for help when the Emperor condemned them to death for failing to convert to Islam. [cite book | last=Rama | first=Swami | year=1986 | title=Celestial Song/Gobind Geet: The Dramatic Dialogue Between Guru Gobind Singh and Banda Singh Bahadur | publisher=Himalayan Institute Press | id = ISBN 0-89389-103-7 | pages=7–8] He was succeeded by his son, Gobind Rai who was just nine years old at the time of his father's death. Gobind Rai further militarised his followers, and was baptised by the "unicode|Pañj Piārē" when he formed the Khalsain 1699. From here on in he was known as Gobind Singh. [cite book | last=Singh | first=Khushwant | authorlink=Khushwant Singh | year=2006 | title=The Illustrated History of the Sikhs | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=India | id = ISBN 0-19-567747-1 | pages=37–38]
From the time of Nanak, when it was a loose collection of followers who focused entirely on the attainment of salvation and God, the Sikh community had significantly transformed. Even though the core Sikh religious philosophy was never affected, the followers now began to develop a political identity. Conflict with Mughal authorities escalated during the lifetime of Teg Bahadur and Gobind Singh. The latter founded the Khalsa in 1699. The Khalsa is a disciplined community that combines its religious purpose and goals with political and military duties. After Aurangzeb killed four of his sons, Gobind Singh sent Aurangzeb the Zafarnāmā ("Notification/Epistle of Victory").
Shortly before his death, Gobind Singh ordered that the Gurū Granth Sāhib (the Sikh Holy Scripture), would be the ultimate spiritual authority for the Sikhs and temporal authority would be vested in the Khalsa Panthndash The Sikh Nation/Community. The first scripture was compiled and edited by the fifth guru, Arjan Dev, in 1604. A former ascetic, was charged by Gobind Singh with the duty of punishing those who had persecuted the Sikhs. After the guru's death, Banda Bahadur became the leader of the Sikh army and was responsible for several attacks on the Mughal empire. He was executed by the emperor
Jahandar Shahafter refusing the offer of a pardon if he converted to Islam. [cite book | last=Singh | first=Khushwant | authorlink=Khushwant Singh | year=2006 | title=The Illustrated History of the Sikhs | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=India | id = ISBN 0-19-567747-1 | pages=47–53]
The Sikh community's embrace of military and political organisation made it a considerable regional force in medieval India and it continued to evolve after the demise of the gurus. After the death of Banda Bahadur, a loose confederation of Sikh warrior bands known as "
misls" formed. With the decline of the Mughal empire, a Sikh empire arose in the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, with its capital in Lahoreand limits reaching the Khyber Passand the borders of China. The order, traditions and discipline developed over centuries culminated at the time of Ranjit Singh to give rise to the common religious and social identity that the term "Sikhism" describes.cite book | last=Parrinder | first=Geoffrey | authorlink=Geoffrey Parrinder | year=1971 | title=World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present | publisher=Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited | location=United States | id = ISBN 0-87196-129-6 | pages=256]
After the death of Ranjit Singh, the Sikh kingdom fell into disorder and was eventually annexed by Britain after the hard fought
Anglo-Sikh Wars. This brought the Punjab under British rule. Sikhs formed the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committeeand the Shiromani Akali Dalto preserve Sikhs religious and political organisation. With the partition of Indiain 1947, thousands of Sikhs were killed in violence and millions were forced to leave their ancestral homes in West Punjab. [cite book | last=Pandey | first=Gyanendra | year=2001 | title=Remembering Partition: Violence, Nationalism and History in India | publisher=Cambridge University Press | id = ISBN 0-521-00250-8 | pages=33] Sikhs faced initial opposition from the Government in forming a linguistic state that other states in India were afforded. The Akali Dalstarted a non-violence movement for Sikh and Punjabi rights. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwaleemerged as a leader of a faction which did not agree with the Akali Dal's approach on the matter. In June 1984, Prime Minister Indira Gandhiordered the Indian army to launch Operation Blue Starto remove Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the Golden Temple. Hundreds of militants, including Bhindranwale, and a number of innocent civilians were killed during the army's successful operation. In October, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards. The assassination was followed by the 1984 Anti-Sikh riotsmassacre [cite book | last=Horowitz | first=Donald L. | year=2003 | title=The Deadly Ethnic Riot | publisher=University of California Press | id = ISBN 0-520-23642-4 | pages=482–485] and Hindu-Sikh conflicts in Punjab, as a reaction to the assassination and Operation Blue Star.
There are two primary sources of scripture for the Sikhs: the Gurū Granth Sāhib and the Dasam Granth. The Gurū Granth Sāhib may be referred to as the Ādi Granth—literally, "The First Volume"—and the two terms are often used synonymously. Here, however, the Ādi Granth refers to the version of the scripture created by Arjan Dev in 1604. The Gurū Granth Sāhib refers to the final version of the scripture created by Gobind Singh.
It is believed that the Ādi Granth was compiled primarily by
Bhai Gurdasunder the supervision of Arjan Dev between the years 1603 and 1604. [cite book | last=Trumpp | first=Ernest | year=2004 | origyear=1877 | title=The Ādi Granth or the Holy Scriptures of the Sikhs | publisher=Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers | location=India | id = ISBN 81-215-0244-6 | pages=1xxxi] It is written in the Gurmukhī script, which is a descendant of the unicode| Laṇḍāscript used in the Punjab at that time. [cite book | last=Grierson | first=George Abraham | authorlink=George Abraham Grierson | year=1967 | origyear=1927 | title=The Linguistic Survey of India | publisher=Motilal Banarsidass | location=India | id = ISBN 81-85395-27-6 | pages=624] The Gurmukhī script was standardised by Arjan Dev for use in the Sikh scriptures and is thought to have been influenced by the Śāradā and Devanāgarīscripts. An authoritative scripture was created to protect the integrity of hymns and teachings of the Sikh gurus and selected bhagats. At the time, Arjan Dev tried to prevent undue influence from the followers of Prithi Chand, the guru's older brother and rival. [cite book | last=Mann | first=Gurinder Singh | year=2001 | title=The Making of Sikh Scripture | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=United States | id = ISBN 0-19-513024-3 | pages=19]
The original version of the Ādi Granth is known as the "unicode|kartārpur bīṛ" and is currently held by the Sodhi family of Kartarpur.
Guru Granth Sahib
The final version of the
Gurū Granth Sāhibwas compiled by Gobind Singh. It consists of the original Ādi Granth with the addition of Teg Bahadur's hymns. It was decreed by Gobind Singh that the Granth was to be considered the eternal guru of all Sikhs, however, this tradition is not mentioned either in 'Guru Granth Sahib' or in 'Dasam Granth'.
It contains compositions by the first five gurus, Teg Bahadur and just one "unicode|śalōk" ("couplet") from Gobind Singh. [cite web | last=Brar | first=Sandeep Singh | year=1998 | title=The Sikhism Homepage: Sri Guru Granth Sahib - Authors & Contributors | url=http://www.sikhs.org/granth2.htm | accessdate=2006-05-30] It also contains the traditions and teachings of "sants" ("saints") such as
Kabir, Namdev, Ravidasand Sheikh Faridalong with several others.
The bulk of the scripture is classified into "rāgs", with each rāg subdivided according to length and author. There are 31 main rāgs within the Gurū Granth Sāhib. In addition to the rāgs, there are clear references to the folk music of Punjab. The main language used in the scripture is known as "unicode|Sant Bhāṣā", a language related to both Punjabi and Hindi and used extensively across medieval northern India by proponents of popular devotional religion.cite book | last=Parrinder | first=Geoffrey | authorlink=Geoffrey Parrinder | year=1971 | title=World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present | publisher=Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited | location=United States | id = ISBN 0-87196-129-6 | pages=259] The text further comprises over 5000 "śabads", or hymns, which are poetically constructed and set to classical form of music rendition, can be set to predetermined musical "tāl", or rhythmic beats.
The Granth begins with the "Mūl Mantra", an iconic verse created by Nanak:
: _pa. ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥:
ISO 15919 transliteration: "unicode|Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi.":Simplified transliteration: unicode|Ik ōaṅkār sat nām kartā purkh nirbha'u nirvair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṅ gur prasād.:English: One Universal Creator God, The Name Is Truth, Creative Being Personified, No Fear, No Hatred, Image Of The Timeless One, Beyond Birth, Self Existent, By Guru's Grace.
All text within the Granth is known as "gurbānī". Gurbānī, according to Nanak, was revealed by God directly, and the authors wrote it down for the followers. The status accorded to the scripture is defined by the evolving interpretation of the concept of "gurū". In the "Sant" tradition of Nanak, the guru was literally the word of God. The Sikh community soon transferred the role to a line of men who gave authoritative and practical expression to religious teachings and traditions, in addition to taking socio-political leadership of Sikh adherents. Gobind Singh declared an end of the line of human gurus, and now the Gurū Granth Sāhib serves as the eternal guru, with its interpretation vested with the community.
The Dasam Granth (formally "dasvēṁ pātśāh kī granth" or "The Book of the Tenth Master") is an eighteenth-century collection of miscellaneous works generally attributed to Gobind Singh. The teachings of Gobind Singh were not included in Gurū Granth Sāhib, the holy book of the
Sikhs, and instead were collected in the Dasam Granth. Unlike the Gurū Granth Sāhib, the Dasam Granth was never declared to hold guruship. The authenticity of some portions of the Granth has been questioned and the appropriateness of the Granth's content still causes much debate.
The entire Granth is written in the
Gurmukhī script, although most of the language is Braj and not Punjabi. Sikh tradition states that Mani Singh collected the writings of Gobind Singh after his death to create the Granth. [cite book | last=McLeod | first=WH | year=1993 | title=Studying the Sikhs: Issues for North America | chapter=The Study of Sikh Literature | publisher=SUNY Press | id = ISBN 0-7914-1425-6 | pages=60–61]
From 1892 to 1897, scholars assembled at the
Akal Takht, Amritsar, to study the various printed Dasam Granths and prepare the authoritative version. They concluded that the Dasam Granth was entirely the work of Gobind Singh. Further re-examinations and reviews took place in 1931, under the Darbar Sahib Committee of the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committeethey too vindicated the earlier conclusion. [cite web | last=Singh | first=Kirpal | year=2002 | title= Sri Dasam Granth Sahib - About the Dasam Granth | url=http://www.dasamgranth.org/dasamgranth/about.shtml | accessdate=2006-05-30]
The Janamsākhīs (literally "birth stories"), are writings which profess to be biographies of Nanak. Although not scripture in the strictest sense, they provide an interesting look at Nanak's life and the early start of Sikhism. There are several—often contradictory and sometimes unreliable—Janamsākhīs and they are not held in the same regard as other sources of scriptural knowledge.
Observant Sikhs adhere to long-standing practices and traditions to strengthen and express their faith. The daily recitation from memory of specific passages from the Gurū Granth Sāhib, especially the "Japu" (or "Japjī", literally "chant") hymns is recommended immediately after rising and bathing. Family customs include both reading passages from the scripture and attending the
gurdwara(also "gurduārā", meaning "the doorway to God"). There are many gurdwaras prominently constructed and maintained across India, as well as in almost every nation where Sikhs reside. Gurdwaras are open to all, regardless of religion, background, caste or race.
Worship in a gurdwara consists chiefly of singing of passages from the scripture. Sikhs will commonly enter the temple, touch the ground before the holy scripture with their foreheads, and make an offering. The recitation of the eighteenth century "
ardās" is also customary for attending Sikhs. The ardās recalls past sufferings and glories of the community, invoking divine grace for all humanity.cite book | last=Parrinder | first=Geoffrey | authorlink=Geoffrey Parrinder | year=1971 | title=World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present | publisher=Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited | location=United States | id = ISBN 0-87196-129-6 | pages=260]
The most sacred shrine is the
Harimandir Sahibin Amritsar, famously known as the "Golden Temple". Groups of Sikhs regularly visit and congregate at the Harimandir Sahib. On specific occasions, groups of Sikhs are permitted to undertake a pilgrimage to Sikh shrines in the province of Punjab in Pakistan, especially at Nankana Sahiband the " samādhī" (place of cremation) of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Lahore.
Festivals in Sikhism mostly centre around the lives of the Gurus and Sikh martyrs. The
SGPC, the Sikh organisation in charge of upkeep of the gurdwaras, organises celebrations based on the new Nanakshahicalendar. This calendar is highly controversial among Sikhs and is not universally accepted. Several festivals (Hola Mohalla, Diwali and Nanak's birthday) continue to be celebrated using the Hindu calendar. Sikh festivals include the following:
Gurpurabs are celebrations or commemorations based on the lives of the Sikh gurus. They tend to be either birthdays or celebrations of Sikh martyrdom.
Vaisakhinormally occurs on 13 April and marks the beginning of the new spring year and the end of the harvest. Sikhs celebrate it because on Vaisakhi in 1699, the tenth guru, Gobind Singh, began the Khalsabaptismal tradition.
Diwali(also known as "bandī chōḍ divas") celebrates Hargobind's release from the Gwalior Fort, where he was imprisoned by Jahangir, on 26 October 1619.
Hola Mohallaoccurs the day after Holiand is when the Khalsa Panthgather at Anandpur and display their fighting skills.
Ceremonies and customs
Nanak taught that rituals, religious ceremonies or empty worship is of little use and Sikhs are discouraged from fasting or going on pilgrimages. [cite book | last = Dev | first = Nanak | authorlink = Guru Nanak | title = Guru Granth Sāhib | url=http://www.srigranth.org/servlet/gurbani.gurbani?Action=Page&Param=75&english=t&id=3063#l3063 | accessdate=2006-06-30 | pages=75 | quote=Pilgrimages, fasts, purification and self-discipline are of no use, nor are rituals, religious ceremonies or empty worship.] However, during the period of the later gurus, and due to increased institutionalisation of the religion, some ceremonies and rites did arise. Sikhism is not a proselytizing religion and most Sikhs do not make active attempts to gain converts. However, converts to Sikhism are welcomed, although there is no formal conversion ceremony.
Upon a child's birth, the Guru Granth Sāhib is opened at a random point and the child is named using the first letter on the top left-hand corner of the left page. All boys are given the middle name or surname
Singh, and all girls are given the middle name or surname Kaur. [cite book | last=Loehlin | first=Clinton Herbert | year=1964 | origyear=1958 | edition=Second edition | title=The Sikhs and Their Scriptures | publisher=Lucknow Publishing House | pages=42] Sikhs are joined in wedlock through the "anand kāraj" ceremony. Sikhs are required to marry when they are of a sufficient age (child marriage is taboo), and without regard for the future spouse's caste or descent. The marriage ceremony is performed in the company of the Guru Granth Sāhib; around which the couple circles four times. After the ceremony is complete, the husband and wife are considered "a single soul in two bodies." [cite web | url=http://www.sgpc.net/sikhism/anand-sanskar.html | title=Sikh Reht Maryada - Anand Sanskar : (Sikh Matrimonial Ceremony and Conventions) | accessdate=2006-06-08]
According to Sikh religious rites, neither husband nor wife are permitted to divorce. A Sikh couple that wishes to divorce may be able to do so in a civil court – but this is not condoned. [cite book | last=Mansukhani | first=Gobind Singh | year=1977 | title=Introduction to Sikhism | url=http://allaboutsikhs.com/mansukh/123.htm | publisher=Hemkunt Press | location=India |accessdate=2006-06-11] Upon death, the body of a Sikh is usually cremated. If this is not possible, any means of disposing the body may be employed. The "kīrtan sōhilā" and "ardās" prayers are performed during the funeral ceremony (known as "antim sanskār"). [cite web | url=http://www.sgpc.net/sikhism/antam-sanskar.asp | title=Sikh Reht Maryada - Funeral Ceremonies (Antam Sanskar) | accessdate=2006-06-08]
Baptism and the Khalsa
Khalsa(meaning "pure") is the name given by Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking "ammrit" in a ceremony called " ammrit sañcār". The first time that this ceremony took place was on Vaisakhi, which fell on 30 March 1699 at Anandpur Sahibin India. It was on that occasion that Gobind Singh baptised the Pañj Piārē who in turn baptised Gobind Singh himself.
Sikhsare bound to wear the Five Ks(in Punjabi known as "pañj kakkē" or "pañj kakār"), or articles of faith, at all times. The tenth guru, Gobind Singh, ordered these Five Ks to be worn so that a Sikh could actively use them to make a difference to their own and to others' spirituality. The 5 items are: "kēs" (uncut hair), "unicode|kaṅghā" (small comb), "unicode|kaṛā" (circular heavy metal bracelet), "kirpān" (ceremonial short sword), and "kacchā" (special undergarment). The Five Ks have both practical and symbolic purposes. [cite book | last=Simmonds | first=David | year=1992 | title=Believers All: A Book of Six World Religions | publisher=Nelson Thornes | id = ISBN 0-17-437057-1 | pages=120–121]
Worldwide, there are 25,800,000 (25.8 million) Sikhs, but around 75% of Sikhs live in the Indian state of Punjab, where they are about 60% of the population. Large communities of Sikhs live in the neighboring states, and large communities of Sikhs can be found across
India. However, Sikhs are only about 2% of the Indian population. Migration beginning from the 19th century led to the creation of significant communities in Canada(Brampton & Malton, Ontario; Surrey, British Columbia), the United Kingdom, the Middle East, East Africa, Southeast Asiaand more recently, the United States, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Smaller populations of Sikhs are found in Mauritius, Pakistan, Nepal, Fijiand other countries.
Like the Hindus, many Sikhs are also divided along caste lines, although these divisions exist contrary to the teachings of Sikh Gurus. In addition to social divisions, there are a number of Sikh sectarian groups, such as
Namdharis, Ravidasis, Nirankaris [cite book
last = Thomas
first = Terence
title = The British : Their Religious Beliefs and Practises, 1800-1986
publisher = Routledge
year = 1988
location = Great Britain
pages = Other major religious traditions, 143
isbn = 0415013003] and
Radhasoamis. [cite book
last = Singh
first = Sangat
title = The Sikhs in History
publisher = Singh Brothers
year = 2005
location = Amritsar
pages = 522
isbn = 81-7205-275-8] These groups differ from orthodox Sikhism, and have their own religious and social organisations.
Nihangs tend to have little difference in practice but are considered Sikhs proper by mainstream Sikhism. There is also a sect known as Udasi, founded by Sri Chandwho were initially part of Sikhism but later developed into a monastic order.
*"An index of the most important articles on Sikhism can be found at the
list of Sikhism-related topics."
*"Famous Sikhs can be found at the
list of Prominent Sikhs."
List of Gurudwaras
Gurdwaras in Africa
*Gurdwaras in Asia excluding India, Pakistan
*Gurdwaras in Europe excluding UK
Gurdwaras in India
Gurdwaras in Pakistan
Gurdwaras in Canada
Gurdwaras in the United Kingdom
Gurdwaras in the United States
Gurdwaras in Australia and Oceania
Gurdwaras in South America and Mexico
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Duggal
Given1 = Kartar Singh
Year = 1988
Title = Philosophy and Faith of Sikhism
Publisher= Himalayan Institute Press
ISBN = 0-893-89109-6
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Mann
Given1 = Gurinder Singh
Year = 2001
Title = The Making of Sikh Scripture,
Publisher= Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN = 0-195-13024-3
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Teece
Given1 = Geoff
Year = 2004
Title = Sikhism : Religion in focus
Publisher= Black Rabbit Books
ISBN = 1-583-40469-4
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Parrinder
Given1 = Geoffrey
Year = 1971
Title = World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present
Publisher= Hamlyn Publishing Group, USA
ISBN = 0-87196-129-6
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Rama
Given1 = Swami
Year = 1986
Title = Celestial Song/Gobind Geet: The Dramatic Dialogue Between Guru Gobind Singh and Banda Singh Bahadur
Publisher= Himalayan institute Press
ISBN = 0-893-89103-7
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Shackl, Christopher
Given1 = A.P. Singh
Year = 2005
Title = Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures
Publisher= Routledge (UK)
ISBN = 0-415-26604-1
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Singh
Given1 = Khushwant
Year = 2006
Title = The Illustrated History of the Sikhs
Publisher= Oxford University Press, India
ISBN = 0-195-67747-1
* [http://www.srigurugranthsahib.org/ Sikhism Resource]
* [http://www.srigranth.org/ srigranth.org]
* [http://www.sikh-heritage.co.uk/ sikh-heritage.co.uk]
* [http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/ All-About-Sikhs.com]
* [http://www.gurbani.org/ gurbani.org - Guru Granth Sahib search engine with additional scriptural resources]
* [http://www.sikhismguide.org SikhismGuide.org - Guide to the Sikh religion]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Sikhism — • The religion of a warlike sect of India, having its origin in the Punjab and its centre in the holy City of Amritsar, where their sacred books are preserved and worshipped Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Sikhism Sikhism … Catholic encyclopedia
sikhism — SIKHÍSM s. n. sectă hinduistă, influenţată de islamism, cu caracter antifeudal (în sec. XV). (< fr. sikhisme) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN … Dicționar Român
Sikhism — 1849, from SIKH (Cf. Sikh) + ISM (Cf. ism) … Etymology dictionary
Sikhism — ► NOUN ▪ a monotheistic religion founded in Punjab in the 15th century by Guru Nanak … English terms dictionary
Sikhism — /see kiz euhm/, n. the religion and practices of the Sikhs. [SIKH + ISM] * * * Indian monotheistic religion founded in the late 15th century by Guru Nanak. Most of its 18 million members, called Sikhs, live in the Punjab, the site of their… … Universalium
Sikhism — The Sikh religion emerged at the beginning of 16th century C.E. in the Punjab, a territory hotly contested by Hindus and Muslims at the time. It aimed to find the truths common to both faiths, placing less emphasis on laws and rituals and soon … Encyclopedia of Hinduism
Sikhism — [[t]si͟ːkɪzəm[/t]] N UNCOUNT Sikhism is an Indian religion which separated from Hinduism in the sixteenth century and which teaches that there is only one God … English dictionary
Sikhism — A monotheistic religion originating from the Indian Punjab (annexed by the British) in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries by Nanak, a Hindu influenced by the Islamic Sufi teachings. Nanak believed that both Hinduism and Islam… … Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture
Sikhism — noun see Sikh I … New Collegiate Dictionary
Sikhism — noun A revealed, monotheistic religion originating in northern India, in the 16th century through and his successors … Wiktionary