Malla (Nepal)

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Near the palace of the Malla dyansty rulers in Lalitpur with pillar and statue of king Yoga Narendra Malla (Patan)

The Malla Dynasty was a ruling dynasty of Nepal from the 12th to the 18th century. Malla kings of Nepal visited Lumbini in the 11th and 12th century. It was during their reign the people living in and around the Kathmandu Valley began to be called as "Newars" (or Nepa:mi in Newari language, meaning the citizens of Nepal). The Mallas were the ruling clan of the Malla Mahajanapada. They later shifted to Kathmandu valley. In Nepal, The first Malla king was Abhaya Malla, the son of Ari Deva who ruled kathmandu valley.

Contents

History

Malla ruler Ananta Malla (r.1274 - 1310) was succeeded by his son Jayananda Deva (r.1310 - 1320). His son Jayaraja Deva (1317–1361) became king in 1347. During his reign Sultan of Bengal, Shams-ud-Din Ilyas Shah invaded Nepal. Jayaraja Deva was succeeded by his son Jayarjuna Malla (r. 1361 - 1382). Jayarjuna was overthrown by Jayasthiti Malla in 1382. Jayashtiti Malla (r.1382- 1395) was the most capable ruler of this dynasty who curbed the powers of the feudal chiefs. He is known for structuring of Newar society by implementing the caste system and fixing the status of the different castes. However, some historians and scholars consider this caste system to be the worse aspect of the Malla dynasty as the whole world sees this today as a social taboo.Even to this date, much changes are not seen in this social taboo issue and there has been reported issues of deriding the working class on the basis of their traditional profession and caste. It won't be untrue to say that the whole credit of forming and maintaining the world class Newar culture and tradition goes to the middle caste and lower caste of Newars than the greedy higher caste rulers who used to be considered as deities. He took the titles Dayitanarayana and Asuranarayana. He had three sons who ruled conjointly after their father's death but later his youngest son Jayajyotir Malla became the sole ruler (r.1395 - 1428).

Jayajyotir Malla was succeeded by his son Jayayakshya Malla or Yaksha Malla (r.1428 - 1482). He was the last Malla king of united Nepal, and he divided his kingdom amongst his sons. Most noted Malla kings were:

  • Pratap Malla of Kantipur
  • Siddhi Narasimha Malla of Lalitpur
  • Bhupatindra Malla of Bhaktapur

The Malla dynasty rulers ruled the Kathmandu valley till Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley from them in 1768-69 CE. The last Malla kings were Jayaprakash Malla of Kantipur, Tejnarsingh Malla of Lalitpur and Ranajit Malla of Bhaktapur.

Malla rulers of the whole Kathmandu valley

  1. Ari Deva c.1201 - 1216
  2. Abhaya Malla c.1216 - 1235
  3. Ranasura c.1216
  4. Jayadeva Malla c.1235 - 1258
  5. Jayabhima Deva c.1258 - 1271
  6. Jayasimha Malla c.1271 - 1274
  7. Ananta Malla c.1274 - 1310
  8. Jayananada Deva c.1310 - 1320
  9. Jayari Malla c.1320 - 1344
  10. Jayarudra Malla c.1320 - 1326
  11. Jayaraja Deva c.1347 - 1361
  12. Jayarjuna Malla c.1361 - 1382
  13. Jayasthiti Malla c.1382 - 1395
  14. Jayajyotir Malla c.1395 - 1428
  15. Jayakiti Malla c.1395 - 1403
  16. Jayadharma Malla c.1395 - 1408
  17. Jayayakshya Malla c.1428 - 1482

Malla rulers of Kantipur

Old Royal Palace in Kathmandu (Kantipur)
  1. Ratna Malla 1482 - 1520
  2. Surya Malla 1520 - 1530
  3. Amara Malla 1530 - 1538
  4. Narendra Malla 1538 - 1560
  5. Mahendra Malla 1560–1574
  6. Sadashiva Malla 1574–1583
  7. Shivasimha Malla 1583–1620
  8. Lakshminarasimha Malla 1620 - 1641
  9. Pratap Malla 1641–1674
  10. Chakravartendra Malla 1669
  11. Mahipatendra Malla 1670
  12. Jayanripendra Malla 1674–1680
  13. Parthivendra Malla 1680–1687
  14. Bhupalendra Malla 1687–1700
  15. Bhaskara Malla 1700–1714
  16. Mahendrasimha Malla 1714–1722
  17. Jagajjaya Malla 1722–1736
  18. Jaya Prakash Malla 1736–1746, 1750–1768
  19. Jyoti Prakash Malla 1746–1750

Malla rulers of Lalitpur

Royal Palace and Hindu temples in Patan (Lalitpur)
  1. Purandara Simha c.1580 - 1600
  2. Harihara Simha c.1600 - 1609
  3. Shiva Simha (King of Kantipur) 1609 - 1620
  4. Siddhi Narasimha 1620 - 1661
  5. Srinivasa Malla 1661 - 1685
  6. Yoga Narendra Malla 1685–1705
  7. Loka Prakash Malla 1705–1706
  8. Indra Malla (Purandara Malla) 1706–1709
  9. Vira Narasimha Malla 1709
  10. Vira Mahindra Malla 1709–1715
  11. Riddhi Narasimha 1715–1717
  12. Mahindra Simha (King of Kantipur) 1717–1722
  13. Yoga Prakash Malla 1722–1729
  14. Vishnu Malla 1729–1745
  15. Rajya Prakash Malla 1745–1758
  16. Vishvajit Malla 1758–1760
  17. Jaya Prakash Malla (King of Kantipur) 1760–1761, 1763–1764
  18. Ranajit Malla (King of Bhaktapur) 1762–1763
  19. Dala Mardan Shah 1764–1765
  20. Tej Narasimha Malla 1765–1768

Malla rulers of Bhaktapur

  1. Raya Malla 1482 - 1519
  2. Prana Malla 1519 - 1547
  3. Vishva Malla 1547 - 1560
  4. Trailokya Malla 1560–1613
  5. Jagajjyoti Malla 1613–1637
  6. Naresha Malla 1637–1644
  7. Jagat Prakasha Malla 1644–1673
  8. Jitamitra Malla 1673–1696
  9. Bhupatindra Malla 1696–1722
  10. Ranajit Malla 1722–1769

Template:Malla's in Visakha Patnam

  1. Jagannatham Malla Land Lord from Somalinga Palem

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