Near the palace of the Malla dyansty rulers in Lalitpur with pillar and statue of king Yoga Narendra Malla (Patan)
The Malla Dynasty was a ruling dynasty of Nepal from the 12th to the 18th century. Malla kings of Nepal visited Lumbini in the 11th and 12th century. It was during their reign the people living in and around the Kathmandu Valley began to be called as "Newars" (or Nepa:mi in Newari language, meaning the citizens of Nepal). The Mallas were the ruling clan of the Malla Mahajanapada. They later shifted to Kathmandu valley. In Nepal, The first Malla king was Abhaya Malla, the son of Ari Deva who ruled kathmandu valley.
Malla ruler Ananta Malla (r.1274 - 1310) was succeeded by his son Jayananda Deva (r.1310 - 1320). His son Jayaraja Deva (1317–1361) became king in 1347. During his reign Sultan of Bengal, Shams-ud-Din Ilyas Shah invaded Nepal. Jayaraja Deva was succeeded by his son Jayarjuna Malla (r. 1361 - 1382). Jayarjuna was overthrown by Jayasthiti Malla in 1382. Jayashtiti Malla (r.1382- 1395) was the most capable ruler of this dynasty who curbed the powers of the feudal chiefs. He is known for structuring of Newar society by implementing the caste system and fixing the status of the different castes. However, some historians and scholars consider this caste system to be the worse aspect of the Malla dynasty as the whole world sees this today as a social taboo.Even to this date, much changes are not seen in this social taboo issue and there has been reported issues of deriding the working class on the basis of their traditional profession and caste. It won't be untrue to say that the whole credit of forming and maintaining the world class Newar culture and tradition goes to the middle caste and lower caste of Newars than the greedy higher caste rulers who used to be considered as deities. He took the titles Dayitanarayana and Asuranarayana. He had three sons who ruled conjointly after their father's death but later his youngest son Jayajyotir Malla became the sole ruler (r.1395 - 1428).
Jayajyotir Malla was succeeded by his son Jayayakshya Malla or Yaksha Malla (r.1428 - 1482). He was the last Malla king of united Nepal, and he divided his kingdom amongst his sons. Most noted Malla kings were:
The Malla dynasty rulers ruled the Kathmandu valley till Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley from them in 1768-69 CE. The last Malla kings were Jayaprakash Malla of Kantipur, Tejnarsingh Malla of Lalitpur and Ranajit Malla of Bhaktapur.
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