Immigration law


Immigration law

legal status

Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country.

Immigration law, regarding foreign citizens, is related to nationality law, which governs the legal status of people, in matters such as citizenship. Immigration laws vary from country to country, as well as according to the political climate of the times, as sentiments may sway from the widely inclusive to the deeply exclusive of new immigrants.

Immigration law regarding the citizens of a country is regulated by international law. The United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights [art 12(4)] mandates that all countries allow entry to its own citizens.

Certain countries may maintain rather strict laws which regulate the right of entry and internal rights once established: such as the duration of stay, the right to participate in government. Most countries have laws which designate a process for naturalization, by which immigrants may become citizens.

Immigration law in the UK

British Overseas Citizens have identical legal rights to British citizens - distinguished only in title. British citizenship can be obtained as a right for anybody who was born in Britain, or British overseas territory. It is also available as of right for people of whom one parent is a "British (or British Overseas) [British Nationality Act 1981, s15, as amended by the British Overseas Territorries Act 2002 s1(1)(b) and s2(2)(b).] citizen otherwise than by descent" [British Nationality Act 1981, s2(1)(a), subject to s14] .

For EU citizens

EU citizens, as created by the Treaty of Rome art 17 have the right to work, provide services or self employment in the UK

Immigration Law in the USA

Immigration law is a serious political issue in the USA, as the nation heads towards its 2008 Presidential Elections. Of particular relevance to the debate on immigration is the fact that, due to a backlog in processing immigration applications by United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), many would-be citizens will be ineligible to vote in the 2008 Presidential Campaign.

Control measures

A lot of countries set up customs at entry points to the country (eg at airports, roads near the border, ...) where a traveller's Travel documents are inspected. They usually require documents such as passports (with or without visa), WHO vaccination card, onward tickets and sometimes a presentation of the amount of cash one is carrying (which is used by them to determine how long they allow the traveller to stay). The amount of cash is generally in this region: 500 € = 1 month for poorer countries; and 1000 € = 1 month for (slightly) richer countries. This latter is a measure implemented usually to verify whether the traveller will indeed spend some (serious) amounts of cash within the country. [Handboek voor de wereldreiziger by Frans Timmerhuis]

ee also

* Department of Homeland Security
* Immigration debate
* Immigration to the United States
* Nationality law
* Nativism (politics)
* Passport

References

External links

* [http://www.politicoslatinos.com/2008candidates-videos.html PoliticosLatinos.com] Videos of 2008 US Presidential Election Candidates' Positions regarding Immigration


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