Infobox Australian Place
type = city
name = Sydney
state = nsw
imagesize = 300
caption = The
Sydney Opera Houseand Sydney CBD on Port Jackson
pop = 4,284,379
pop_blank1 = Sydneysider
poprank = 1st
density = 2058
density_footnotes = (2006) [cite web|url=http://abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/45b3371f4a681356ca25740e007c92bf!OpenDocument| title=Explore Your City Through the 2006 Census Social Atlas Series|author=
Australian Bureau of Statistics|date=17 March 2008|accessdate=2008-05-19]
est = 26 January 1788
coordinates = coord|33|51|35.9|S|151|12|40|E|type:town_region:AU-NSW|display=inline,title
area = 12144.6
timezone = AEST
utc = +10
timezone-dst = AEDT
utc-dst = +11
dist1 = 881
dir1 = NE
dist2 = 938
dir2 = S
dist3 = 3970
dir3 = E
location3 = Perth
dist4 = 1406
dir4 = E
dist5 = 4003
dir5 = SE
location5 = Darwin
lga = (38)
county = Cumberland
stategov = various (49)
fedgov = (22)
maxtemp = 21.6
mintemp = 13.7
rainfall = 1214.8
Sydney (pronEng|ˈsɪdniː) is the most populous city in
Australia, with a metropolitan areapopulation of approximately 4.28 million (2006 estimate).Cite web |url=http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/1301.02008?OpenDocument |title=Year Book Australia, 2008 |publisher=Australian Bureau of Statistics |pages=p 194 |accessdate=2008-02-20] It is the state capital of New South Wales, and was the site of the first British colony in Australia. It was established in 1788 at Sydney Coveby Arthur Phillip, leader of the First Fleetfrom Britain.Cite web |url=http://www.ozexperience.com/index.php/travel/about_australia/brief_history_of_australia/ |title=History of Australia |publisher=Oz Experience] A resident of the city is referred to as a Sydneysider.
Sydney is situated on Australia's south-east coast. The city is built around
Port Jackson, which includes Sydney Harbour, leading to the city's nickname, "the Harbour City". It is noted for the Sydney Opera Houseand the Harbour Bridge, and its beaches. The metropolitan areais surrounded by national parks, and contains many bays, rivers and inlets. It is listed as a beta world city by the Loughborough Universitygroup's 1999 inventory. [Cite web |url=http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb5.html |title=Research Bulletin 5: A Roster of World Cities |publisher=Globalization and World Cities |first=J.V. |last=Beaverstock |coauthors=Smith, R.G.; Taylor, P.J.] The city has hosted international sporting, political and cultural events, including the 1938 British Empire Games, 2000 Summer Olympicsand the 2003 Rugby World Cup. In September 2007, the city hosted the leaders of the 21 APECeconomies for APEC Australia 2007, and in July 2008 hosted World Youth Day 2008. The main airport serving Sydney is Sydney Airport.
Sydney is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, which reflects its role as a major destination for immigrants to Australia. [Cite web |url=http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/confer/10/speech44a.htm |work=1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney |title=Designing for Diversity: the Multicultural City |publisher=Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship] According to the Mercer cost of living survey, Sydney is Australia’s most expensive city, and the 15th most expensive in the world. [Cite web |url=http://www.citymayors.com/features/cost_survey.html |title=Cost of living — The world's most expensive cities |publisher=City Mayors]
Radiocarbon dating suggests that the Sydney region has been inhabited by
indigenous Australiansfor at least 30,000 years. [cite news | first=Richard | last=Macey | coauthors= | title=Settlers' history rewritten: go back 30,000 years | date=2007-09-15| publisher= | url =http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/settlers-history-rewritten/2007/09/14/1189276983698.html | work =The Sydney Morning Herald | pages =| accessdate =2007-09-15 | language = ] When the First Fleetarrived in 1788, 4000 to 8000 Aboriginal people lived in the region. The British called them " Eora",Kohen, J. L. 2000. First and last peoples: Aboriginal Sydney. In J. Connell (Ed.). "Sydney the emergence of a global city." pp 76-95. Oxford University PressISBN 0-19-550748-7, pp 76-78, 81-82, 83] because being asked where they came from, these people would answer: "Eora", meaning in their language: "here", or "from this place". There were three language groups in the Sydney region, which were divided into dialects spoken by smaller clans. The principal languages were Darug (the " Cadigal", original inhabitants of the City of Sydney, spoke a coastal dialect of Darug), Dharawal and Guringai. Each clan had a territory; the location of that territory determined the resources available. Although urbanizationhas destroyed most evidence of these settlements (such as shell middens), Sydney and its environs have rock drawings and carvings because of the nature of the rock, Hawkesbury sandstone. [cite news | first=Bruce | last=Elder | title=History set in stone | date=2007-09-07 | publisher=The Age| url=http://www.theage.com.au/news/new-south-wales/history-set-in-stone/2007/09/05/1188783292366.html | accessdate =2007-10-18]
In 1770, British sea captain Lieutenant
James Cooklanded in Botany Bayon the Kurnell Peninsula. It is here that James Cook made first contact with an Aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/11/10/1036308574533.html] .. Under instruction from the British government, a convict settlement was founded by Arthur Phillip, who arrived at Botany Bay with a fleet of 11 ships on 20 January 1788. This site was soon found to be unsuitable for habitation, owing to poor soil and a lack of reliable fresh water. Phillip founded the colony, further up the coast, at Sydney Coveon Port Jacksonon 26 January 1788. He named it after the British Home Secretary, Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, in recognition of Sydney's role in issuing the charter authorising Phillip to establish a colony.Fact|date=February 2007 In April 1789 a disease, thought to be smallpox, killed an estimated 500 to 1000 Aboriginal people between Broken Bayand Botany Bays. There was violent resistance to British settlement, notably by the warrior Pemulwuyin the area around Botany Bay, and conflicts were common in the area surrounding the Hawkesbury River. By 1820 there were only a few hundred Aborigines and Governor Macquarie had begun initiatives to 'civilize, Christianize and educate' the Aborigines by removing them from their clans.
Macquarie's tenure as
Governor of New South Waleswas a period when Sydney was improved from its basic beginnings. Roads, bridges, wharves and public buildings were constructed by British and Irish convicts, and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, well-established thoroughfares and an organised constabulary. The 1830s and 1840s were periods of urban development, including the development of the first suburbs, as the town grew rapidly when ships began arriving from Britain and Ireland with immigrantslooking to start a new life in a new country. On 20 July 1842 the municipal council of Sydney was incorporated and the town was declared the first city in Australia, with Charles H. Chambers the first mayor. [ "Australian Encyclopaedia" Volume 2, p 524, Angus and Robertson Limited, 1926 ] The first of several gold rushes started in 1851, and the port of Sydney has since seen many waves of people arriving from around the world. Rapid suburban development began in the last quarter of the 19th century with the advent of steam powered tramways and railways. With industrialisation Sydney expanded rapidly, and by the early 20th century it had a population well in excess of one million. The Great Depressionhit Sydney badly. One of the highlights of the Depression era, however, was the completion of the Sydney Harbour Bridgein 1932. [cite web
url = http://www.harbourbridge.com.au/hbpages/historycontx.html
title = Brief History of the Sydney Harbour Bridge
accessdate = 2006-10-08
author = Harbour Bridge Views
year = 2007]
A rivalry has traditionally existed between Sydney and
Melbournesince the gold rushes of the 1850s grew the capital of Victoria into Australia's largest and richest city. [Farrelly, Elizabeth [http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/how-could-sydney-get-it-so-wrong/2006/11/04/1162340054054.html How could Sydney get it so wrong?] Sydney Morning Herald, 4 November 2006] Sydney overtook Melbournein population in the early years of the 20th century, [ [http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/ahc/publications/commission/books/linking-a-nation/chapter-6.html Linking a Nation: Australia's Transport and Communications 1788 - 1970] ] and has remained the largest city in Australia since this time. During the 1970s and 1980s Sydney's CBD with the Reserve Bank and Australian Stock Exchangeclearly surpassed Melbourne as the nation's financial capital. [Elias, David [http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/12/30/1072546531264.html?from=storyrhs Tell Melbourne it's over, we won] Sydney Morning Herald, 31 December 2003] Throughout the 20th century, especially in the decades immediately following World War II, Sydney continued to expand as large numbers of European and later Asian immigrants populated the metropolitan area. The culture brought about by immigrants was a major factor in the city's diverse and highly cosmopolitan atmosphere.
Sydney's urban area is in a coastal basin, which is bordered by the
Pacific Oceanto the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury Riverto the north and the Royal National Parkto the south. It lies on a submergent coastline, where the oceanlevel has risen to flood deep river valleys ( ria) carved in the hawkesbury sandstone. Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria and is the largest natural harbour in the world. [ [http://www.mpiweb.org/CMS/mpiweb/mpicontent.aspx?id=3918 Showcase Destinations Sydney, Australia: The Harbour City] by David Latta] The Sydney area is not affected by significant earthquakes. The urban area has around 70 harbour and ocean beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach. Sydney's urban area covers convert|1687|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on as at 2001. [ name="abs_2016_0"> [http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/subscriber.nsf/log?openagent&20160_2001.pdf&2016.0&Publication&735A104E4E83C6E2CA256CF40001D92A&0&2001&25.03.2003&Latest 2016.0 Census of Population and Housing: Selected Characteristics for Urban Centres, Australia] , Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003-03-26] The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area [" [http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/32eb1b908521ad75ca2571220079feee!OpenDocument#M 1217.0.55.001 - Glossary of Statistical Geography Terminology, 2003] ", Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003] and covers convert|12145|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on. [http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/subscriber.nsf/log?openagent&20320_2001.pdf&2032.0&Publication&6E673B244F83579CCA257156007B9D31&0&2001&16.01.2004&Latest2016.0 "2032.0 - Census of Population and Housing: Australia in Profile – A Regional Analysis, 2001"] , Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004-01-16] This area includes the Central Coast, the Blue Mountains, and national parks and other unurbanised land.
Geographically, Sydney lies over two regions: the
Cumberland Plain, a relatively flat region lying to the south and west of the harbour, and the Hornsby Plateau, a sandstone plateau lying mainly to the north of the harbour and dissected by steep valleys. The parts of the city with the oldest European development are located in the flat areas south of the harbour. The North Shore was slower to develop because of its hilly topography and lack of access across the harbour. The Sydney Harbour Bridgewas opened in 1932 and linked the North Shore to the rest of the city.
clear=bothSydney has a
temperate, oceanic climatewith warm summers and cool winters, and rainfall spread throughout the year. [http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/bioregions/SydneyBasin-Climate.htm] [http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/environ/travel/map.shtml] The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. The warmest month is January, with an average air temperature range at Observatory Hill of 18.6-25.8 °C (65.5-78.4 °F) and an average of 14.6 days a year over convert|30|°C|°F|1|lk=on|abbr=on. The maximum recorded temperature was convert|45.3|°C|°F|1|abbr=on on 14 January 1939 at the end of a 4-day heat waveacross Australia. [Bureau of Meteorology. 2006. [http://www.bom.gov.au/announcements/media_releases/nsw/20060201.shtml Climate summary for Sydney, January 2006] ] The winter is mildly cool, with temperatures rarely dropping below convert|5|°C|°F|0|abbr=on in coastal areas. The coldest month is July, with an average range of 8-16.2 °C (46.4-61.2 °F). The lowest recorded minimum at Observatory Hill was convert|2.1|°C|°F|1|abbr=on. Rainfall is fairly evenly divided between summer and winter, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year, when easterly winds dominate. The average annual rainfall, with moderate to low variability, is convert|1217|mm|in|0|abbr=on, falling on an average 138 days a year. [Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2005. [http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_066062.shtml Climate averages] ; Ellyard, D. 1994. Droughts and Flooding Rains. Angus & Robertson ISBN 0-207-18557-3] Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836. [MacDonnell, Freda. Thomas Nelson (Australia) Limited, 1967. Before King’s Cross] However, a July 2008 fall of graupel, or soft hail, mistaken by many for snow, has raised the possibility that the 1836 event was not snow, either. [cite news|url=http://www.news.com.au/couriermail/story/0,20797,24085664-5003402,00.html?from=public_rss|title=Sydney weather hail, not snow|date=27 July 2008|work=AAP|accessdate=2008-08-11]
The city is not affected by cyclones. The
El NiñoSouthern Oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, notably in 1994 and 2001–02 — these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The city is also prone to severe hail storms and wind storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which severely damaged Sydney's eastern and city suburbs. The storm produced massive hailstones of at least convert|9|cm|in|1|abbr=on in diameter and resulting in insurance losses of around AUD $1.7 billion in less than five hours. [cite web | url = http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/nsw/sevwx/14april1999.shtml | title = The Sydney Hailstorm - 14 April 1999 | publisher = Bureau of Meteorology|accessdate = 2006-10-05] The city is also prone to flash floodingfrom enormous amounts of rain caused by East Coast Lows (a low pressure depression which deepens off the state usually in winter and early spring which can bring significant damage by heavy rain, cyclonic winds and huge swells). The most notable event was the great Sydney flood which occurred on 6 August 1986 and dumped a record convert|327.6|mm|in|1|abbr=on on the city in 24 hours. This caused major traffic problems and damage in many parts of the metropolitan area. [ [http://www.bom.gov.au/lam/climate/levelthree/c20thc/cyclone8.htm Rain in Sydney, 1986] in "Australian Climate Extremes", Bureau of Meteorology, accessed 9 September 2006.]
The Bureau of Meteorology has reported that 2002 through 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859. 2004 had an average daily maximum temperature of 23.39 °C, 2005 - 23.35 °C, 2002 - 22.91 °C and 2003 - 22.65 °C. The average daily maximum between 1859 and 2004 was convert|21.6|°C|°F|1|abbr=on. For the first nine months of 2006 the mean temperature was convert|18.41|°C|°F|1|abbr=on; the warmest year previously was 2004 with convert|18.51|°C|°F|2|abbr=on. Since November 2003, there have been only two months in which the average daily maximum was below average: March 2005 (about 1 °C below average) [ [http://www.bom.gov.au/announcements/media_releases/nsw/20050331.shtml Cool, cloudy and rainy end to March in Sydney] in "Sydney Climate Summary — NSW Regional Office", Bureau of Meteorology, accessed 21 October 2007.] and June 2006 (0.7 °C below average). [ [http://www.bom.gov.au/announcements/media_releases/nsw/20060703.shtml Sydney has coldest June in 24 years] in "Sydney Monthly Climate Summary — NSW Regional Office", Bureau of Meteorology, accessed 21 October 2007.]
The summer of 2007-08 proved to be one of the coolest on record. The Bureau of Meteorology reported that it was the coolest summer in 11 years, the wettest summer in six years, and one of only three summers in recorded history to lack a maximum temperature above convert|31|°C|°F|. [ [http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/current/season/nsw/sydney.shtml Sydney has coolest summer in 11 years] in "Sydney Climate Summary — NSW Regional Office", Bureau of Meteorology, accessed 25 March 2008.]
Sydney's central business district (CBD) extends southwards for about 3 kilometres (1.25 mi) from
Sydney Coveto the area around Central station. The Sydney CBD is bounded on the east side by a chain of parkland, and the west by Darling Harbour, a tourist and nightlife precinct.
Although the CBD dominated the city's business and cultural life in the early days, other business/cultural districts have developed in a radial pattern since
World War II. As a result, the proportion of white-collar jobs located in the CBD declined from more than 60 per cent at the end of World War II to less than 30 per cent in 2004.Fact|date=February 2007 Together with the commercial district of North Sydney, joined to the CBD by the Harbour Bridge, the most significant outer business districts are Parramatta [cite web
title = Parramatta City Centre
publisher = Department of Planning
accessdate =2007-10-29 ] in the central-west, Penrith [cite web
title = Penrith City Centre
publisher = Department of Planning
accessdate =2007-10-29 ] in the west, Bondi Junction in the east, Liverpool [cite web
title = Liverpool City Centre
publisher = Department of Planning
accessdate =2007-10-29 ] in the southwest, Chatswood to the north, and Hurstville to the south.The extensive area covered by urban Sydney is formally divided into 642 [cite web | title = List of Official Sydney Suburbs | work = | publisher = | date = 2008-08-02 | url =http://www.walksydneystreets.net/suburbssydneyall.htm | accessdate =2008-08-02 ]
suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as 40 [cite web | title = List of Official Sydney Local Government Areas | work = | publisher = | date = 2008-08-02 | url =http://www.walksydneystreets.net/suburbssydneyall.htm | accessdate =2008-08-02 ] local government areas. There is no city-wide government, but the Government of New South Walesand its agencies have extensive responsibilities in providing metropolitan services. [Department of Local Government. Local Council Boundaries [http://www.dlg.nsw.gov.au/dlg/dlghome/dlg_Regions.asp?region=SO®iontype=1 Sydney Outer (SO)] ] The City of Sydneyitself covers a fairly small area comprising the central business district and its neighbouring inner-citysuburbs. In addition, regional descriptions are used informally to conveniently describe larger sections of the urban area. These include Eastern Suburbs,
Lower North Shore,
Southern Sydney, South-eastern Sydney, South-western Sydney, Sutherland Shireand Western Sydney. However, many suburbsare not conveniently covered by any of these categories.
The largest economic sectors in Sydney, as measured by the number of people employed, include property and business services, retail, manufacturing, and health and community services.Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2002. [http://email@example.com/Lookup/105Snapshot12001 Sydney - Basic Community Profile and Snapshot - 2001 Census] ] Since the 1980s, jobs have moved from manufacturing to the services and information sectors. Sydney provides approximately 25 percent of the country's total
GDP. [http://www.sydneymedia.com.au/html/2290-city-commerce.asp City Commerce] - City of Sydney Media Centre. Accessed 21 July 2006.] The Australian Securities Exchangeand the Reserve Bank of Australiaare located in Sydney, as are the headquarters of 90 banks and more than half of Australia's top companies, and the regional headquarters for around 500 multinational corporations. Of the ten largest corporations in Australia (based on revenue), [ [http://www.brw.com.au/lists/detail/?listId=5 BRW 1000] ] four have headquarters in Sydney (Caltex Australia, the Commonwealth Bank, Westpac, and Woolworths). Fox Studios Australiahas large movie studios in the city. The Sydney Futures Exchange(SFE) is one of the Asia Pacific's largest financial futures and options exchanges, with 64.3 million contracts traded during 2005. It is the 12th largest futures market in the world and the 19th largest including options. [ [http://www.sfe.com.au/index.html?content/sfe/intro.htm Overview] , Sydney Futures Exchange website, accessed 3 July 2006]
The city has the highest median household income of any major city in Australia (US$42,559 PPP). As of 2004, the
unemployment ratein Sydney was 4.9 percent.Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2005. [http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/105Economy12000-2004?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=105&issue=2000-2004&num=&view= Sydney Statistical Division] .] According to " The Economist" Intelligence Unit's Worldwide cost of livingsurvey, Sydney is the sixteenth most expensive city in the world, while a UBSsurvey ranks Sydney as 18th in the world in terms of net earnings. [cite web
title =London is the most expensive city in the world while Swiss cities are home to highest earners
publisher =City Mayors
accessdate = 2007-10-28 ] As of 20 September 2007, Sydney has the highest median house price of any Australian capital city at $559,000. [Real Estate Institute of Australia. [http://www.reiaustralia.com.au/media/releases.asp Still strong confidence in the housing market] , Press Release] Sydney also has the highest median rent prices of any Australian city at $450 a week. A report published by the OECD in November 2005, shows that Australia has the Western World's highest housing prices when measured against rental yields. [Boilling, M. 2 February 2006. [http://www.heraldsun.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5478,18010915%5E2862,00.html City among most costly] , "Herald Sun"] Sydney has been classified as a "Beta"
global cityby the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network. [Beaverstock, J.V. et al [http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb5.html A Roster of World Cities] ]
Shopping locations in the central business district include the
Queen Victoria Building, the pedestrian mall on Pitt Street, and international luxury boutiques in the quieter, northern end of Castlereagh St. Oxford Street in Paddington and Crown Street, Woollahra are home to boutiques selling more niche products, and the main streets of Newtown and Enmore cater more towards students and alternative lifestyles. Many of the large regional centres around the metropolitan area also contain large shopping complexes, such as Parramatta in Western Sydney, Bondi Junction in the Eastern Suburbs and Chatswood on the North Shore, most of which are Westfield brand shopping centres.
Sydney received 7.8 million domestic visitors and 2.5 million international visitors in 2004. [Tourism NSW. 2004. [http://corporate.tourism.nsw.gov.au/corporatelive/downloads/research/datacard%202004%20forecasts%20(external%20use).pdf Tourism Data Card - Forecasts, Economic Impacts and selected Regional Data - 2004] ]
The 2006 census reported 4,119,190 residents in the Sydney Statistical Division,Census 2006 AUS | id = 105 | name = Sydney (Statistical Division) | quick = on | accessdate = 2007-10-31] of which 3,641,422 lived in Sydney's urban area.Census 2006 AUS | id = UCL171400 | name = Sydney (Urban Centre/Locality)|quick = on|accessdate=2007-11-02] Inner Sydney was the most densely populated place in Australia with 4,023 persons per square kilometre. [Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2005. [http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/105052003?OpenDocument&tabname=Details&prodno=10505&issue=2003&num=&view=& National Regional Profile: Inner Sydney] ] The statistical division is larger in area than the urban area, as it allows for predicted growth. A resident of Sydney is commonly referred to as a "Sydneysider". [about.com, Strine and Aussie Slang. [http://goaustralia.about.com/cs/language/a/strines.htm Sanger to Sydneysider] ] In the 2006 census, the most common self-described ancestries identified for Sydney residents were Australian, English, Irish, Scottish and Chinese. The Census also recorded that two per cent of Sydney's population identified as being of indigenous origin and 31.7 per cent were born overseas. The three major sources of immigrants are the United Kingdom, China and New Zealand. Significant numbers of immigrants also came from
Vietnam, Lebanon, Italy, India and the Philippines. Most Sydneysiders are native speakers of English; many have a second language, the most common being Arabic (predominately Lebanese), Chinese languages (mostly Mandarin or Cantonese), and Italian. Sydney has the seventh largest percentage of a foreign born population in the world, ahead of cities such as the highly multicultural Londonand Paris. [http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2004/pdf/hdr04_chapter_55.pdf]
The median age of a Sydney resident is 34, with 12 per cent of the population over 65 years. 15.2 per cent of Sydney residents have educational attainment equal to at least a
bachelor's degree, [The City of Sydney Community Profile — Sydney Statistical Division. 2006. [http://www.id.com.au/profile/default.asp?id=148&gid=350&pg=8 What are our qualifications?] , profile.id] which is lower than the national average of 19 per cent.Fact|date=February 2007
In the 2006 census, 64 per cent of the Sydney residents identified as
Christians, 14.1 per cent had no religion, 10.4 per cent left the question blank, 3.9 per cent were Muslims, 3.7 per cent were Buddhists, 1.7 per cent were Hindus and 0.9 per cent were Jews.
Sydney hosts many different festivals and some of Australia's largest social and cultural events. These include the
Sydney Festival, Australia's largest arts festival which is a celebration involving both indoor and free outdoor performances throughout January; the Biennale of Sydney, established in 1973; the Big Day Out, a travelling rock music festival which originated in Sydney; the Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras along Oxford Street; the Sydney Film Festivaland many other smaller film festivals such as the short film Tropfestand Flickerfest. Australia's premier prize for portraiture, the Archibald Prizeis organised by the Art Gallery of New South Wales. The Sydney Royal Easter Showis held every year at Sydney Olympic Park, the final of Australian Idoltakes place on the steps of the Opera House, and Australian Fashion Weektakes place in April/May. Also, Sydney's New Years Eveand Australia Daycelebrations are the largest in Australia.
Entertainment and performing arts
Sydney has a wide variety of cultural institutions. Sydney's iconic Opera House has five theatres capable of hosting a range of performance styles; it is the home of
Opera Australia—the third busiest opera company in the world, and the Sydney Symphony. [cite web|url=http://www.visitvictoria.com/displayobject.cfm/objectid.0C4C8443-E83A-4CA6-8E5033B9A6089DD3/|title=Autumn Opera Season|publisher=Tourism Victoria|accessdate=2007-10-15] Other venues include the Sydney Town Hall, City Recital Hall, the State Theatre, the Royal Theatre, and the Wharf Theatre.The Sydney Dance Companyunder the leadership of Graeme Murphyduring the late 20th century has also gained acclaim. The Sydney Theatre Companyhas a regular roster of local plays, such as noted playwright David Williamson, classics and international playwrights. In 2007, New Theatre (Newtown)celebrated 75 years of continuous production in Sydney. Other important theatre companies in Sydney include Company B and Griffin Theatre Company. From the 1940s through to the 1970s the Sydney Push, a group of authors and political activists whose members included Germaine Greer, influenced the city's cultural life.
National Institute of Dramatic Art, based in Kensington, boasts internationally famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmannand Cate Blanchett. Sydney's role in the film industry has increased since the opening of Fox Studios Australiain 1998. Prominent films which have been filmed in the city include Moulin Rouge!, Mission Impossible II, Star Warsepisodes and , Superman Returns, Dark City, Son of the Mask, Stealth, Dil Chahta Hai, Happy Feetand The Matrix. Films using Sydney as a setting include Finding Nemo, Strictly Ballroom, Mission Impossible II, Muriel's Wedding, Our Lips Are Sealed, Independence Dayand Dirty Deeds. Many Bollywoodmovies have also been filmed in Sydney including Singh Is Kinng, Bachna Ae Haseeno, Chak De India, Heyy Babyy. As of 2006, over 229 films have been set in, or featured Sydney. [ [http://www.imdb.com/find?s=kw&q=Sydney Based on IMBd search] ]
Sydney's most popular nightspots include Kings Cross, Oxford Street,
Darling Harbour, Circular Quayand The Rockswhich all contain various bars, nightclubs and restaurants. Star City Casino, is Sydney's only casino and is situated around Darling Harbour. There are also many traditional pubs, cafes and restaurants in inner city areas such as Newtown, Balmain and Leichhardt. Sydney's main live music hubs include areas such as Newtown and Annandale, which nurtured acts such as AC/DC, Midnight Oiland INXS. Other popular nightspots tend to be spread throughout the city in areas such as Bondi, Manly, Cronulla and Parramatta.
Sydney has several popular museums. The biggest are the
Australian Museum(natural history and anthropology), the Powerhouse Museum(science, technology and design), the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Museum of Contemporary Art and the Australian National Maritime Museum.
port and outdoor activities
Sport in Sydneyis an important part of the culture. The area is well endowed with open spaces and access to waterways, and has many natural areas even within the city centre. Within the Sydney central business districtare the Chinese Garden of Friendship, Hyde Park, The Domainand the Royal Botanic Gardens. The metropolitan area contains several national parks, including the Royal National Park, the second oldest national park in the world and several parks in Sydney's far west which are part of the World Heritage listed Greater Blue Mountains Area. [NPWS website, [http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/parks.nsf/parkContent/N0030?OpenDocument&ParkKey=N0030&Type=Xo Royal National Park] ]
The most popular sport in Sydney is
Rugby League. The sport was brought from England to Sydney before expanding to the rest of Australia. The city is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby Leaguedomestic competition. These are Canterbury Bulldogs, Cronulla Sharks, Manly Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roostersand Wests Tigers. Despite the final of the 2008 Rugby League World Cupbeing held in Brisbane, Sydney will host eight World Cup games including one of the Semi-Finals.Sydney is home to the Australian Football League's Sydney Swansand the A-League's Sydney FC. The city is represented by one team called the Sydney Spirit in the National Basketball League, netball's New South Wales Swiftsand is the base for New South Wales teams in the Super 14( NSW Waratahs) and Sheffield Shield(Blues) competitions. Large sporting events, such as the NRL Grand Final, are regularly held at the ANZ Stadium, the main stadium for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Other events in Sydney include the start of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, the Golden Slipperhorse race, and the City to Surffoot race. Sydney is also home to one of Australia's premier motorsport venues, Eastern Creek International Raceway.
Sydney has two main daily
newspapers. " The Sydney Morning Herald" is a broadsheet, and is Sydney's newspaper of record with extensive coverage of domestic and international news, culture and business. It is also the oldest extant newspaper in Australia, having been published regularly since 1831. The Herald's competitor, "The Daily Telegraph", is a News Corporation-owned tabloid. Both papers have tabloid counterparts published on Sunday, The "Sun-Herald" and the "Sunday Telegraph", respectively.The four commercial televisionnetworks (Seven, Nine, Ten) and TVS, as well as the government national broadcast services (ABC and SBS) each have a presence in Sydney. Historically, the networks have been based in the northern suburbs, but the last decade has seen several move to the inner city. "Nine" has kept its headquarters north of the harbour, in Willoughby. "Ten" has its studios in a redeveloped section of the inner-city suburb of Pyrmont, and "Seven" also has headquarters in Pyrmont, production studios at Epping as well as a purpose-built news studio in Martin Placein the CBD. The ABC has a large headquarters and production facility in the inner-city suburb of Ultimo and SBS has its studios at Artarmon. Foxteland Optus both supply pay-TV over their cable services to most parts of the urban area. The five free-to-air networks have provided digital televisiontransmissions in Sydney since January 2000. Additional services recently introduced include the ABC's second channel ABC2 (Channel 22), SBS's world news service SBS2 (Channel 33), an on-air program guide (Channel 4), a news, sport, and weather items channel (Channel 41), ChannelNSW: Government and Public Information (Channel 45), [cite web
Government of New South Wales
accessdate =2007-10-29 ] Australian Christian Channel (Channel 46), MacquarieBank TV (Channel 47), SportsTAB (Channel 48), Expo Home Shopping (Channel 49), and Federal parliamentary broadcasts (Channel 401 to 408).
Many AM and FM government, commercial and community
radioservices broadcast in the Sydney area. The local ABC radio station is 702 ABC Sydney(formerly 2BL). The talkback radiogenre is dominated by the perennial rivals 2GBand 2UE. Popular music stations include Triple M, 2Day FMand Nova 96.9, which generally targets people under 40. In the older end of the music radio market, Vega and MIX 106.5 target the 25 to 54 age group, while WS-FM targets the 40 to 54 age group with their Classic Hits format mostly focusing on the 70s & 80s. Triple J(national), 2SERand FBi Radioprovide a more independent, local and alternative sound. There are also a number of community stations broadcasting to a particular language group or local area.
Certain areas in Sydney are also being used for tests of digital radio broadcasting, [ [http://www.digitalradioaustralia.com.au/index.cfm?page_id=1015 Digital Radio Australia: Stations ] ] which the government plans to roll out in the future to replace the existing analogue AM and FM networks in much the same way as they are doing with analogue and digital television at present.
Apart from the limited role of the Cumberland County Council from 1945–1964, there has never been an overall governing body for the Sydney metropolitan area; instead, the metropolitan area is divided into local government areas (LGAs). These areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales State Government, such as planning and garbage collection.
City of Sydneyincludes the central business area and some adjoining inner suburbs, and has in recent years been expanded through amalgamation with adjoining local government areas, such as South Sydney. It is led by the elected Lord Mayor of Sydneyand a council. The Lord Mayor, however, is sometimes treated as a representative of the whole city, for example during the Olympics.
Most citywide government activities are controlled by the state government. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, and planning of major infrastructure projects. Because a large proportion of New South Wales' population lives in Sydney, state governments have traditionally been reluctant to allow the development of citywide governmental bodies, which would tend to rival the state government. For this reason, Sydney has always been a focus for the politics of both State and Federal Parliaments. For example, the boundaries of the City of Sydney LGA have been significantly altered by state governments on at least four occasions since 1945, with expected advantageous effect to the governing party in the
New South WalesParliament at the time. [Golder, Hilary, "Sacked: Removing and Remaking the Sydney City Council", Sydney, 2004.]
Different organisations have varying definitions of which councils make up Sydney. The Local Government Association of New South Wales considers all LGAs lying entirely in Cumberland County as part of its 'Metro' group, which excludes Camden (classed in its 'Country' group). [cite web|url=http://www.lgsa.org.au/www/html/323-local-government-association.asp?intSiteID=1|publisher="Local Government and Shires Associations of New South Wales"|title="About the Local Government Association of NSW"] The
Australian Bureau of Statisticsdefines a Sydney Statistical Division(the population figures of which are used in this article) that includes all of the above councils as well as Wollondilly, the Blue Mountains, Hawkesbury, Gosford and Wyong. [cite web|url=http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/1216.0Jul%202007?OpenDocument|publisher=Australian Bureau of Statistics|title=1216.0 - Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), Jul 2007]
Sydney is home to some of Australia's most prominent universities, and is the site of Australia's first university, the
University of Sydney, established in 1850. There are five other public universities operating primarily in Sydney: the Australian Catholic University(two out of six campuses), Macquarie University, University of New South Wales, the University of Technology, Sydneyand the University of Western Sydney. Other universities which operate secondary campuses in Sydney include the University of Notre Dame Australiaand the University of Wollongong.
There are four multi-campus government-funded
Technical and Further Education(TAFE) institutes in Sydney, which provide vocational training at a tertiary level: the Sydney Institute of Technology, Northern Sydney Institute of TAFE, Western Sydney Institute of TAFEand South Western Sydney Institute of TAFE.
Sydney has public, denominational and independent schools. Public schools, including pre-schools, primary and secondary schools, and special schools are administered by the
New South Wales Department of Education and Training. There are four state-administered education areas in Sydney, that together co-ordinate 919 schools.Fact|date=February 2007 Of the 30 selective high schools in the state, 25 are in Sydney. [cite web|url=http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/schoolfind/types/shs_ahs_details.php|title=List of selective and agricultural high schools|accessdate=2007-08-08|author=New South Wales Department of Education and Training|authorlink=New South Wales Department of Education and Training|year=2005]
Government of New South Walesoperates the public hospitals in the Sydney metropolitan region. Management of these hospitals and other specialist health facilities is coordinated by 4 Area Health Services: Sydney South West (SSWAHS), Sydney West (SWAHS), Northern Sydney and Central Coast (NSCCAHS) and the South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra (SESIAHS) Area Health Services. There are also a number of private hospitals in the city, many of which are aligned with religious organisations.
Most Sydney residents travel by car through the system of roads, and
motorways. The most important trunk routes in the urban area form the nine Metroadsystems, which includes the convert|110|km|mi|0|abbr=on Sydney Orbital Network. Sydney is also served by extensive train, taxi, bus and ferry networks.
Sydney trains are run by
CityRail, a corporation of the New South Wales State Government. Trains run as suburban commuter rail services in the outer suburbs, then converge in an underground city loop service in the central business district. In the years following the 2000 Olympics, CityRail's performance declined significantly. [cite web
title =Yearly On-Time Running
accessdate =2007-10-28 ] In 2005, CityRail introduced a revised timetable and employed more drivers. [CityRail (2005). [http://www.cityrail.info/news/timetable2005.jsp Times are changing at CityRail] ] A large infrastructure project, the Clearways project, is scheduled to be completed by 2010. [CityRail (2002). [http://www.cityrail.info/news/clearways.jsp Rail Clearways Plan] ] [cite news
coauthors= A. Smith.
title=Panic stations over CityRail driver exodus
The Sydney Morning Herald
accessdate=2007-10-28 ] [cite news
The Sydney Morning Herald
accessdate=2007-10-28 ] In 2007 a report found Cityrail performed poorly compared to many metro services from other world cities. [cite news
title=Aussie train services 'among world's worst'
Sydney has one privately operated
light railline, the Metro Light Rail, running from Central Station to Lilyfieldalong a former goods train line. There is also a small monorail which runs in a loop around the main shopping district and Darling Harbour. Sydney was once served by an extensive tram network, which was progressively closed in the 1950s and 1960s. Most parts of the metropolitan area are served by buses, many of which follow the pre-1961 tram routes. In the city and inner suburbs the state-owned Sydney Buseshas a monopoly. In the outer suburbs, service is contracted to many private bus companies. Construction of a network of rapid bus transitways in areas not previously well served by public transport began in 1999, and the first of these, the Liverpool-Parramatta Rapid Bus Transitwayopened in February 2003. Sydney Ferries, another State government-owned organisation, runs numerous commuter and tourist ferry services on Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River. Sydney Airport, located in the suburb of Mascot, is Sydney's main airport, and is one of the oldest continually operated airports in the world [http://www.sydneyairport.com.au/NR/rdonlyres/353DC91E-A259-449B-8B68-C8E88CB58691/0/FactSheetHistory1.pdf] . The smaller Bankstown Airportmainly serves private and general aviation. There are light aviation airfields at Hoxton Parkand Camden. RAAF Base Richmondlies to the north-west of the city. The question of the need for a Second Sydney Airporthas raised much controversy. A 2003 study found that Sydney Airport can manage as Sydney's sole international airportfor 20 years with a significant increase in airport traffic predicted. [Finding of "The Sydney Airport Master Plan (2003)" referred to in: cite web |url=http://parlinfoweb.aph.gov.au/piweb/view_document.aspx?ID=2422677&TABLE=HANSARDR| title=Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport (Question No. 421) | publisher= Parliament of Australia|work= Hansard| date= 2005-05-10|accessdate=2007-10-28] The resulting expansion of the airport would have a substantial impact on the community, including additional aircraft noiseaffecting residents. Land has been acquired at Badgerys Creek for a second airport, the site acting as a focal point of political argument. [cite news | date= 2007-08-19| work= The Sunday Telegraph | last=Dickens | first=Jim | title= Airport row to lift off again | publisher = News Corporation]
Water storage and supply for Sydney is managed by the
Sydney Catchment Authority, which is an agency of the NSW Government that sells bulk water to Sydney Waterand other agencies. Water in the Sydney catchment is chiefly stored in dams in the Upper Nepean Scheme, the Blue Mountains, Woronora Dam, Warragamba Damand the Shoalhaven Scheme. [Sydney Catchment Authority. [http://www.sca.nsw.gov.au/dams-and-water/water-supply-history History of Sydney's Water Supply System] ] Historically low water levels in the catchment have led to water use restrictions and the NSW government is investigating alternative water supplyoptions, including grey water recycling and the construction of a seawater reverse osmosisdesalination plant at Kurnell. [Sydney Water. [http://www.sydneywater.com.au/EnsuringTheFuture/Desalination/index.cfm Sydney's desalination project] ] Sydney Water also collects the wastewater and sewage produced by the city.
Three companies supply natural gas and electricity to Sydney:
Energy Australia, AGL and Integral Energy. Numerous telecommunications companies operate in Sydney providing terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services.
* [http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-an6820588 Max Dupain's photographic collection Sydney Nostalgia 1937-1980, National Library of Australian, Canberra]
* [http://www.livingharbour.net/aboriginal/introduction.htm Australian Museum: Aboriginal people of coastal Sydney]
* [http://www.metrostrategy.nsw.gov.au Sydney Metropolitan Strategy]
* [http://www.nsw.gov.au/weather.asp Sydney Weather: Current temperatures and Forecast (NSW Government)]
* [http://www.bom.gov.au/cgi-bin/wrap_fwo.pl?IDN10064.txt Sydney Weather Forecast (Bureau of Met)]
* [http://www.usyd.edu.au/su/macleay/81106/huntbplaces.html Historic photographs of Sydney buildings]
* [http://www.atmitchell.com/journeys/arts/photography/exposed/ Sydney Exposed - Photographic collection from the State Library of NSW]
* [http://www.street-directory.com.au Online] [http://www.whereis.com Street] [http://maps.google.com.au/ Directory]
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