Infobox World Heritage Site
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites
State Party = flag|United Kingdom
Type = Cultural
Criteria = i, ii, iii
ID = 373
Region = Europe
Year = 1986
Session = 10th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/373Location map|Wiltshire
lat = 51.1789
long = -1.8262
caption = Map showing the location of Stonehenge
float = right
background = white
width = 250
Stonehenge is a
prehistoric monumentlocated in the English county of Wiltshire, about convert|3.2|km west of Amesburyand convert|13|km north of Salisbury. One of the most famous prehistoric sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones.
Archaeologists had believed that the iconic stone monument was erected around 2500 BC, as described in the chronology below, although this has since been advanced to 2400-2200 BC [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = Tim Darvill and Geoff Wainwright | title =Dig pinpoints Stonehenge origins | work = | publisher =
BBC| date =2008-09-21 | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7625145.stm | format = | doi = | accessdate =2008-09-22 ] ; however this was not the first stone structure on the site (see phase 3:1 below). The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sitesin 1986 in a co-listing with Avebury henge monument, and it is also a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument. Stonehenge itself is owned by the Crownand managed by English Heritagewhile the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust. [cite web
title =How did Stonehenge come into the care of English Heritage?
work =FAQs on Stonehenge
accessdate =2007-12-17 ] [cite web
title =Ancient ceremonial landscape of great archaeological and wildlife interest
work =Stonehenge Landscape
publisher =National Trust
accessdate =2007-12-17 ]
New archaeological evidence found by the
Stonehenge Riverside Projectindicates that Stonehenge served as a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. [cite journal|last=Pitts|first=Mike|date= 2008-08-08|title=Stonhenge: one of our largest excavations draws to a close|journal=British Archaeology|publisher=Council for British Archaeology|location=York, England|issue=102|pages=p13|issn=1357-4442] The dating of cremated remains found that burials took place as early as 3000 B.C, when the first ditches were being built around the monument. Burials continued at Stonehenge for at least another 500 years when the giant stones which mark the landmark were put up. According to Professor Mike Parker Pearson, head of Stonehenge Riverside Project: [cite news |first=Randolph E. |last=Schmid |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Study: Stonehenge was a burial site for centuries |url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iqofgTOoY9jVxd8Vir3t2lq-yfowD90VGRV80 |work= |publisher=" The Associated Press" |date= 2008-05-29|accessdate=2008-05-29]
Christopher Chippindale's "Stonehenge Complete" gives the derivation of the name "Stonehenge" as coming from the Old English words "stān" meaning "stone", and either "hencg" meaning " hinge" (because the stone lintels hinge on the upright stones) or "hen(c)en" meaning " hang" or " gallows" or "instrument of torture". Medieval gallows consisted of two uprights with a lintel joining them, resembling Stonehenge's trilithons, rather than looking like the inverted L-shape more familiar today.
The "henge" portion has given its name to a class of monuments known as
henges. Archaeologists define henges as earthworks consisting of a circular banked enclosure with an internal ditch. As often happens in archaeological terminology, this is a holdover from antiquarianusage, and Stonehenge is not truly a henge site as its bank is inside its ditch. Despite being contemporary with true Neolithichenges and stone circles, Stonehenge is in many ways atypical. For example, its extant trilithons make it unique. Stonehenge is only distantly related to the other stone circles in the British Isles, such as the Ring of Brodgar.Fact|date=September 2007
Stonehenge itself evolved in several construction phases spanning at least some 1500 years. However there is evidence of large scale construction both before and afterwards on and around the monument that perhaps extends the landscapes time frame to 6500 years.
Dating and understanding the various phases of activity at Stonehenge is not a simple task; it is complicated by poorly kept early
excavationrecords, surprisingly few accurate scientific dates and the disturbance of the natural chalkby periglacialeffects and animal burrowing. The modern phasing most generally agreed by archaeologists is detailed below. Features mentioned in the text are numbered and shown on the plan, right, which illustrates the site as of 2004. The plan omits the trilithon lintels for clarity. Holes that no longer, or never, contained stones are shown as open circles and stones visible today are shown coloured.
Before the monument (8000 BC forward)
Some archaeologists have found four (or possibly five, although one may have been a natural
tree throw) large Mesolithic postholes which date to around 8000 BC nearby, beneath the modern tourist car-park. These held pineposts around convert|0.75|m in diameter which were erected and left to rot "in situ". Three of the posts (and possibly four) were in an east-west alignment and may have had ritualsignificance; no parallels are known from Britain at the time but similar sites have been found in Scandinavia. At this time, Salisbury Plainwas still wooded but four thousand years later, during the earlier Neolithic, a cursusmonument was built convert|600|m|ft north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the forest and exploit the area. Several other early Neolithic sites, a causewayed enclosureat Robin Hood's Balland long barrowtombs were built in the surrounding landscape.
tonehenge 1 (ca. 3100 BC)
The first monument consisted of a circular bank and ditch enclosure made of
Late Cretaceous( SantonianAge) Seaford Chalk, "(7 and 8)" measuring around convert|110|m in diameter with a large entrance to the north east and a smaller one to the south "(14)". It stood in open grasslandon a slightly sloping but not especially remarkable spot. The builders placed the bones of deerand oxen in the bottom of the ditch as well as some worked flinttools. The bones were considerably older than the antler picks used to dig the ditch and the people who buried them had looked after them for some time prior to burial. The ditch itself was continuous but had been dug in sections, like the ditches of the earlier causewayed enclosures in the area. The chalk dug from the ditch was piled up to form the bank. This first stage is dated to around 3100 BC after which the ditch began to silt up naturally and was not cleared out by the builders. Within the outer edge of the enclosed area was dug a circle of 56 pits, each around convert|1|m|ft in diameter "(13)", known as the Aubrey holesafter John Aubrey, the seventeenth century antiquarianwho was thought to have first identified them. The pits may have contained standing timbers, creating a timber circlealthough there is no excavated evidence of them. A small outer bank beyond the ditch could also date to this period.
tonehenge 2 (ca. 3000 BC)
Evidence of the second phase is no longer visible. It appears from the number of postholes dating to this period that some form of timber structure was built within the enclosure during the early 3rd millennium BC. Further standing timbers were placed at the northeast entrance and a parallel alignment of posts ran inwards from the southern entrance. The postholes are smaller than the Aubrey Holes, being only around convert|0.4|m|in in diameter and are much less regularly spaced. The bank was purposely reduced in height and the ditch continued to silt up. At least twenty-five of the Aubrey Holes are known to have contained later, intrusive,
cremationburials dating to the two centuries after the monument's inception. It seems that whatever the holes' initial function, it changed to become a funerary one during Phase 2. Thirty further cremations were placed in the enclosure's ditch and at other points within the monument, mostly in the eastern half. Stonehenge is therefore interpreted as functioning as an enclosed cremation cemeteryat this time, the earliest known cremation cemeteryin the British Isles. Fragments of unburnt human bone have also been found in the ditch fill. Late Neolithic grooved warepottery has been found in connection with the features from this phase providing dating evidence.
tonehenge 3 I (ca. 2600 BC)
Archaeological excavation has indicated that around 2600 BC, timber was abandoned in favour of stone, and two concentric arrays of holes (the
Q and R Holes) were dug in the centre of the site. These stone sockets are only partly known (hence on present evidence are sometimes described as forming ‘crescents’), however they could be the remains of a double ring. Again, there is little firm dating evidence for this phase. The holes held up to 80 standing stones (shown blue on the plan) 43 of which, the bluestones (dolerite, a holocrystine igneous rock), were thought for much of the 20th century to have been transported by humans from the Preseli Hills, convert|250|km away in modern day Pembrokeshirein Wales. A newer theory is that they were brought from glacial deposits much nearer the site, which had been carried down from the northern side of the Preselis to southern England by the Irish Sea Glacier. [
The north eastern entrance was also widened at this time with the result that it precisely matched the direction of the
midsummer sunriseand midwinter sunsetof the period. This phase of the monument was abandoned unfinished however, the small standing stones were apparently removed and the Q and R holes purposefully backfilled. Even so, the monument appears to have eclipsed the site at Aveburyin importance towards the end of this phase.
Heelstone"(5)", a Tertiarysandstone, may also have been erected outside the north eastern entrance during this period although it cannot be securely dated and may have been installed at any time in phase 3. At first, a second stone, now no longer visible, joined it. Two, or possibly three, large portal stoneswere set up just inside the north eastern entrance of which only one, the fallen Slaughter Stone "(4)", convert|4.9|m long, now remains. Other features loosely dated to phase 3 include the four Station Stones"(6)", two of which stood atop mounds "(2 and 3)". The mounds are known as 'barrows' although they do not contain burials. The Avenue, "(10)", a parallel pair of ditches and banks leading convert|3|km to the River Avon was also added. Two ditches similar to Heelstone Ditchcircling the Heelstone, which was by then reduced to a single monolith, were later dug around the Station Stones.
tonehenge 3 II (2600 BC to 2400 BC)
The next major phase of activity at the tail end of the
3rd millennium BCsaw 30 enormous Oligocene- Miocene sarsenstones "(shown grey on the plan)" brought to the site. They may have come from a quarry around convert|40|km north of Stonehenge, on the Marlborough Downs, or they may have been collected from a "litter" of sarsens on the chalk downs, closer to hand. The stones were dressed and fashioned with mortise and tenonjoints before 30 were erected as a convert|33|m diameter circle of standing stones, with a ring of 30 lintel stones resting on top. The lintels were fitted to one another using another woodworking method, the tongue and groovejoint. Each standing stone was around convert|4.1|m high, convert|2.1|m wide and weighed around 25 tons. Each had clearly been worked with the final effect in mind; the orthostats widen slightly towards the top in order that their perspective remains constant as they rise up from the ground while the lintel stones curve slightly to continue the circular appearance of the earlier monument. The sides of the stones that face inwards are smoother and more finely worked than the sides that face outwards. The average thickness of these stones is convert|1.1|m and the average distance between them is convert|1|m. A total of 74 stones would have been needed to complete the circle and unless some of the sarsens were removed from the site, it would seem that the ring was left incomplete. Of the lintel stones, they are each around convert|3.2|m, convert|1|m wide and convert|0.8|m thick. The tops of the lintels are convert|4.9|m above the ground.
Within this circle stood five
trilithons of dressed sarsenstone arranged in a horseshoe shape convert|13.7|m across with its open end facing north east. These huge stones, ten uprights and five lintels, weigh up to 50 tons each and were again linked using complex jointing. They are arranged symmetrically; the smallest pair of trilithons were around convert|6|m tall, the next pair a little higher and the largest, single trilithon in the south west corner would have been convert|7.3|m tall. Only one upright from the Great Trilithon still stands; convert|6.7|m is visible and a further convert|2.4|m is below ground.
The images of a 'dagger' and 14 'axe-heads' have been recorded carved on one of the sarsens, known as stone 53. Further axe-head carvings have been seen on the outer faces of stones known as numbers 3, 4, and 5. They are difficult to date but are morphologically similar to later Bronze Age weapons; recent laser scanning work on the carvings supports this interpretation. The pair of trilithons in north east are smallest, measuring around convert|6|m in height and the largest is the trilithon in the south west of the horseshoe is almost convert|7.5|m tall.
This ambitious phase is radiocarbon dated to between 2600 and 2400 BC [ cite journal|title=The Age of Stonehenge|journal=Antiquity|date=September 2007|first=Mike|last=Pearson|coauthors=Ros Cleal, Peter Marshall, Stuart Needham, Josh Pollard, Colin Richards, Clive Ruggles, Alison Sheridan, Julian Thomas, Chris Tilley, Kate Welham, Andrew Chamberlain, Carolyn Chenery, Jane Evans, Chris Knüsel,|volume=811|issue=313|pages=617–639|id= |url=|format=|accessdate= ] . This is slightly before two sets of burials discovered convert|3|mi|km to the west in Amesbury (the
Amesbury Archerfound in 2002, and the Boscombe Bowmendiscovered in 2003) as well as the Stonehenge Archerwhose body was discovered in the outer ditch of the monument in 1978.
At a similar time a large
timber circleand another avenue were constructed overlooking the River Avon 2 miles away at Durrington Walls. Opposing the solar alignments at Stonehenge, the circle was orientated towards the rising sun on the midwinter solstice, whilst the Avenue led from the river to the circle on an alignment to the setting sun on the summer solstice. Evidence of huge fires on the banks of the Avon between the two avenues also suggests that both circles were linked, and perhaps formed a procession route used on the longest and shortest days of the year. Parker Pearson speculates that the wooden circle at Durrington Walls was the centre of a 'land of the living', whilst the stone circle represented a 'land of the dead'. The Avon would have served as a journey between the two. [M. Parker Pearson. "Bronze Age Britain". 2005. p63-67. ISBN 0713488492]
tonehenge 3 III
Later in the Bronze Age, the bluestones appear to have been re-erected for the first time, although the exact details of this period are still unclear. They were placed within the outer sarsen circle and at this time may have been trimmed in some way. A few have timber working-style cuts in them like the sarsens themselves, suggesting they may have been linked with lintels and part of a larger structure during this phase.
tonehenge 3 IV (2280 BC to 1930 BC)
This phase saw further rearrangement of the bluestones as they were placed in a circle between the two settings of sarsens and in an oval in the very centre. Some archaeologists argue that some of the bluestones in this period were part of a second group brought from Wales. All the stones were well-spaced uprights without any of the linking lintels inferred in Stonehenge 3 III. The Altar Stone may have been moved within the oval and stood vertically. Although this would seem the most impressive phase of work, Stonehenge 3 IV was rather shabbily built compared to its immediate predecessors, as the newly re-installed bluestones were not at all well founded and began to fall over. However, only minor changes were made after this phase. Stonehenge 3 IV dates from 2280 to 1930 BC.
tonehenge 3 V (2280 BC to 1930 BC)
Soon afterwards, the north eastern section of the Phase 3 IV Bluestone circle was removed, creating a horseshoe-shaped setting termed the Bluestone Horseshoe. This mirrored the shape of the central sarsen Trilithons and dates from 2270 to 1930 BC. This phase is contemporary with the famous
Seahengesite in Norfolk.
After the monument (1600 BC on)
The last known construction at Stonehenge was about 1600 BC, and the last known usage of it was likely during the
Iron Age. Roman coins and medievalartefacts have all been found in or around the monument but it is unknown if the monument was in continuous use throughout prehistory and beyond — or exactly how it would have been used. Notable is the late 7th-6th century BC large arcing Scroll Trenchwhich deepens E-NE towards Heelstone, and the construction of the massive Iron Age hillfort Vespasian's Campbuilt alongside the Avenue near the Avon. The burial of a decapitated 7th century Saxon man was excavated from Stonehenge. The site was known by scholars during the Middle Agesand since then it has been studied and adopted by numerous different groups.
Function and construction
Stonehenge was produced by a culture with no written language, and at great historical remove from the first cultures that did leave written records. Many aspects of Stonehenge remain subject to debate. This multiplicity of theories, some of them very colourful, is often called the "mystery of Stonehenge."
There is little or no direct evidence for the construction techniques used by the Stonehenge builders. Over the years, various authors have suggested that supernatural or anachronistic methods were used, usually asserting that the stones were impossible to move otherwise. However, conventional techniques using Neolithic technology have been demonstrably effective at moving and placing stones this size. [Wally Wallington demonstrates how to build Stonehenge. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRRDzFROMx0] Proposed functions for the site include usage as an astronomical observatory, or as a religious site. Other theories have advanced supernatural or symbolic explanations for the construction.
More recently two major new theories have been proposed.
Mike Parker Pearson, head of the Stonehenge Riverside Project, has suggested that Stonehenge was part of a ritual landscape and was joined to Durrington Walls by their corresponding avenues and the River Avon. The area around Durrington Wallshenge was a land of the living, whilst Stonehenge was a domain of the dead. A journey along the Avon to reach Stonehenge was part of a ritual passage from life to death, to celebrate past ancestors and the recently deceased. [M. Parker Pearson. "Bronze Age Britain". 2005. p63-67. ISBN 0713488492] On the other hand, Geoffery Wainwright, president of the Society of Antiquaries of London, and Timothy Darvillhave suggested that Stonehenge was a place of healing – the primeval equivalent of Lourdes. [ [http://ph.news.yahoo.com/ap/20080923/twl-eu-britain-stonehenge-c8e2916.html news.yahoo.com, UK experts say Stonehenge was place of healing] ] They argue that this accounts for the high number of burials in the area and for the evidence of trauma deformity in some of the graves. However they do concede that the site was probably multifunctional and used for ancestor worship as well. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/sep/23/archaeology.heritage guardian.co.uk, The magic of Stonehenge: new dig finds clues to power of bluestones] ]
"Friar’s Heel" or the "Sunday Stone"
Devilbought the stones from a woman in Ireland, wrapped them up, and brought them to Salisbury plain. One of the stones fell into the Avon, the rest were carried to the plain. The Devil then cried out, "No-one will ever find out how these stones came here!" A friar replied, "That’s what you think!," whereupon the Devil threw one of the stones at him and struck him on the heel. The stone stuck in the ground and is still there.
Some claim "Friar's Heel" is a corruption of "Freyja's He-ol" or "Freyja Sul", from the Nordic goddess
Freyjaand the Welsh word for "way" or "Sunday", respectively, or the name may simply imply that the stone "heels", or leans. The name is not unique; there was a monolith with the same name recorded in the 19th century by antiquarian Charles Warne at Long Bredyin Dorset [Warne, Charles, 1872, "Ancient Dorset". Bournemouth]
Stonehenge is also mentioned within Arthurian legend.
Geoffrey of Monmouthsaid that Merlin the wizard directed its removal from Ireland, where it had been constructed on Mount Killarausby Giants, who brought the stones from Africa. After it had been rebuilt near Amesbury, Geoffrey further narrates how first Ambrosius Aurelianus, then Uther Pendragon, and finally Constantine III, were buried inside the ring of stones. In many places in his " Historia Regum Britanniae" Geoffrey mixes British legend and his own imagination; it is intriguing that he connects Ambrosius Aurelianus with this prehistoric monument, seeing how there is place-name evidence to connect Ambrosius with nearby Amesbury.
According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, the rocks of Stonehenge were healing rocks which Giants brought from Africa to Ireland for their healing properties. These rocks were called The Giant's Dance. Aurelius Ambrosias (5th century), wishing to erect a memorial to the nobles (3000) who had died in battle with the Saxons and were buried at Salisbury, chose (at Merlin's advice) Stonehenge to be their monument. So the King sent Merlin, Uther Pendragon (Arthur's father), and 15,000 knights to Ireland to retrieve the rocks. They slew 7,000 Irish. As the knights tried to move the rocks with ropes and force, they failed. Then Merlin, using "gear" and skill, easily dismantled the stones and sent them over to Britain, where Stonehenge was dedicated. Shortly after, Aurelius died and was buried within the Stonehenge monument, or "The Giants' Ring of Stonehenge".
16th to 20th centuries
Stonehenge has changed ownership on several occasions since
King Henry VIIIacquired Amesbury Abbeyand its surrounding lands. In 1540 he gave the estate to the Earl of Hertford, and it subsequently passed to Lord Carletonand then the Marquis of Queensbury. The Antrobus family of Cheshire bought the estate in 1824, but sold it in 1915 after the last heir was killed serving in Franceduring the First World War. The auction was held by Knight Frank & Rutley estate agents in Salisbury on the 21 September, and included "Lot 15. Stonehenge with about 30 acres, 2 rods, 37 perches of adjoining downland." [ [http://www.this-is-amesbury.co.uk/stonehenge.html "The man who bought Stonehenge"] Heffernan, T. H. J. "This is Amesbury"] Cecil Chubbbought Stonehenge for £6,600 and then gave it to the nation three years later. Although it has been speculated that he purchased it at the suggestion of — or even as a present for — his wife, he in fact bought it on a whim as he believed a local man should be the new owner.
In the late 1920s a nation-wide appeal was launched to save Stonehenge from the encroachment of modern buildings that had begun to appear around it. During
World War 1an aerodromehad been built on the down just west of the circle, and in the dry valley at Stonehenge Bottom a main road junction had appeared, with several cottages and a cafe. In 1928 the land around the stones was purchased with the appeal donations, and given to the National Trust in order to preserve it. The buildings were removed (although the roads were not), and the land returned to agriculture. More recently the land has been part of a grassland reversion scheme, returning the surrounding fields to native chalk grassland.
As motorised traffic increased the setting of the monument began to be affected by the proximity of the two roads on either side of it — the A344 to
Shrewtonon the north side, and the A303to Winterbourne Stoketo the south. Plans to upgrade the A303 and remove it from the view of the stones have been considered since it became a World Heritage Site, but the controversy surrounding expensive re-routings of a road have led to the scheme being cancelled on multiple occasions. On 06 December 2007it was announced that the most recent plans had been cancelled. [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmhansrd/cm071206/debtext/71206-0003.htm#07120645000002 "A303 Stonehenge Road Scheme"] Hansardreport of proceedings in the House of Commons 6 December 2007]
Stonehenge is a place of
pilgrimagefor neo-druids, and for certain others following pagan or neo-paganbeliefs. The midsummer sunrise began attracting modern visitors in the 1870s, with the first record of recreated Druidic practices dating to 1905 when the Ancient Order of Druidsenacted a ceremony. Despite efforts by archaeologists and historians to stress the differences between the Iron Age Druidic religion and the much older monument, Stonehenge has become increasingly, almost inextricably, associated with British Druidism, Neopaganism and New Agephilosophy. Between 1972 and 1984, Stonehenge was the site of a free festival. After the Battle of the Beanfieldin 1985 this use of the site was stopped for several years, and currently ritual use of Stonehenge is carefully controlled.
When Stonehenge became open to the public it was possible to walk amongst and even climb on the stones. However this ended in 1977 when the stones were roped off as a result of serious erosion [ [http://www.worldarchaeologicalcongress.org/site/news_rece_ston.php "Proposals for a tunnel at Stonehenge: an assessment of the alternatives"] . "The World Archaeological Congress"] . Visitors are no longer permitted to touch the stones, but merely walk around the monument from a short distance.
English Heritagedoes however permit access during the summer and winter solstice, and the spring and autumn equinox. Additionally, visitors can make special bookings to access the stones throughout the year [ [http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.877 "Planning Your Visit to Stonehenge"] . "English Heritage"] .
Archaeological research and restoration
Throughout recorded history Stonehenge and its surrounding monuments have attracted attention from
antiquariansand archaeologists. John Aubreywas one of the first to examine the site with a scientific eye in 1666, and recorded in his plan of the monument the pits that now bear his name. William Stukeleycontinued Aubrey’s work in the early 18th century, but took an interest in the surrounding monuments as well, identifying (somewhat incorrectly) the Cursus and the Avenue. He also began the excavation of many of the barrows in the area, and it was his interpretation of the landscape that associated it with the Druids[ Stukeley, William, 1740, "Stonehenge A Temple Restor'd to the British Druids". London] Stukeley was in fact so fascinated with Druids that he originally named Disc Barrows as Druids Barrows. The most accurate early plan of Stonehenge was that made by Bath architect John Wood in 1740 [ Wood, John, 1747, "Choir Guare, Vulgarly called Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain". Oxford] . His original annotated survey has recently been computer redrawn and published [Johnson, Anthony, "Solving Stonehenge: The New Key to an Ancient Enigma". (Thames & Hudson, 2008) ISBN 978-0-500-05155-9] . Importantly Wood’s plan was made before the collapse of the southwest Trilithon (which fell in 1797; restored 1958). William Cunningtonwas the next to tackle the area in the early 19th century, excavating some 24 barrows before digging in and around the stones, discovering charred wood, animal bones, pottery and urns. He also identified the hole in which the Slaughter Stone once stood.At the same time Richard Colt Hoarebegan his activities, excavating some 379 barrows on Salisbury Plainbefore working with Cunnington and William Coxeon some 200 in the area around the Stones. To alert future diggers to their work they were careful to leave initialled metal tokens in each barrow they opened.
Charles Darwindabbled in archaeology at the stones, experimenting with the rate at which remains sink into the earth for his book " The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms". William Gowlandoversaw the first major restoration of the monument in 1901 – the straightening and concrete setting of sarsen stone number 56 which was in danger of falling. Unfortunately in straightening it he also moved it about half a metre from its original position. [Johnson, Anthony, "Solving Stonehenge: The New Key to an Ancient Enigma". (Thames & Hudson, 2008) ISBN 978-0-500-05155-9] He also took the opportunity to further excavate the monument at the same time in what was the most scientific dig to date, revealing more about the erection of the stones than the previous 100 years of work. During the 1920 restoration William Hawley, who had excavated nearby Old Sarum, excavated the base of six stones being restored as well as the outer ditch. He also located a bottle of port in the slaughter stone socket left by Cunnington, helped to rediscover Aubrey's pits inside the bank and located the Y and Z Holes(concentric circular holes outside the Sarsen Circle). [cite web
last = Cleal
first = Rosamund
coauthors = et al
title = Y and Z holes
work = Archaeometry and Stonehenge
date = 1995
url = http://www.eng-h.gov.uk/stoneh/yz.htm
accessdate = 2008-04-04]
Stuart Piggottand John F. S. Stone re-excavated much of Hawley's work in the 40s and 50s, and discovered the carved axes and daggers on the Sarsen Stones. Atkinson's work was instrumental in the understanding of the three major phases of the monument's construction.
In 1958 the stones were restored again, using concrete settings to re-erect three of the standing sarsens. The very last restoration was carried out in 1963 when stone 23 of the Sarsen Circle fell over and was once more re-erected, and the opportunity taken to concrete three more stones.Later archaeologists, including
Christopher Chippindaleof the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridgeand Brian Edwardsof the University of the West of Englandcampaigned to give the public more knowledge of the various restorations and in 2004 English Heritage included pictures of the works in progress in its new book Stonehenge: A History in Photographs.cite journal
last = Young
first = Emma
title = Concrete Evidence
url = http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn310-concrete-evidence.html
accessdate = 2008-03-03] [cite news
last = Taverner
first = Roger
title = How they rebuilt Stonehenge
Western Daily Press, "quoted in" Cosmic Conspiracies: How they rebuilt Stonehenge
date = 2001-01-08
url = http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicstonehenge.htm
accessdate =2008-03-03 ] [cite book
last = Richards
first = Julian C.
authorlink = Julian Richards
title = Stonehenge: A History in Photographs
date = 2004
location = London
isbn = 1850748950]
In 1966 and 1967, in advance of a new car park being built at the site, the area of land immediately northwest of the stones was excavated by Faith and
Lance Vatcher. They discovered the Mesolithic postholes dating from between 7 and 8,000 BC, as well as a 10m length of a palisadeditch – a V cut ditch into which timber posts had been inserted that remained there until they rotted away. Subsequent aerial archaeologysuggests that this ditch runs from the west to the north of Stonehenge, near the avenue. [cite book
last = Richards
first = Julian C.
authorlink = Julian Richards
title = Stonehenge: The story so far
date = 2007
location = Swindon
isbn = 9781905624003]
Excavations were once again carried out in 1978 by Atkinson and John Evans during which they discovered the remains of the
Stonehenge Archerfrom the outer ditch, [cite news
title = Stonehenge execution revealed
work = BBC News
British Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/784348.stm
accessdate = 2008-04-04] and in 1979
rescue archaeologywas needed alongside the Heel Stone after a cable-laying ditch was mistakenly dug on the roadside, revealing a new stone hole next to the Heel Stone.
In the early 1980’s
Julian Richardsled the Stonehenge Environs Project, a detailed study of the surrounding landscape. The project was able to successfully date such features as the Lesser Cursus, Coneybury hengeand several other smaller features.
More recent excavations include Mike Parker Pearson's
Stonehenge Riverside Project- an series of digs held between 2003 and 2008. This project mainly investigated other monuments in the landscape and their relationship with the stones - notably Durrington Wallswhere another ‘Avenue’ leading to the river Avon was discovered. In April 2008 Professor Tim Darvillof the University of Bournemouthand Professor Geoff Wainwrightof the Society of Antiquariesbegan another dig inside the Stone circle to retrieve dateable fragments of the original bluestone pillars. They were able to date the erection of some bluestones to 2300BC [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = Tim Darvill and Geoff Wainwright | title =Dig pinpoints Stonehenge origins | work = | publisher = BBC| date =2008-09-21 | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7625145.stm | format = | doi = | accessdate =2008-09-22 ] , although this may not reflect the earliest erection of stones at Stonehenge. They also discovered organic material from 7000 B.C., which, along with the Mesolithic postholes, adds support for the site having been in use at least 4000 years before Stonehenge was started. In August and September 2008, as part of the Riverside Project Julian Richardsand Mike Pittsexcavated Aubrey Hole 7, removing the cremated remains from several Aubrey Holes that had been excavated by Hawley in the 1920s, and re-interred in 1935 [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = Mike Parker Pearson | title =The Stonehenge Riverside Project | work = | publisher =Sheffield University | date =2008-08-20 | url = http://www.shef.ac.uk/archaeology/research/stonehenge | format = | doi = | accessdate =2008-09-22 ] .
Archaeoastronomy and Stonehenge
Battle of the Beanfield
Excavations at Stonehenge
Theories about Stonehenge
Stonehenge replicas and derivatives
Cultural depictions of Stonehenge
Stonehenge Free Festival
Stonehenge road tunnel
Stonehenge Riverside Project
European Megalithic Culture
The Megalithic Portal
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* Burl, A, "Prehistoric Stone Circles" (Shire, 2001) (In Burl's "Stonehenge" (Constable, 2006), he notes, cf. the meaning of the name in paragraph two above, that "the Saxons called the ring 'the hanging stones', as though they were gibbets.")
* Chippendale, C, "Stonehenge Complete" (Thames and Hudson, London, 2004) ISBN 0500284679
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* Cleal, R. M. J., Walker, K. E. & Montague, R., "
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* Hall, R, Leather, K, & Dobson, G, "Stonehenge Aotearoa" (Awa Press, 2005)
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* Hawley, Lt-Col W, "Second Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge." (The Antiquaries Journal 2, Oxford University Press, 1922)
* Hawley, Lt-Col W, "Third Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge." (The Antiquaries Journal 3, Oxford University Press, 1923)
* Hawley, Lt-Col W, "Fourth Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge." (The Antiquaries Journal 4, Oxford University Press, 1923)
* Hawley, Lt-Col W, "Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge during the season of 1923." (The Antiquaries Journal 5, Oxford University Press, 1925)
* Hawley, Lt-Col W, "Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge during the season of 1924." (The Antiquaries Journal 6, Oxford University Press, 1926)
* Hawley, Lt-Col W, "Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge during 1925 and 1926." (The Antiquaries Journal 8, Oxford University Press, 1928)
* Hutton, R, "From Universal Bond to Public Free For All" (British Archaeology 83, 2005)
* Johnson, Anthony, "Solving Stonehenge: The New Key to an Ancient Enigma" (Thames & Hudson, 2008) ISBN 978-0-500-05155-9
* Legg, Rodney, "Stonehenge Antiquaries" (Dorset Publishing Company , 1986)
* Mooney, J, "Encyclopedia of the Bizarre" (Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2002)
* Newall, R S, "Stonehenge, Wiltshire -Ancient monuments and historic buildings-" (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959)
* North, J, "Stonehenge: Ritual Origins and Astronomy" (HarperCollins, 1997)
* Pitts, M, "Hengeworld" (Arrow, London, 2001)
* Pitts, M W, "On the Road to Stonehenge: Report on Investigations beside the A344 in 1968, 1979 and 1980" (Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 48, 1982)
* Richards, J, "English Heritage Book of Stonehenge" (B T Batsford Ltd, 1991)
* Richards, J "Stonehenge: A History in Photographs" (English Heritage, London, 2004)
* Stone, J F S, "Wessex Before the Celts" (Frederick A Praeger Publishers, 1958)
* Worthington, A, "Stonehenge: Celebration and Subversion" (Alternative Albion, 2004)
* English Heritage: "Stonehenge: Historical Background"
* [http://www.ancientplaces.tv/archives/14 Ancient Places TV: HD Video of Stonehenge]
* [http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/stonehenge Stonehenge]
* [http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/stonehengelandscape Stonehenge Landscape] The National Trust - Information about the surrounding area.
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/eng/str/index.htm Stonehenge, a Temple Restor'd to the British Druids] By William Stukeley, at Sacred Texts.
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/eng/sac/index.htm Stonehenge, and Other British Monuments Astronomically Considered] By Norman Lockyer, at Sacred Texts.
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/19130/19130-h/19130-h.htm Stonehenge Today and Yesterday] By Frank Stevens, at
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7322444.stm The History of Stonehenge]
* [http://www.stonehengelaserscan.org/ Stonehenge Laser Scans]
* [http://www.britarch.ac.uk/stonehenge/stone23.html Council for British Archaeology] English Heritage press release about the monument's reconstruction.
* [http://www.britarch.ac.uk/BA/ba45/ba45int.html Glaciers and the bluestones of Wales] British Archaeology essay about the bluestones as glacial deposits.
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