List of business failures

This is a list of notable business failures, significant for marking the end of a well-known brand, for criminal proceedings associated with their demise, or for their financial impact in the economy.

Prior to 1900

;1345
* Peruzzi

;1699
* Darien Scheme

;1720
* South Sea Company

;1720
* Mississippi Company

;1866
* Overend, Gurney and Company

1900-1949

;1907
* Nederlandsche Automobiel en Vliegtuigfabriek Trompenburg

;1919
*Motorwagenfabrik Excelsior

;1920
* Sopwith Aviation Company

;1922
* Spyker

;1923
* Ansted Engine Company
* Lexington

;1928
* McFarlan Automobile

;1929
*AC Cars
*Edison Records
* Spyker Automobielfabriek

;1930
* Hugo Boss [cite news | author= | url=http://www.no1-in-beauty.com/Articles/hugo_boss.htm | title=Biography of fashion designer Hugo Boss | work=Nº1 in beauty | date=2007 | accessdate=2005-05-05]

;1931
*Henderson Motorcycle

;1932
* Bing

;1933
* Miller

;1934
*Dorfan
*Lionel Corporation

;1937
* Auburn-Duesenberg-Cord

;1939
*Thornton-Pickard

;1945
* A. J. Holladay & Co.

;1948
* Tucker Corporation

1950-1979

;1952
* IG Farben

;1956
* All Metal Products Company
* Hafner Manufacturing Company

;1956
*Minerva automobile

;1957
*Imperia
* Waltham Watch Company

;1959
* Auburn Rubber Company

;1960
* Rikuo Motorcycle [cite news | author= | url=http://otalsakeo.hp.infoseek.co.jp/whatsrik.htm | title=What is Rikuo Motorcycle? | publisher=Otalsakeo | date= | accessdate=2005-05-05]

;1961
* Borgward
* Marusho cite news | author=Ralph Walker | url=http://www.marusholilac.com/ml2.htm | work=Marusho/Lilac Motorcycle Register | title=Marusho/Lilac Company History | publisher=Marusho/Lilac | date=2007 | accessdate=2005-05-05]

;1962
*Leidolf

;1964
* Carrozzeria Touring [cite news | author= | url=http://www.registrotouringsuperleggera.com | title=Registro Ufficiale Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera | publisher=Registro Internazionali Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera | date= | accessdate=2005-05-05]
* Facel Vega
* Lilac Company
* Tornado Cars
* Wales West and North Television

;1965
* Excelsior Motor Company

;1967
*A. C. Gilbert Company
*Coronet Camera Company [http://www.marriottworld.com/pieces/pieces18.htm]

;1970
* Penn Centralbankrupted in 1970; remained operating until 1976]
* National Student Marketing Corporation

;1971
* Lines Bros Ltd
*Marcos
*Wirgin

;1974
* Automobiles Citroën
* Franklin National Bank
* United Fruit
* General Vehicle

;1976
* Jensen Motors

;1977
*Petri Camera [ [http://www.photoethnography.com/ClassicCameras/index-frameset.html?PetriColor35.html~mainFrame "Petri Color 35 / 35E"] , Photoethnography.com. Article retrieved 2006-11-10.]

;1978
* Automobili LamborghiniAssets was sold on to the Mimran brothers by Italian court in 1984, passed on through a number of owners before being sold to Volkswagen Group in 1998]
*Miranda Camera Company

;1979
* AUS Student TravelAssets was sold on to a company who became STA Travel]
* Dixie Square Mall

1980-1989

;1980
*Biba
*Dunbee-Combex-Marx
* Ontario Motor Speedway
* Otaki Model Toy Company [cite web | author= | title=The Trans-1 Doahinji | url=http://www5.ocn.ne.jp/~mokeden/kousaku/transam/transam-1.htm | publisher= | date=28 July 2007 | accessdate=2008-05-02]
* Panther Westwinds

;1982
* Braniff International Airways
* Laker Airways
*Lionel Corporation
*Mego Corporation
* Penn Square Bank

;1983
* Atari, Inc.
*Clover
* DeLorean Motor Company
* Games By Apollo
* Maicowerk

;1984
*Continental Illinois National Bank
* Imagine Software
*Takatoku Toys
* Zündapp

;1985
* AC Scotland
* Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Company
* Sinclair Vehicles, Ltd.

;1986
*Clénet Coachworks
* Imagic
*Jet Records

;1987
* Zzzz Best
* First Jersey Securities

;1988
* American Savings & Loan Association
*Micro Precision Products [http://www.mppusers.freeuk.com/company.htm]

;1989
* Bitter Cars
* Crazy Eddie
* Epyx
*Ross

1990-1994

;1990
*Alpa
* British Satellite Broadcasting
* Circle K
* Drexel Burnham Lambert
*Miles Gordon Technology
* MiniScribe
* Panther Westwinds
* Pyramid Building Society

;1991
* BCCI
* Eastern Air Lines
* Emerald Software
* Lewis's
* Pan Am
* Polly Peck International

;1992
*Aldershot F.C.
* Child World
* Factory Communications
* Olympia and York
* Orion Pictures
* Maxwell Communication Corp.
* Rosso Corporation
* SAM Computers
* Schwinn Bicycle Company
* State Bank of South Australia
* Windsor Safari Park

;1993
* Nippon Tri-Trust
* Ferranti
* Kentucky Central Insurance Company
*Lionel Corporation
* Loriciels
* MuZ

;1994
*Athena [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2001/nov/10/weekend.lindsaybaker Wonderwalls | Life and style | The Guardian ] ]
* Cizeta Automobili
* Commodore International
* Toaplan

1995-1999

;1995
* Barings Bank
* Bugatti Automobili SpA &As the brandname had a long history and strong heritage, it was acquired by the Volkswagen Group in 1998; Dauer Sportwagen acquired the license to the EB110 supercar, including 5 incomplete cars and a large majority of stocks; B Engineering acquired 21 unconstructed chassis to become the Edonis. Lotus Cars whom was acquired by owner, Romano Artoli in 1993 was sold to Proton]
* Carolco Pictures
* Simtek
*Tooton's Photography

;1996
* AC Cars
*Chieftain Products
* Escom
* Fokker
*Leicester United F.C.
* Mickey Thompson Entertainment Group
* Technos Japan Corporation
* Theatre Royal, HanleyWas later acquired by record store entrepeneur Mike Lloyd, who got the theatre up and running] [http://www.thepotteries.org/buildings/theatre_royal.htm Theatre Royal, Hanley ] ]

;1997
* Bre-X
*Canada Games Company
* GameTek
* Lola Racing CarsSold to Martin Birrane, who brought the company up and running again]
* Nissan Mutual Life Insurance
* Smoking Car Productions

;1998
*Boyds Wheels [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C06E6D71431F930A35750C0A96E958260 New York Times:Boyds Wheels to Cease All Manufacturing] cite web
title = Troubled Company Reporter - BOYDS WHEELS: Third Quarter Report
publisher = InterNet Bankruptcy Library
date = December 18 1997
url = http://bankrupt.com/TCR_Public/971218.MBX
] Coddington was allowed to re-organize Boyds Wheels as the result of bankruptcy] cite web
title = Troubled Company Reporter - BOYDS WHEELS: Reorganization Plan Filed
publisher = InterNet Bankruptcy Library
date = July 23, 1998
url = http://bankrupt.com/TCR_Public/980723.MBX
]
* Long-Term Capital Management
*Maria's Bakery [ [http://www.parish-without-borders.net/cditt/lifeinhk/dailylif98.htm Daily Life (Life in Hong Kong) ] ]
*Ozwald BoatengCaused by the Asian recession, Boateng eventually brought his stocks back from the receivers] [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/htmlContent.jhtml?html=/archive/1998/04/11/efboat11.html] [http://www.africanmag.com/ARTICLE-206-design001.1]
* RipspeedBrandname was acquired by Halfords.]
* Yaohan

;1999
* Daewoo
*Excelsior-Henderson Motorcycle
* Fashion Cafe [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9401E4DF173FF934A15751C1A96E958260 Novelty Gone, Theme Restaurants Are Tumbling - New York Times ] ]
* Human Entertainment
* Planet Hollywood [ [http://money.cnn.com/1999/10/12/companies/planethollywood/ Planet Hollywood files for Chapter 11 - Oct. 12, 1999 ] ]
*Vector Motors

2000-2004

;2000
* 3dfx
*Bung EnterprisesSelf dissolved]
* Boo.com
* Lernout & Hauspie
* MyLackey.com
*Netter Digital
* Pets.com
* Pixelon [cite news | author= Patricia Jacobus | url=http://news.com.com/2100-1023-240493.html?legacy=cnet | title=Pixelon issues sweeping layoffs after founder's arrest | work=CNET News.com | date=12 May 2000 | accessdate=2005-05-05]
* The Equitable Life Assurance Society
*Theatre Royal, Hanley (with Mike Lloyd Music)Theatre was sold on and converted into two separate nightclub]
* Urban Bank

;2001
* Ansett
* Bethlehem Steel
* Bimota [cite news | author=Bob Williams | url=http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/prod/dialspace/town/pipexdsl/p/apvu75/bimota/index.htm | title=Italia Connections' Bimota page | publisher=Italia Connections | date=17 May 2005 | accessdate=2005-05-05]
*Capital Artists
* Canada 3000
* Converse
* Dinamic Multimedia
* Enron Corporation
* Extreme Championship WrestlingAll trademarks were later acquired by the World Wrestling Federation, and re-launched in 2006]
*Grand Royal
* HIH Insurance
* International Sports and Leisure [cite news | author=Georg Neumann | url=http://www.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2006/corruption_sports/jennings_review | title=Red card for the FIFA family | work=Transparency International e.V. | date=2006 | accessdate=2005-05-05]
* Kozmo.com
*Marcos
* Montgomery Ward
* One.Tel
* Planet Hollywood [ [http://money.cnn.com/2001/10/19/companies/planet/ Planet Hollywood bankrupt, again - Oct. 19, 2001 ] ]
* Polaroid Corporation
* Ready2shop.com
* Sabena
* Schwinn Bicycle Company (with GT Bicycles)
* SNK
* Sunbeam Products
* Tommy Kaira
* TWA
* Webvan
* World Championship WrestlingCaused by the Asian recession, Boareng eventually brought his stocks back from the receiversBought out by their chief rival, the World Wrestling Federation.]

;2002
* AC Fiorentina
* Adelphia
* Arthur Andersen
* Charles Jourdan
* Claims Direct [cite news | author=Staff writers | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/2120234.stm | work=BBC News | title=Claims Direct goes bust | date=10 July 2002 | accessdate=2005-05-05]
* Connolly Leather
* Compile
* EBONE
* Global Crossing
* Hummingbird Photo
* Imai [cite web | author=Rajendra Datta | title=List of Ship Kits | url=http://www.quuxuum.org/rajens_list/rajen.html#Imai | work=Rajen's List | date=1 October 2007 | accessdate=2008-05-02]
* ITV Digital
* Jensen Motors
* Kirch Media
* KPNQwest
* Prost Grand Prix
* Railtrack
* Reynard Motorsport
* Swissair
* TWR and Arrows As a result of the collapse of Arrows, both companies was owned by Tom Walkinshaw]
* WorldCom

;2003
* The 3DO Company
* The Accident Group [cite news | author=Staff writers | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/2949578.stm | work=BBC News | title=Bust company sacks workers by text | date=30 May 2003 | accessdate=2005-05-05]
* Baninter
* Bethlehem Steel
* CART
* Corbin Motors
* Data East
* divine
* Italjet [cite news | author=Alan Cathcart | url=http://www.mslmagazine.co.uk/features/italjethistory.htm | title=Italjet's History: Tartarini's Tale | publisher=Motorcycle Sport & Leisure | date= | accessdate=2005-05-05]
* Khalifa Airways
* Parmalat
*UT Models [http://bankrupt.com/TCRAP_Public/031002.mbx]

;2004
* Acclaim Entertainment
* ATA Holdings (ATA Airlines, ATA Cargo, ATA Leisure Corp, ATA Training Corp, Amber Travel, Chicago Express, ExecuJet, Chicago Express)
*Argonaut Games
* Auction World.tv
* Courts Plc [cite news | author=Staff writers | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4052439.stm | work=BBC News | title=Courts to go into administration | date=29 November 2004 | accessdate=2005-05-05]
*De Tomaso
* Flying Finn
* Ilford
* Kaneko
* Mondial
* Murray Ohio Manufacturing Company
* Parma F.C. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3668543.stm BBC NEWS | Business | Court declares Parma FC insolvent ] ]
* Titus Software
*Volare Group (Volare Airlines, Air Europe)

2005-2007

;2005
* AgfaPhoto
* [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4286856.stm BBC NEWS | Business | Allsports enters administration ] ]
* Allders
* Atkins Nutritionals
* Bburago
* EUjet
* Granville Technology GroupKnown for the Time and Tiny computer brands.]
* The Hit Factory
* Jetsgo
* MG Rover
* Music and Video Club [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060630/ai_n16518312 Morgan fashion chain collapses with loss of 620 jobs | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET ] ]
*Refco
*West Coast Computers
*Unwins

;2006
* Air Wales
* Amaranth Advisors
* Bayou Hedge Fund Group
* Farepak (European Home Retail)
* Golden Wonder
* Humbrol
* Independence Air
*Kookai
*Lik Sang (closure due to lawsuit avoidance given by Sony)
*Morgan UK
*Silver Screen
* Soder Airlines
* TeGeneroclosure cause by lack of funds following the negative publicity from the ill-fated TGN1412 clinical trial]
* Tiger Telematics
* Tower Records
* Zakspeed

;2007
* American Freedom Mortgage
* American Home Mortgage
* Benjys
* Bertonebankruptcy protection]
*BBS KraftfahrzeugtechnikCite web|url=http://www.punchinternational.com/web/tpl1.asp?hmain=1844&stype=N&customer=1&ut=L&nid=2181&nlang=E|title=Punch takes over leading wheel manufacturer BBS|accessdate=2008-04-11|year=29/06/2007 |work=punchinternational.com] Assets was sold to Punch International.]
* Choices UK [ [http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/retailing/article2395404.ece Jobs salvaged with sale of Choices UK’s wholesale arm - Times Online ] ]
* CompUSA
*Foggy (Petronas) Racing [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2007/oct/01/motorsports.sport Motor sport: Fogarty closes shop after lack of sponsor interest | Sport | The Guardian ] ] self-dissolved by owner, due to lack of sponsorship.]
*Enfield (1893) F.C.
* Fopp
* Kwik Save
*Leeds United A.F.C.
*Marcos
* MAXjet
*Media Rings
* Metronet
*Moonshine Music
* Music Zone
* NetBank
* New Century Financial
*Scarborough F.C.
*spinART Records
* Topps Meat Company

2008

;2008
* Aloha Airlines
*Alitaliabankruptcy protection.] [cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7588475.stm| title=Alitalia seeks bankruptcy measure| date=29/08/08| publisher=BBC]
*Amtrak Express Parcels
* ATA Airlines
*Australian School of Business and Technology [http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2c913216495213d5df646910cba0a0a0/?vgnextoid=cffde005addbc110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&vgnextfmt=teaser&ss=asia&s=news]
* Bear Stearns
* Champ CarAssets was sold to Punch International.]
* Coast Air
* Commander Communications
* Callmate (CTTL)
* eos Airlines
* FreshXpress
* Gretna F.C.
* Halifax Town A.F.C.
* IndyMac Bank
* iQon Technologies
* Lehman Brothers
* Levitz Furniture
* Lillian Vernon
* Metromedia Restaurant Group
* Nationwide Airlines
* Northern Rock
* Oasis Hong Kong Airlines
* Opes Prime
* Peau Vavaʻu
* Photo-Optix [ [http://www.amateurphotographer.co.uk/news/Photo_Optix_goes_into_administration_update__Trading_suspended__12_UK_stores_close_news_258165.html Photo Optix goes into administration (update) • Trading suspended • 12 UK stores close news - Amateur Photographer] ] Administration, all but 2 stores was closed down.]
* Rosebys
* Sharper Image
* Silver State Helicopters
* Silverjet
* Skybus Airlines
* Super Aguri F1closure caused by lack of buyer.]
* U-Right [http://www.thestandard.com.hk/breaking_news_detail.asp?id=7535&icid=3&d_str=20081009]
* WCI Communities
* Washington Mutual
* XL Airways
* Zoom Airlines

Bibliography

*cite book |last=Deeson | first=A.F.L. | title=Great Company Crashes | year=1972 | publisher=Foulsham | location=London | isbn=0572008333

Notes

References

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