Cao Wei


Cao Wei
Cao Wei
曹魏

220–265
The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), 262
Capital Luoyang
Language(s) Chinese
Religion Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 220 - 226 Cao Pi
 - 226 - 239 Cao Rui
 - 239 - 254 Cao Fang
 - 254 - 260 Cao Mao
 - 260 - 265 Cao Huan
Historical era Three Kingdoms
 - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later Han Dynasty 10 December 220
 - Abdication to the Jin Dynasty 4 February 265
Population
 -  est. 40,000,000 
Currency Chinese coin, Chinese cash
Cao Wei
Traditional Chinese 曹魏
Simplified Chinese 曹魏
A wall mural of robed and seated figures, painted in a tomb at Luoyang, Cao Wei Dynasty

Cao Wei (220 CE - 256 CE) was one of the states that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period. With the capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations that his father Cao Cao laid. Its name came from 213, when Cao Cao's feudal holdings were given the name Wei; historians often add the prefix Cao (曹, from Cao Cao's family name) to distinguish it from the other states in Chinese history also known as Wei, such as the earlier Wei state during the Warring States Period, and the later Northern Wei state. In 220, when Cao Pi deposed the last emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wei became the name of the new dynasty he founded, which was seized and controlled by the Sima family in 249, until it was overthrown and became part of the Jin Dynasty in 265.

Contents

History

During the decline of the Han Dynasty, the northern part of China was under the control of Cao Cao, the chancellor to the last Han ruler, Emperor Xian. In 213, Cao Cao was granted the title of "Duke of Wei" and given ten cities as his domain. This area was named "Wei". At that time, the southern part of China was already divided into two areas controlled by two warlords. In 216, Cao Cao was promoted to "King of Wei".

On March 15, 220, Cao Cao died and his son Cao Pi inherited the title of "King of Wei". Later that year on December 11, Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian to abdicate and took over the throne, founding the Wei Dynasty. However, Liu Bei of Shu Han immediately contested Cao Pi's claim to the Han throne, and Sun Quan of Eastern Wu followed suit in 222.

Cao Pi ruled for six years until his death in 226. He was succeeded by his son Cao Rui, who died in 239, and was in turn succeeded by Cao Fang. In 249, during Cao Fang's reign, the regent Sima Yi seized state power from his co-regent Cao Shuang in a coup known as the Incident at Gaoping Tombs. This event marked the collapse of imperial authority in Wei, as Cao Fang's role had been reduced to a puppet ruler while Sima Yi wielded state power firmly in his hands. Sima Yi died in 251 and passed on his authority to his oldest son Sima Shi, who continued ruling as regent. Sima Shi deposed Cao Fang in 254 and replaced him with Cao Mao. After Sima Shi died in the following year, his younger brother Sima Zhao inherited his power and status as regent. In 260, Cao Mao attempted to seize back state power from Sima Zhao in a coup, but was killed by Sima's subordinate Cheng Ji (成濟).

After Cao Mao's death, Cao Huan was enthroned as the fifth ruler of Wei. However, Cao Huan was also a figurehead under Sima Zhao's control much like his predecessor. In 263, Wei armies led by Zhong Hui and Deng Ai conquered Shu. Two years later, Sima Zhao's son Sima Yan forced Cao Huan to abdicate in his favour, replacing Wei with the Jin Dynasty.

Culture

Sometime between the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the Cao Wei Dynasty, kaishu, a style of Chinese calligraphy, appeared, with its first known master being Zhong Yao, who also served as a politician in Wei.[1]

List of territories

You Province
幽州
Commanderies
Fanyang
范陽
Dai
Yuyang
漁陽
Right Beiping
右北平
Liaoxi
遼西
Lelang
樂浪
Shanggu
上谷
Yan (state)
燕國
Changli
昌黎
Xuantu
玄菟
Liaodong
遼東
Daifang
帶方
Ji Province
冀州
Commanderies
Wei
Yangping
陽平
Guangping
廣平
Qinghe
清河
Julu
鉅鹿
Zhao (state)
趙國
Changshan
常山
Anping
安平
Pingyuan
平原
Leling (state)
樂陵
Hejian
河間
Bohai
渤海
Zhongshan (state)
中山國
Qing Province
青州
Commanderies
Chengyang
城陽
Donglai
東萊
Beihai (state)
北海國
Qi (state)
齊國
Le'an
樂安
Jinan (state)
濟南國
Bing Province
并州
Commanderies
Shangdang
上黨
Xihe
西河
Taiyuan
太原
Leping
樂平
Xinxing
新興
Yanmen
雁門
Si Province
司州
Commanderies
Henan
河南尹
Hongnong
弘農
Henei
河內
Hedong
河東
Pingyang
平陽
Yan Province
兗州
Commanderies
Taishan
泰山
Jibei (state)
濟北國
Dongping (state)
東平國
Dong
Rencheng
任城
Shanyang
山陽
Jiyin
濟陰
Chenliu (state)
陳留國
Xu Province
徐州
Commanderies
Dongguan
東莞
Langye (state)
琅琊國
Donghai (state)
東海國
Guangling
廣陵
Xiapi
下邳
Pengcheng (state)
彭城國
Yong Province
雍州
Commanderies
Jingzhao
京兆
Pingyi
馮翊
Fufeng
扶風
Beidi
北地
Xinping
新平
Anding
安定
Guangwei
廣魏
Tianshui
天水
Nan'an
南安
Longxi
隴西
Yu Province
豫州
Commanderies
Chen
Yingchuan
潁川
Runan
汝南
Liang (state)
梁國
Pei (state)
沛國
Qiao
Lu
Yiyang
弋陽
Anfeng
安豐
Liang Province
涼州
Commanderies
Wuwei
武威
Jincheng
金城
Xiping
西平
Zhangye
張掖
Jiuquan
酒泉
Xihai
西海
Dunhuang
敦煌
Yang Province
揚州
Commanderies
Huainan
淮南
Lujiang
廬江
Jing Province
荊州
Commanderies
Jiangxia
江夏
Xiangyang
襄陽
Xincheng
新城
Nanyang
南陽
Nanxiang
南鄉
Shangyong
上庸
Weixing
魏興
Zhangling (Yiyang)
章陵 (義陽)

List of sovereigns

Cao Wei or Kingdom of Wei 220-265 AD
Posthumous names Family (in bold) name and first names Year(s) of reigns Era names and their range of years
Chinese convention: family and first names, and less commonly "Wei" + posthumous name + "di"
Emperor Wen of Wei (Chinese: ; pinyin: Wén) Cao Pi (Chinese: 曹丕; pinyin: Cáo Pī) 220-226 Huangchu (simplified Chinese: 黄初; traditional Chinese: 黃初; pinyin: Huángchū) 220-226
Emperor Ming of Wei (Chinese: ; pinyin: Míng) Cao Rui (Chinese: 曹叡; pinyin: Cáo Rùi) 226-239 Taihe (Chinese: 太和; pinyin: Tàihé) 227-233

Qinglong (simplified Chinese: 青龙; traditional Chinese: 青龍; pinyin: Qīnglóng) 233-237
Jingchu (Chinese: 景初; pinyin: Jĭngchū) 237-239

Shao (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shào) or Prince of Qi of Wei (simplified Chinese: 齐王; traditional Chinese: 齊王; pinyin: Qí Wáng) Cao Fang (Chinese: 曹芳; pinyin: Cáo Fāng) 239-254 Zhengshi (Chinese: 正始; pinyin: Zhèngshĭ) 240-249

Jiaping (Chinese: 嘉平; pinyin: Jīapíng) 249-254

Duke of Gaoguixiang of Wei (simplified Chinese: 高贵乡公; traditional Chinese: 高貴鄉公; pinyin: Gāogùixīang Gōng) Cao Mao (Chinese: 曹髦; pinyin: Cáo Máo) 254-260 Zhengyuan (Chinese: 正元; pinyin: Zhèngyúan) 254-256

Ganlu (Chinese: 甘露; pinyin: Gānlù) 256-260

Emperor Yuan of Wei (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yúan) Cao Huan (Chinese: 曹奐; pinyin: Cáo Hùan) 260-265 Jingyuan (Chinese: 景元; pinyin: Jĭngyúan) 260-264

Xianxi (Chinese: 咸熙; pinyin: Xíanxī) 264-265

See also

References

  1. ^ Qiú Xīguī (2000). Chinese Writing. Translation of 文字學概論 by Mattos and Norman. Early China Special Monograph Series No. 4. Berkeley: The Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. ISBN 1-55729-071-7; p.142-3


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