- Cao Wei
← 220–265 → Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy Emperor - 220 - 226 Cao Pi - 226 - 239 Cao Rui - 239 - 254 Cao Fang - 254 - 260 Cao Mao - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later Han Dynasty 10 December 220 - Abdication to the Jin Dynasty 4 February 265 Population - est. 40,000,000 Currency Chinese coin, Chinese cash Cao Wei Traditional Chinese 曹魏 Simplified Chinese 曹魏 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Cáo Wèi - Wade–Giles Ts'ao Wei Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping Cou4 Ngai6
Cao Wei (220 CE - 256 CE) was one of the states that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period. With the capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations that his father Cao Cao laid. Its name came from 213, when Cao Cao's feudal holdings were given the name Wei; historians often add the prefix Cao (曹, from Cao Cao's family name) to distinguish it from the other states in Chinese history also known as Wei, such as the earlier Wei state during the Warring States Period, and the later Northern Wei state. In 220, when Cao Pi deposed the last emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wei became the name of the new dynasty he founded, which was seized and controlled by the Sima family in 249, until it was overthrown and became part of the Jin Dynasty in 265.
During the decline of the Han Dynasty, the northern part of China was under the control of Cao Cao, the chancellor to the last Han ruler, Emperor Xian. In 213, Cao Cao was granted the title of "Duke of Wei" and given ten cities as his domain. This area was named "Wei". At that time, the southern part of China was already divided into two areas controlled by two warlords. In 216, Cao Cao was promoted to "King of Wei".
On March 15, 220, Cao Cao died and his son Cao Pi inherited the title of "King of Wei". Later that year on December 11, Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian to abdicate and took over the throne, founding the Wei Dynasty. However, Liu Bei of Shu Han immediately contested Cao Pi's claim to the Han throne, and Sun Quan of Eastern Wu followed suit in 222.
Cao Pi ruled for six years until his death in 226. He was succeeded by his son Cao Rui, who died in 239, and was in turn succeeded by Cao Fang. In 249, during Cao Fang's reign, the regent Sima Yi seized state power from his co-regent Cao Shuang in a coup known as the Incident at Gaoping Tombs. This event marked the collapse of imperial authority in Wei, as Cao Fang's role had been reduced to a puppet ruler while Sima Yi wielded state power firmly in his hands. Sima Yi died in 251 and passed on his authority to his oldest son Sima Shi, who continued ruling as regent. Sima Shi deposed Cao Fang in 254 and replaced him with Cao Mao. After Sima Shi died in the following year, his younger brother Sima Zhao inherited his power and status as regent. In 260, Cao Mao attempted to seize back state power from Sima Zhao in a coup, but was killed by Sima's subordinate Cheng Ji (成濟).
After Cao Mao's death, Cao Huan was enthroned as the fifth ruler of Wei. However, Cao Huan was also a figurehead under Sima Zhao's control much like his predecessor. In 263, Wei armies led by Zhong Hui and Deng Ai conquered Shu. Two years later, Sima Zhao's son Sima Yan forced Cao Huan to abdicate in his favour, replacing Wei with the Jin Dynasty.
Sometime between the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the Cao Wei Dynasty, kaishu, a style of Chinese calligraphy, appeared, with its first known master being Zhong Yao, who also served as a politician in Wei.
List of territories
List of sovereigns
Cao Wei or Kingdom of Wei 220-265 AD Posthumous names Family (in bold) name and first names Year(s) of reigns Era names and their range of years Chinese convention: family and first names, and less commonly "Wei" + posthumous name + "di" Emperor Wen of Wei (Chinese: 文; pinyin: Wén) Cao Pi (Chinese: 曹丕; pinyin: Cáo Pī) 220-226 Huangchu (simplified Chinese: 黄初; traditional Chinese: 黃初; pinyin: Huángchū) 220-226 Emperor Ming of Wei (Chinese: 明; pinyin: Míng) Cao Rui (Chinese: 曹叡; pinyin: Cáo Rùi) 226-239 Taihe (Chinese: 太和; pinyin: Tàihé) 227-233
Shao (Chinese: 少; pinyin: Shào) or Prince of Qi of Wei (simplified Chinese: 齐王; traditional Chinese: 齊王; pinyin: Qí Wáng) Cao Fang (Chinese: 曹芳; pinyin: Cáo Fāng) 239-254 Zhengshi (Chinese: 正始; pinyin: Zhèngshĭ) 240-249
Duke of Gaoguixiang of Wei (simplified Chinese: 高贵乡公; traditional Chinese: 高貴鄉公; pinyin: Gāogùixīang Gōng) Cao Mao (Chinese: 曹髦; pinyin: Cáo Máo) 254-260 Zhengyuan (Chinese: 正元; pinyin: Zhèngyúan) 254-256
Emperor Yuan of Wei (Chinese: 元; pinyin: Yúan) Cao Huan (Chinese: 曹奐; pinyin: Cáo Hùan) 260-265 Jingyuan (Chinese: 景元; pinyin: Jĭngyúan) 260-264
- Shu Han
- Eastern Wu
- Three Kingdoms
- List of people of the Three Kingdoms
- Timeline of the Three Kingdoms period
- Romance of the Three Kingdoms
- Records of Three Kingdoms
- de Crespigny, Rafe. "To Establish Peace: being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 201 to 220 AD as recorded in Chapters 64 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang". Volume 2. Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra. 1996. ISBN 0-7315-2526-4.
Prominent people at the end of the Han Dynasty (189–220) Emperors WarlordsCao Cao · Ding Yuan · Dong Zhuo · Gongsun Du · Gongsun Zan · Guo Si · Han Sui · Kong Rong · Li Jue · Liu Bei · Liu Biao · Liu Yao · Liu Yu · Liu Zhang · Lü Bu · Ma Teng · Sun Jian · Sun Ce · Sun Quan · Wang Lang · Yan Baihu · Yuan Tan · Yuan Shao · Yuan Shang · Yuan Shu · Zhang Jue · Zhang Lu · Zhang Xiu Advisors GeneralsCao Hong · Cao Ren · Cao Zhang · Chen Dao · Cheng Pu · Dian Wei · Dong Xi · Gan Ning · Gao Shun · Guan Yu · Guan Ping · Han Dang · He Jin · Hua Xiong · Huang Gai · Huang Zhong · Huang Zu · Huangfu Song · Jiang Qin · Li Dian · Liao Hua · Ling Tong · Liu Feng · Lü Meng · Ma Chao · Pan Zhang · Pang De · Taishi Ci · Wei Yan · Wen Chou · Wen Pin · Xiahou Dun · Xiahou Yuan · Xu Chu · Xu Huang · Xu Rong · Xu Sheng · Yan Liang · Yu Jin · Yue Jin · Zang Ba · Zhang Fei · Zhang He · Zhang Liao · Zhang Ren · Zhao Yun · Zhou Tai · Zhou Yu · Zhu Huan · Zhu Ran · Zhu Zhi Others Prominent people of Cao Wei Emperors Empress Regents Advisors Generals Others
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