Infobox Language family
Caribbeanand Central Americato every country in South Americaexcept Uruguayand Chile
Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre, Arawakan, Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper) is a
language familythat spans from the Caribbeanand Central Americato every country in South Americaexcepting Uruguayand Chile. Maipurean may be related to other language families in a hypothetical Arawakanstock.
The name "Maipurean/Maipuran" was named after the
Maipure languageof Colombiaand Venezuelaby Filippo S. Gilijin 1782.
Maipurean vs. Arawakan
In recent years, the term "Maipurean" refers to a core family of undoubtedly related languages while the term "Arawakan" refers to a larger and hypothetical phylum at a level above Maipurean. In this sense, Maipurean is a sub-grouping under a (macro-)Arawakan stock along with
Guajiboan, Arauan, Candoshi, Harákmbut, and the extinct Puquina.
Another usage of the term "Arawakan" is synonymous with "Maipurean" where they both are used interchangeably to refer to this core family. In this sense, readers may find "Arawakan" referring to the larger grouping and "Arawakan Proper" referring the (Maipurean) subgrouping.
The classification of Maipurean is difficult due to the large number of languages which are
extinctand poorly documented. The following (tentative) classification is from Kaufman (1994: 57-60). In addition to the family tree detailed below, there are a few languages that are "Non-Maipurean Arawakan languages or too scantily known to classify" (Kaufman 1994: 58), which include:
Morique(a.k.a. Morike) "(†)"
Another language is also mentioned as "Arawakan":
Salumã(a.k.a. Salumán, Enawené-Nawé)
Including these unclassified languages mentioned above, the Maipurean family has about 64 languages. Out of these, 29 languages are now extinct: Wainumáf, Mariaté, Anauyá, Amarizana, Jumana, Pasé, Cawishana, Garú, Marawá, Guinao, Yavitero, Maipure, Manao, Kariaí, Waraikú, Yabaána, Wiriná, Aruán, Taíno, Kalhíphona, Marawán-Karipurá, Saraveca, Custenau, Paunaca, Inapari, Kanamaré, Shebaye, Lapachu, and Morique.
Gordon (2005) lists
Aikaná(a.k.a. Tubarão) and Irantxe(a.k.a. Irántxe) under Maipurean, but Campbell (1997) & Kaufman (1994) list these languages as a language isolates/ unclassified languages. Gordon also lists the following extinct "unclassified Arawkan" languages which do not appear in Campbell or Kaufman:
Ponares may be related to
Piapocoor Achagua. Chané may be a dialectof Terenaalthough Gordon says that it is distinct from Terena (note also that Gordon considers Guana a separate language while Campbell and Kaufman consider this a dialect of Terena).
I. Northern Maipurean: A. "Upper Amazon branch":: i. Western Nawiki::: a. Wainumá group "(†)":::: 1.
Wainumá"(†)":::: 2. Mariaté"(†)"::: 3. Anauyá"(†)"::: b. Piapoko group:::: 4. Achagua(a.k.a. Achawa):::: 5. Piapoco(a.k.a. Piapoko):::: 6. Amarizana"(†)"::: 7. Caviyari(a.k.a. Kaviyarí, Cabiyarí)::: c. Warekena group:::: 8. Guarequena(a.k.a. Warekena):::: 9. Mandahuaca(a.k.a. Mandawaka)::: d. Río Negro group:::: 10. Jumana"(†)":::: 11. Pasé"(†)":::: 12. Cawishana(a.k.a. Kawishana) "(†)"::: e. Yucuna group (a.k.a. Jukuna language area):::: 13. Yucuna(a.k.a. Jukuna):::: 14. Garú"(†)":: ii. Eastern Nawiki::: 15. Tariana(a.k.a. Tariano)::: a. Karu group:::: 16. Ipeka- Kurripako(a.k.a. Curripako, Ipeka-Tapuia-Curripako):::: 17. Karútiana- Baniwa(a.k.a. Baniva, Carútana-Baniwa):::: 18. Katpolítani- Moriwene- Mapanai"(dialect?)":: iii. Resígaro::: 19. Resígaro:: iv. Central Upper Amazon::: a. Baré group:::: 20. Marawá"(†)":::: 21. Baré:::: 22. Guinao(a.k.a. Ginao) "(†)"::: b. Yavitero group:::: 23. Yavitero"(†)":::: 24. Baniva::: 25. Maipure"(†)":: v. Manao "(†)"::: 26. Manao"(†)"::: 27. Kariaí"(†)":: vi unclassified Upper Amazon languages::: 28. Waraikú"(†)"::: 29. Yabaána(a.k.a. Yabaâna) "(†)"::: 30. Wiriná"(†)"::: 31. Shiriana(a.k.a. Xiriâna)
: B. "Maritime branch":: i. Aruán::: 32.
Aruán"(†)":: ii. Wapishana::: 33. Wapixana(a.k.a. Wapishana) (dialects: Atorada (aka Atoraí), Mapidian (aka Maopidyán), Wapishana):: iii. Ta-Maipurean::: 34. Taíno(a.k.a. Taino) (dialects: Baicawa, Cayaba, Cubaba, Eyeri, Lucayo)
::: a. Guajiro group (a.k.a. Wahiro):::: 35. Wayuu (a.k.a. Wahiro, Guajiro):::: 36.
Paraujano(a.k.a. Parauhano)::: 37. Arawak(a.k.a. Arawák)::: b. Iñeri group (a.k.a. Inyeri language area):::: 38. Kalhíphona(a.k.a. Island Carib) "(†)":::: 39. Garífuna (a.k.a. Black Carib)
:: iv. Palikur::: 40.
Palikur(a.k.a. Palikúr)::: 41. Marawán- Karipúna"(†)"
II. Southern Maipurean: A. "Western branch":: 42. Amuesha (a.k.a. Amoesha, Yanesha’):: 43.
: B. "Central branch":: i. Paresí group::: 44.
Peresí(a.k.a. Perecís)::: 45. Saraveca(a.k.a. Sarave) "(†)":: ii. Waurá group::: 46. Waurá- Meinaku(a.k.a. Waurá-Mehináku)::: 47. Yawalpití(a.k.a. Yawalapití)::: 48. Custenau(a.k.a. Kustenau) "(†)"
: C. "Southern Outlier branch":: i. Terena::: 49. Terêna (dialects: Kinikinao, Terena, Guaná (aka Guana), Chané):: ii.
Moxosgroup (a.k.a. Moho)::: a. Moxos languagearea:::: 50. Ignaciano:::: 51. Trinitario::: 52. Baure::: 53. Paunaca(a.k.a. Pauna-Paikone) "(†)":: iii. Piro group::: 54. Yine(formerly known as Piro) ::: 55. Inapari(a.k.a. Iñapari) "(†)"::: 56. Kanamaré"(†)"::: 57. Apuriña (a.k.a. Apuriná)
: D. "Campa branch" (also known Pre-Andean) :: 58.
Ashéninka:: 59. Asháninka:: 60. Axininca:: 61. Machiguenga(a.k.a. Matsiguenga) (dialects: Caquinte, Machiguenga):: 62. Nomatsiguenga
*English words of Arawakan origin
* Ethnologue: [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90535 Arawakan, Maipuran]
* Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. (1999). The Arawak language family. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald (Eds.), "The Amazonian languages". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57021-2; ISBN 0-521-57893-0.
* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Derbyshire, Desmond C. (1992). Arawakan languages. In W. Bright (Ed.), "International encyclopedia of linguistics" (Vol. 1, pp. 102-105). New Oxford: Oxford University Press.
* Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world" (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
* Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), "Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages" (pp. 13-67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
* Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), "Atlas of the world's languages" (pp. 46-76). London: Routledge.
* Migliazza, Ernest C.; & Campbell, Lyle. (1988). "Panorama general de las lenguas indígenas en América" (pp. 223). Historia general de América (Vol. 10). Caracas: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia.
* Payne, David. (1991). A classification of Maipuran (Arawakan) languages based on shared lexical retentions. In D. C. Derbyshire & G. K. Pullum (Eds.), "Handbook of Amazonian languages" (Vol. 3, pp. 355-499). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
* Solís Fonseca, Gustavo. (2003). Lenguas en la amazonía peruana. Lima: edición por demanda.
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