List of extinct animals of Europe

The list of extinct animals in Europe features the animals that have become extinct on the European continent and some in other dependent territories of European countries. While most of the animals in the recent Holocene have a human caused extinction [Baillie, J.E.M., Hilton-Taylor, C. and Stuart, S.N. (Editors) 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. A Global Species Assessment. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xxiv + 191 pp. [http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/publications/red_list/Red_List_2004_book.pdf Online pdf] ] , Pleistocene extinctions and early Holocene extinctions are contested. Some see them as human caused while others as a product of climate change.

Pliocene extinctions

* Minorcan Giant Lagomorph, (Minorca)

Pleistocene extinctions

* Cave Bear, "Ursus spelaeus"
* Early Middle Pleistocene European cave lion, "Panthera leo fossilis"
* Upper Pleistocene European cave lion, "Panthera leo spelaea"
* Dwarf Elephants in the Mediterranean, "Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) sp." (Several species on different islands.)
* Cretan Dwarf Hippopotamus, "Hippopotamus creutzburgi" (Crete, Greece)
* Deinotherium, "Deinotherium giganteus"
* Dinofelis, "Dinofelis diastemata"
* European Hippopotamus, "Hippopotamus antiquus"
* Giant Unicorn, "Elasmotherium sibiricum"
* Neanderthal, "Homo neanderthalensis"
* Woolly Mammoth, "Mammuthus primigenius"
* Sardinian Dwarf Mammoth, "Mammuthus lamarmorae" (Sardinia, Italy)
* Maltese Hippopotamus, "Hippopotamus melitensis" (Malta)
* Sicilian Hippopotamus, "Hippopotamus pentlandi" (Sicily, Italy)
* Southern Mammoth, "Mammuthus meridionalis"
* Straight-tusked Elephant, "Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus"
* Tenerife Giant Rat, "Canariomys bravoi" (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain)
* Woolly Rhinoceros, "Coelodonta antiquitatis"

Global Holocene extinctions

Mammals

* Aurochs, "Bos primigenius primigenius" (1627, Poland)
* Balearic Cave Goat, "Myotragus balearicus" (c.3000 BC, Majorca, Minorca, Spain)
* Balearic Giant Shrew, "Nesiotites hidalgo" (Majorca, Minorca, Spain)
* Caspian Tiger, "Panthera tigris virgata" (1960s, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, southwest Russia, Crimea (possible))
* Caucasian Moose, "Alces alces caucasicus" (1810, Caucasus Mountains)
* Caucasian Wisent, "Bison bonasus caucasicus" (1927, Caucasus Mountains)
* Carpathian Wisent, "Bison bonasus hungarorum" (1790, Carpathian Mountains)
* Corsican Pika, "Prolagus corsicanus" (1800, Corsica, France)
* Cretan Dwarf Megacerine, "Megaceroides cretensis" (Crete, Greece)
* European Ass or Encebra, "Equus hydruntinus" (1400s, Spain)
* European Lion, "Panthera leo europaea" (100 AD, Greece)
* Irish Elk, "Megaloceros giganteus" (c.5000 BC, Ural Mountains)
* Majorcan Giant Dormouse, "Hypnomys morphaeus" (Majorca, Spain)
* Majorcan Hare, "Lepus granatensis solisi" (1980s, Majorca, Spain)
* Minorcan Giant Dormouse, "Hypnomys mahonensis" (Minorca, Spain)
* Portuguese Ibex, "Capra pyrenaica lusitanica" (1892, Portugal)
* Pyrenean Ibex, "Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica" (2000, Spain)
* Sardinian Dhole, "Cynotherium sardous" (Sardinia, Italy)
* Sardinian Giant Shrew, "Nesiotites similis" (Sardinia, Italy)
* Sardinian Lynx, "Lynx lynx sardiniae" (Sardinia, Italy)
* Sardinian Pika, "Prolagus sardus" (1800, Sardinia, Italy)
* St Kilda House Mouse"'

* Tarpan, "Equus ferus ferus" (1880, Poland)
* Tilos Dwarf Elephant, "Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) sp." (4000 BP, Tilos, Greece)

Birds

* Great Auk, "Pinguinus impennis" (1844, Iceland)
* Ibiza Rail, "Rallus eivissensis" (c. 5000 BC, Ibiza, Spain)

Reptiles

* Ratas Island Lizard, "Podarcis lilfordi rodriquezi" (1950, Minorca, Spain)
* Santo Stefano Lizard, "Podarcis sicula sanctistephani" (1965, Santo Stefano Island, Italy)

Insects

* Tobias' caddisfly, "Hydropsyche tobiasi" (1938, Germany)
* "Maculinea alcon arenaria" (1979, Netherlands)
* Perrin's cave beetle, "Siettitia balsetensis" (France)
* "Thetidia smaragdaria maritima", British subspecies of the Essex Emerald, 1991, United Kingdom
* "Lycaena dispar dispar", the British subspecies of the Large Copper, 1851, United Kingdom
* "Maculinea arion eutyphron", the British subspecies of the Large Blue, 1979, United Kingdom
* "Plebejus argus masseyi", a British subspecies of the Silver-studded Blue, United Kingdom
* "Maculinea teleius burdigalensis", French subspecies of the Scarce Large Blue, France

Molluscs

* "Belgandiella intermedia" (Austria)
* "Bythinella intermedia" (Austria)
* "Graecoanatolica macedonica" (Lake Dorjan, Macedonia, Greece)
* "Ohridohauffenia drimica" (Macedonia)

Local European extinctions

The following animals became locally extinct in Europe, but survive on other continents.
* Anatolian Leopard, "Panthera pardus tulliana" (Island of Samos, Greece, 19th century)
* Asiatic Lion, "Panthera leo persica" (10th century, Caucasus mountains)
* Cheetah, "Acinonyx jubatus" (15th century, Armenia)
* Northern Bald Ibis, "Geronticus eremita" (16th century) - Reintroduced in Southern Spain (2004) and Austria (2005)
* Gray whale, "Eschrichtius robustus" (c. 1700, whole Europe, North Sea, Iceland, Irish sea, The Channel, Bay of Biscay, the Mediterranean)

Rediscovered

* Bavarian pine vole, "Microtus bavaricus" (2000, Austria)
* "Telestes turskyi" (a cyprinid fish) (2002, Croatia)
* La Palma Giant Lizard, "Gallotia auaritae" (2007, La Palma in the Canary Islands)

References


* Crivelli, A.J. 2005. Chondrostoma scodrense. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. . Downloaded on 14 May 2006 [http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=61345&tab=all] .
* Crivelli, A.J. 2005. Telestes turskyi. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org . Downloaded on 14 May 2006 [http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php?species=61351&tab=all] .
* IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org . Downloaded on 24 March 2006.
* IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org . Downloaded on 11 May 2006.
* Miras, J.A.M. 2005. Gallotia auaritae. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org . Downloaded on 11 May 2006 [http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php?species=61501&tab=all] .

ee also

* List of extinct animals of the British Isles
* List of extinct and endangered animals of Lithuania
* List of extinct animals of the Netherlands
* List of extinct animals of Catalonia
* List of extinct animals of Caucasus
* List of extinct animals
* List of extinct animals of Asia
* List of extinct animals of Africa
* List of extinct animals of South America
* Extinct birds
* Dwarf elephant
* List of extinct and endangered species of Italy

External links

* [http://extinct.petermaas.nl The Extinction Website]
* [http://www.redlist.org IUCN Red List of Threatened Species]
* [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/home.htm European Union - Nature and Biodiversity]


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