YouTube, LLC Type Subsidiary,
limited liability company
Founded February 14, 2005 Founder Steve Chen
Headquarters 901 Cherry Ave,
San Bruno, California, United States
Area served Worldwide Key people Salar Kamangar, CEO
Chad Hurley, Advisor
Owner Independent (2005–2006)
Google Inc. (2006–present)
Slogan Broadcast Yourself Website youtube.com
(see list of localized domain names)
Alexa rank 3 (November 2011[update]) Type of site Video hosting service Advertising Google AdSense Registration Optional (Only required for certain
tasks such as viewing flagged videos,
viewing flagged comments and
Available in 51 language versions available through user interface Launched February 14, 2005 Current status Active Screenshot
Screenshot of YouTube's homepage
The company is based in San Bruno, California, and uses Adobe Flash Video and HTML5 technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips, and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging and short original videos. Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, although media corporations including CBS, BBC, VEVO, Hulu, and other organizations offer some of their material via the site, as part of the YouTube partnership program.
Unregistered users may watch videos, and registered users may upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos that are considered to contain potentially offensive content are available only to registered users 18 years old and older. In November 2006, YouTube, LLC was bought by Google Inc. for US$1.65 billion, and now operates as a subsidiary of Google.
- 1 Company history
- 2 Features
- 3 April Fools
- 4 Censorship and filtering
- 5 Social impact
- 6 Community policy
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, while Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, while Hurley commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".
YouTube began as a venture-funded technology startup, primarily from a $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. The domain name
www.youtube.comwas activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months.
YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005, six months before the official launch in November 2005. The site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43 percent and more than 14 billion videos viewed in May 2010. YouTube says that over 48 hours of new videos are uploaded to the site every minute, and that around three quarters of the material comes from outside the US. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. Alexa ranks YouTube as the third most visited website on the Internet, behind Google and Facebook.
The choice of the name
www.youtube.comled to problems for a similarly named website,
www.utube.com. The owner of the site, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being overloaded on a regular basis by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to
www.utubeonline.com. In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006. Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing. In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.
In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney. In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners. In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service, which is currently available only to users in the US, Canada and the UK. The service offers over 6,000 films.
In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.
On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter." In May 2010, it was reported that YouTube was serving more than two billion videos a day, which it described as "nearly double the prime-time audience of all three major US television networks combined". In May 2011, YouTube reported in its company blog that the site was receiving more than three billion views per day.
In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company.
In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30 percent of videos accounted for 99 percent of views on the site.
Viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer requires the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed on the browser. The Adobe Flash Player plug-in is one of the most common pieces of software installed on personal computers and accounts for almost 75% of online video material.
In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that uses the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard. This allows videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed. The YouTube site has a page that allows supported browsers to opt in to the HTML5 trial. Only browsers that support HTML5 Video using the H.264 or WebM formats can play the videos, and not all videos on the site are available.
All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site's Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos of unlimited length, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone. When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload long videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films. The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010. File size is limited to 2 GB for uploads from YouTube web page, and to 20 GB if Java-based Advanced Uploader is used.
YouTube accepts videos uploaded in most container formats, including .AVI, .MKV, .MOV, .MP4, DivX, .FLV, and .ogg and .ogv. These include video formats such as MPEG-4, MPEG, VOB, and .WMV. It also supports 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones. Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube prefers interlaced videos to be deinterlaced prior to uploading. All the video formats on YouTube use progressive scanning.
Quality and codecs
YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320x240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263), with mono MP3 audio. In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones. In March 2008, a high quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480x360 pixels In November 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9. With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096x3072 pixels.
YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ) and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC format, with stereo AAC audio.
Comparison of YouTube media encoding options fmt value 5 34 35 18 22 37 38 43 44 45 – 17 Default container FLV MP4 WebM 3GP Video Encoding Sorenson H.263 MPEG-4 AVC (H.264) VP8 MPEG-4 Visual Profile – Main Baseline High – – Resolution progressive 224p 360p 480p 360p 720p 1080p 2304p 360p 480p 720p 1080p – Resolution VGA WQVGA nHD FWVGA nHD WXGA WUXGA HXGA nHD FWVGA WXGA WUXGA – Max width (pixels) 400 640 854 640 1280 1920 4096 640 854 1280 1920 176 Max height (pixels) 240 360 480 360 720 1080 3072 360 480 720 1080 144 Bitrate (Mbit/s) 0.25 0.5 0.8–1.0 0.5 2.0–2.9 3.5–5.0 – 0.5 1 2 – – Audio Encoding MP3 AAC Vorbis AAC Channels 1–2 2 (stereo) Sampling rate (Hz) 22050 44100 Bitrate (kbit/s) 64 128 96 152 128 192 –
^ 1 fmt was an undocumented URL parameter that allowed selecting YouTube quality mode without using player user interface. Since December 2010, this parameter is no longer supported.
^ 2 Approximate values based on statistical data; actual bitrate can be higher or lower due to variable encoding rate.
In a video posted on July 21, 2009, YouTube software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube users can now upload 3D videos. The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect. The YouTube Flash player can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision.
One of the key features of YouTube is the ability of users to view its videos on web pages outside the site. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML, which can be used to embed it on a page outside the YouTube website. This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Embedding, as well as ranking and commenting, can be disabled by the video owner.
YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface. A small number of videos, such as the weekly addresses by President Barack Obama, can be downloaded as MP4 files. Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos. In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout.
Some smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, dependent on the provider and the data plan. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, and uses RTSP streaming for the video. Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.
Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone. A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos. In January 2009, YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles. In June 2009, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.
On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system. The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 32 countries and a USA version.
The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.
The interface of the YouTube website is available in 51 different language versions, including Catalan, Danish, Finnish, Greek, Hungarian, Norwegian and Slovene, which do not have local channel versions.
Plans for YouTube to create a local version in Turkey have run into problems, since the Turkish authorities asked YouTube to set up an office in Turkey, which would be subject to Turkish law. YouTube says that it has no intention of doing this, and that its videos are not subject to Turkish law. Turkish authorities have expressed concerns that YouTube has been used to post videos insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.
In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009. In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.
YouTube has featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year since 2008:
- 2008: All the links to the videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley's music video "Never Gonna Give You Up", a prank known as "Rickrolling".
- 2009: When clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down. YouTube claimed that this was a new layout.
- 2010: YouTube temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode, which translated the colors in the videos to random upper case letters. YouTube claimed in a message that this was done in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second.
- 2011: The site celebrated its "100th anniversary" with a "1911 button" and a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including "Flugelhorn Feline", a parody of Keyboard Cat.
Censorship and filtering
Several countries have blocked access to YouTube, including:
- YouTube has been blocked in China.
- Morocco shut down access to YouTube in 2008.
- Thailand blocked YouTube between 2006 and 2007 due to offensive videos relating to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
- Turkey blocked access to YouTube between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The block was lifted briefly but reimposed in November 2010.
- On December 3, 2006, Iran temporarily blocked access to YouTube, along with several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex. The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran's 2009 presidential election.
- On February 23, 2008, Pakistan blocked YouTube because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of the prophet Muhammad. This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. Pakistan lifted its block on February 26, 2008. Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software. In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content".
- On January 24, 2010, Libya blocked access to YouTube after it featured videos of demonstrations in the Libyan city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch.
Education authorities in some regions have blocked student access to YouTube, with some state education departments in Australia citing the inability to determine what sort of video material might be accessed.
Before the launch of YouTube in 2005, there were few easy methods available for ordinary computer users who wanted to post videos online. With its simple interface, YouTube made it possible for anyone with an Internet connection to post a video that a worldwide audience could watch within a few minutes. The wide range of topics covered by YouTube has turned video sharing into one of the most important parts of Internet culture.
An early example of the social impact of YouTube was the success of The Bus Uncle video in 2006. It shows a heated conversation between a youth and an older man on a bus in Hong Kong, and was discussed widely in the mainstream media. Another YouTube video to receive extensive coverage is guitar, which features a performance of Pachelbel's Canon on an electric guitar. The name of the performer is not given in the video. After it received millions of views The New York Times revealed the identity of the guitarist as Lim Jeong-hyun, a 23-year-old from South Korea who had recorded the track in his bedroom.. This video has since been removed from YouTube.
Charlie Bit My Finger, which was uploaded on May 22, 2007, is a viral video that has received the most views of any user generated YouTube video, with over 300 million views. The clip features two English brothers, with one-year-old Charlie biting the finger of his brother Harry, aged three. In Time's list of YouTube's 50 greatest viral videos of all time, "Charlie Bit My Finger" was ranked at number one.
Entertainment Weekly placed YouTube on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list, describing it as: "Providing a safe home for piano-playing cats, celeb goof-ups, and overzealous lip-synchers since 2005."
YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behaviour. Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines.
At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a screen with the message "Do not upload any TV shows, music videos, music concerts or advertisements without permission, unless they consist entirely of content that you created yourself". Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
Organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material. Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works". During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights". In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling. Since Viacom filed its lawsuit in 2008, YouTube has introduced the "Video ID" system, which checks uploaded videos against a database of copyrighted content with the aim of reducing violations.
In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.
In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notice on YouTube. He asserted seven courses of action and four were ruled in Smith's favor. 
YouTube has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is prohibited by YouTube's terms of service. Controversial areas have included Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.
YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's terms of service. In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:
We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly.
In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to take down from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki, saying that by hosting al-Awlaki's messages, "We are facilitating the recruitment of homegrown terror". British security minister Pauline Neville-Jones commented: "These Web sites would categorically not be allowed in the U.K. They incite cold-blooded murder, and as such are surely contrary to the public good." In November 2010, YouTube removed from its site some of the hundreds of videos featuring al-Awlaki's calls to jihad. It stated that it had removed videos that violated the site’s guidelines prohibiting "dangerous or illegal activities such as bomb-making, hate speech and incitement to commit violent acts", or came from accounts "registered by a member of a designated foreign terrorist organization". In December 2010, YouTube added "promotes terrorism" to the list of reasons that users can give when flagging a video as inappropriate.
Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. When Time in 2006 praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", it added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred". The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube as follows:
Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance – with the occasional burst of wit shining through.
In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".
- Alternative media
- CNN-YouTube presidential debates
- Comparison of video hosting services
- List of Internet phenomena
- List of video hosting services
- List of YouTube personalities
- Viacom International Inc. v. YouTube, Inc.
- YouTube Awards
- YouTube Instant
- YouTube Live
- YouTube Symphony Orchestra
- ^ "Youtube.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/youtube.com. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ a b "YouTube language versions". http://i.imgur.com/rYdZs.png. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- ^ Hopkins, Jim (October 11, 2006). "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-10-11-youtube-karim_x.htm. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ "YouTube HTML5 Video Player". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/html5. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
- ^ Weber, Tim (March 2, 2007). "BBC strikes Google-YouTube deal". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6411017.stm. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ Graham, Jefferson (November 21, 2005). "Video websites pop up, invite postings". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/2005-11-21-video-websites_x.htm. Retrieved July 28, 2006.
- ^ "YouTube: Sharing Digital Camera Videos". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. http://www.cs.uiuc.edu/news/articles.php?id=2006Feb3-126. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ Cloud, John (December 16, 2006). "The Gurus of YouTube". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1570721,00.html. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ Miguel Helft and Matt Richtel (October 10, 2006). "Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/10/technology/10payday.html. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ Sara Kehaulani Goo (October 7, 2006). "Ready for Its Close-Up". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/06/AR2006100600660.html. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ "Whois Record for
www.youtube.com". DomainTools. http://whois.domaintools.com/youtube.com. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- ^ Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008). "YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash". London: Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2480280/YouTube-Overnight-success-has-sparked-a-backlash.html. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ "Me at the zoo". YouTube. April 23, 2005. http://youtube.com/watch?v=jNQXAC9IVRw. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online". USA Today. July 16, 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-07-16-youtube-views_x.htm. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ "comScore Releases May 2010 U.S. Online Video Rankings". comScore. http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2010/6/comScore_Releases_May_2010_U.S._Online_Video_Rankings. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- ^ a b Shane Richmond (May 26, 2011). "YouTube users uploading two days of video every minute". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/google/8536634/YouTube-users-uploading-two-days-of-video-every-minute.html. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- ^ "Eric Schmidt, Princeton Colloquium on Public & Int'l Affairs". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9nXmDxf7D_g#t=14m52s. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ Carter, Lewis (April 7, 2008). "Web could collapse as video demand soars". London: Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/04/07/nweb107.xml. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- ^ "Alexa Traffic Rank for YouTube (three month average)". Alexa Internet. http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/youtube.com. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- ^ Zappone, Christian (October 12, 2006). "Help! YouTube is killing my business!". CNN. http://money.cnn.com/2006/10/12/news/companies/utube/index.htm. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ Blakely, Rhys (November 2, 2006). "Utube sues YouTube". London: The Times. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/media/article623050.ece. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ Reuters (November 14, 2006). "Google closes $A2b YouTube deal". Melbourne: The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/Busness/Google-closes-A2b-YouTube-deal/2006/11/14/1163266548827.html. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ Yen, Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008). "YouTube Looks For the Money Clip". http://techland.blogs.fortune.cnn.com/2008/03/25/youtube-looks-for-the-money-clip. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^ Hardy, Quentin; Evan Hessel (May 22, 2008). "GooTube". Forbes Magazine (Forbes.com). http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2008/0616/050.html. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Brad Stone and Brooks Barnes (November 10, 2008). "MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/10/business/media/10mgm.html?ref=technology. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ Staci D. Kramer (April 30, 2009). "It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets". paidContent.org. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/30/AR2009043001853.html. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- ^ Allen, Katie (November 19, 2009). "YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/nov/19/youtube-uk-full-length-shows. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- ^ Miguel Helft (January 20, 2010). "YouTube takes a small step into the film rental market". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/21/technology/internet/21youtube.html. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- ^ Shiels, Maggie (January 21, 2010). "YouTube turns to movie rental business". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8471635.stm. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK". BBC News. October 7, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-15214939. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- ^ Tsotsis, Alexia (May 9, 2011). "Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies". techcrunch.com. http://techcrunch.com/2011/05/09/google-partners-with-sony-pictures-nbc-universal-and-warner-brothers-for-youtube-movies/. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ Sweney, Mark (January 20, 2010). "Cricket: IPL goes global with live online deal". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/jan/20/youtube-live-indian-premier-league. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated". AFP. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jfGfKKsiwbxNv8XoUbm8ZlRZZWyw. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- ^ Chapman, Glenn. "YouTube serving up two billion videos daily". AFP. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jK4sI9GfUTCKAkVGhDzpJ1ACZm9Q. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- ^ "Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive". AFP. October 29, 2010. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5ggtnJSISuXoPHgxu6HwPJJqVTT6g?docId=CNG.f7ff59e3829714d23524d35ed1afdd63.921. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- ^ "Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films". Daily Telegraph. April 20, 2011. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/8464418/Almost-all-YouTube-views-come-from-just-30-of-films.html. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- ^ Whitney, Lance (November 4, 2011). "Google+ now connects with YouTube, Chrome". CNET. http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57318595-93/google-now-connects-with-youtube-chrome/?part=rss&subj=news&tag=2547-1_3-0-20. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- ^ Fildes, Jonathan (October 5, 2009). "Flash moves on to smart phones". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8287239.stm. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- ^ "Watch this YouTube Video without the Flash Player". http://www.labnol.org/internet/youtube-video-without-flash-player/9016/. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- ^ "HTML5 YouTube viewer: close, but not quite there". http://www.downloadsquad.com/2009/11/08/html5-youtube-viewer-close-but-not-quite-there/. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube HTML5 Video Player". http://www.youtube.com/html5. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
- ^ Shankland, Stephen (May 19, 2010). "Google tries freeing Web video with WebM". CNET.com. http://news.cnet.com/8301-30685_3-20005378-264.html?tag=mncol. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- ^ Video length for uploading YouTube Help. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- ^ Fisher, Ken. "YouTube caps video lengths to reduce infringement". Ars Technica. http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20060329-6481.html. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- ^ "Account Types: Longer videos". YouTube. http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?answer=71673&ctx=sibling. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- ^ Lowensohn, Josh (July 29, 2010). "YouTube bumps video limit to 15 minutes". CNET. http://news.cnet.com/8301-27076_3-20012090-248.html. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- ^ "Video Formats: File formats". YouTube. http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?answer=55744&topic=10526. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- ^ "Getting Started: File formats". YouTube. http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=55744. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- ^ Tinic Uro (August 13, 2005). "The quest for a new video codec in Flash 8". http://www.kaourantin.net/2005/08/quest-for-new-video-codec-in-flash-8.html. Retrieved January 27, 2011. "We went this route before with Sorenson Spark which is an incomplete implementation of H.263 and it bit us badly when trying to implement certain solutions."
- ^ Adobe Systems Incorporated (2010). "Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification Version 10.1" (PDF). p. 72. http://download.macromedia.com/f4v/video_file_format_spec_v10_1.pdf. Retrieved January 27, 2011. "Sorenson H.263"
- ^ "Market Demand for Sorenson Media's Sorenson Spark Video Decoder Expands Sharply". Sorenson Media. June 2, 2009. http://www.sorensonmedia.com/news/?n=379. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube Mobile goes live". June 17, 2007. http://www.downloadsquad.com/2007/06/17/youtube-mobile-goes-live/. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube Blog – YouTube Videos in High Quality". YouTube. March 24, 2008. http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2008/03/youtube-videos-in-high-quality.html. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube videos go HD with a simple hack". CNET. November 20, 2008. http://news.cnet.com/8301-17939_109-10104182-2.html?tag=mncol;txt. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- ^ "What's bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. July 9, 2010. http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2010/07/whats-bigger-than-1080p-4k-video-comes.html. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- ^ Lowensohn, Josh (July 9, 2010). "YouTube now supports 4k-resolution videos". CNET. http://news.cnet.com/8301-27076_3-20010174-248.html. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube to get high-def 1080p player". CNET. November 29, 2009. http://news.cnet.com/8301-17939_109-10396826-2.html. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- ^ "This format is part of the HTML5 trial". Youtube.com. http://www.youtube.com/html5. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- ^ McFarland, Patrick (May 24, 2010). "Approximate Youtube Bitrates". http://adterrasperaspera.com/blog/2010/05/24/approximate-youtube-bitrates. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- ^ "Bigger and Better: Encoding for YouTube 720p HD". December 2008. http://webvideotechniques.com/123/bigger-and-better-encoding-for-youtube-hd. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- ^ Greenfield, Trevor (November 22, 2009). "Youtube’s 1080p – Failure Depends on How You Look At It". http://trevorgreenfield.com/rants-and-raves/youtubes-1080p-failure-depends-on-how-you-look-at-it. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- ^ Biggs, Billy (November 12, 2009). "1080p HD Is Coming to YouTube". http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2009/11/1080p-hd-comes-to-youtube.html. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube in 3D". YouTube. July 21, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ANcspdYh_U. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Marquit, Miranda (July 23, 2009). "YouTube in 3D?". Physorg. http://www.physorg.com/news167575864.html. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Dsouza, Keith (July 20, 2009). "YouTube 3D Videos". Techie Buzz. http://techie-buzz.com/video-tools/youtube-3d-videos.html. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Sobti, Kshitij (July 21, 2009). "YouTube adds a dimension, 3D goggles not included". thinkdigit. http://www.thinkdigit.com/Internet/YouTube-adds-a-dimension-3D-goggles-not_3219.html. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Ryan Smith (May 26, 2011). "YouTube Adds Stereoscopic 3D Video Support (And 3D Vision Support, Too)". AnandTech. http://www.anandtech.com/show/4354/youtube-adds-stereoscopic-3d-video-support-and-3d-vision-support-too. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- ^ YouTube. "Sharing YouTube Videos". http://youtube.com/sharing. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ CNET (January 16, 2009). "(Some) YouTube videos get download option". http://news.cnet.com/8301-17939_109-10144823-2.html. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ Milian, Mark (February 19, 2009). "YouTube looks out for content owners, disables video ripping". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/technology/2009/02/---mark-milian.html?cid=149000259. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
- ^ Rao, Leena (February 12, 2009). "YouTube Hopes To Boost Revenue With Video Downloads". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/12/AR2009021203239.html. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube Mobile". http://m.youtube.com/.
- ^ Google Operating System (June 15, 2007). "Mobile YouTube". http://googlesystem.blogspot.com/2007/06/mobile-youtube.html. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube Live on Apple TV Today; Coming to iPhone on June 29". Apple. June 20, 2007. http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/06/20youtube.html. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ "TiVo Getting YouTube Streaming Today". Gizmodo. July 17, 2007. http://gizmodo.com/5026092/tivo-getting-youtube-streaming-today. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube video comes to Wii and PlayStation 3 game consoles". Los Angeles Times. January 15, 2009. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/technology/2009/01/youtube-wii-ps3.html. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ "Coming Up Next... YouTube on Your TV". YouTube Blog. January 15, 2009. Archived from the original on November 29, 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5leW9usjn. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- ^ "Experience YouTube XL on the Big Screen". YouTube Blog. YouTube. June 2, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/blog?entry=ByKmsHdhra8. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sayer, Peter (June 19, 2007). "Google launches YouTube France News". PC Advisor. http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/news/index.cfm?NewsID=9772. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ a b "YouTube launches in Argentina". September 9, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5sbofbU9A. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube content locations". http://www.webdoodles.org/webimages/youtube_content_locations.png. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
- ^ "Presentan hoy YouTube México [YouTube México launched today]" (in Spanish). El Universal. October 11, 2007. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/articulos/43235.html. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- ^ a b "Chita • 檢視主題 – YouTube 台灣版推出". http://chita.us/forum2006/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=1294.
- ^ a b Nicole, Kristen (October 22, 2007). "YouTube Launches in Australia & New Zealand". Mashable. http://mashable.com/2007/10/22/youtube-australia-new-zealand/. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Nicole, Kristen (November 6, 2007). "YouTube Canada Now Live". Mashable. http://mashable.com/2007/11/06/youtube-canada/. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Ostrow, Adam (November 8, 2007). "YouTube Germany Launches". Mashable. http://mashable.com/2007/11/08/youtube-germany/. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Joshi, Sandeep (May 8, 2008). "YouTube now has an Indian incarnation". The Hindu (Chennai, India). http://www.hindu.com/2008/05/08/stories/2008050857242200.htm. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Bokuvka, Petr (October 12, 2008). "Czech version of YouTube launched. And it’s crap. It sucks.". The Czech Daily Word (Wordpress.com). http://czechdaily.wordpress.com/2008/10/12/czech-version-of-youtube-launched-and-its-crap-it-sucks/. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ a b c d e f g "YouTube Launches Local Version For Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Yemen". ArabCrunch. http://arabcrunch.com/2011/03/youtube-launches-local-version-for-algeria-egypt-jordan-morocco-saudi-arabia-tunisia-and-yemen.html. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- ^ Nod, Tam (October 13, 2011). "YouTube launches 'The Philippines'". The Philippine Star. http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?articleId=737018&publicationSubCategoryId=200. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- ^ "YouTube launches Singapore site". TODAY. 20 October 2011. http://www.todayonline.com/Singapore/EDC111020-0000359/YouTube-launches-Singapore-site. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- ^ "Learn More: Video not available in my country". YouTube Help. http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?hl=en-uk&answer=92571. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- ^ "Long-standing YouTube ban lifted only for several hours". Today's Zaman. June 19, 2008. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=145219&bolum=101. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- ^ Danforth, Nick (July 31, 2009). "Turks censor YouTube censorship". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/07/30/ED68191LKM.DTL. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- ^ Barnett, Emma (September 3, 2009). "Music videos back on YouTube in multi-million pound PRS deal". London: Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/google/6127624/Music-videos-back-on-YouTube-in-multi-million-pound-PRS-deal.html. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
- ^ "Now YouTube stops the music in Germany". London: The Guardian. April 1, 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/pda/2009/apr/01/youtube-digital-music-and-audio. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube RickRolls Users". TechCrunch.com. March 31, 2008. http://techcrunch.com/2008/03/31/youtube-rickrolls-users/. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube RickRolls April Fools In". RyanSpoon.com. March 31, 2008. http://ryanspoon.com/blog/2008/03/31/youtube-rickrolls-april-fools-in/. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- ^ "April fools: YouTube turns the world up-side-down". searchcowboys.com. April 1, 2009. http://www.searchcowboys.com/news/453. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- ^ "TEXTp saves YouTube bandwidth, money". YouTube. April 1, 2010. http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2010/03/textp-saves-youtube-bandwidth-money.html. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube goes back to 1911 for April Fools' Day". Daily Telegraph. April 1, 2011. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/google/8421394/YouTube-goes-back-to-1911-for-April-Fools-Day.html. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
- ^ Lococo, Edmond; Lee, Mark (October 17, 2010). "Youku Transcends YouTube as China Becomes Center of Internet". Bloomberg News. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-10-17/youku-transcends-youtube-as-china-becomes-center-of-internet.html. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
- ^ Sommerville, Quentin (March 24, 2009). "China 'blocks YouTube video site'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7961069.stm. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- ^ Richards, Jonathan (May 30, 2007). "YouTube shut down in Morocco". London: The Times. http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/article1859557.ece. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "Thailand blocks access to YouTube". BBC. April 4, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6528303.stm. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "Ban on YouTube lifted after deal". The Nation. August 31, 2007. http://nationmultimedia.com/2007/08/31/headlines/headlines_30047192.php.
- ^ "Google’s Gatekeepers". The New York Times. November 30, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/30/magazine/30google-t.html?_r=1&partner=rss&emc=rss&pagewanted=all. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
- ^ "Turkey goes into battle with Google". BBC News. July 2, 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/10480877.stm. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
- ^ "Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC News. October 30, 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-11659816. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
- ^ Champion, Marc (November 2, 2010). "Turkey Reinstates YouTube Ban". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704462704575590420251199614.html?mod=googlenews_wsj. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- ^ Tait, Robert (November 4, 2006). "Censorship fears rise as Iran blocks access to top websites". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/iran/story/0,,1963166,00.html. Retrieved December 17, 2006.
- ^ "Mobile phones, Facebook, YouTube cut in Iran". American Free Press. Google. July 13, 2009. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jSPlmVgh-SfeEO9WhpOVG6Slnu0w. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- ^ "Pakistan blocks YouTube website". BBC. February 24, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7261727.stm. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "Pakistan lifts the ban on YouTube". BBC. February 26, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7262071.stm. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "Pakistan web users get round YouTube ban". Silicon Republic. Archived from the original on June 29, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080629065235/http://www.siliconrepublic.com/news/news.nv?storyid=single10381. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "Pakistan blocks access to YouTube in internet crackdown". BBC News. May 20, 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/10130195.stm. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- ^ "Watchdog urges Libya to stop blocking websites". Agence France-Presse. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gMqNCaIpcd74x_33F16sT_6IDriw. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- ^ Colley, Andrew (March 6, 2007). "States still hold out on YouTube". Australian IT. http://www.australianit.news.com.au/story/0,24897,21330109-15306,00.html. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- ^ "Complete List of 2008 Peabody Award Winners". Peabody Awards, University of Georgia. April 1, 2009. http://www.peabody.uga.edu/news/event.php?id=59. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- ^ Ho, Rodney (April 2, 2009). "Peabody honors CNN, TMC". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. http://www.ajc.com/services/content/printedition/2009/04/02/peabody0402.html. Retrieved April 14, 2009.
- ^ Bray, Marianne. "Irate HK man unlikely Web hero". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/06/07/hk.uncle/. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- ^ "guitar". YouTube. December 20, 2005. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjA5faZF1A8. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Heffernand, Virginia (August 27, 2006). "Web Guitar Wizard Revealed at Last". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/27/arts/television/27heff.html?ei=5088&en=5b993ce30a7b7039&ex=1314331200&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=all. Retrieved July 2, 2007.
- ^ "Charlie bit my finger – again !". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OBlgSz8sSM. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- ^ Chittenden, Maurice (November 1, 2009). "Harry and Charlie Davies-Carr: Web gets taste for biting baby". The Times (London). http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/the_web/article6898146.ece. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- ^ Stack, Brittany (March 21, 2010). "Meet YouTube's 224 million girl, Natalie Tran". ¨The Sunday Telegraph. http://www.news.com.au/technology/meet-youtubes-224-million-girl-natalie-tran/story-e6frfro0-1225843291213. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
- ^ Learmonth, Michael (February 22, 2010). "Lowered Expectations: Web Redefines 'Quality'". Advertising Age. http://www.businessinsider.com/lowered-expectations-web-redefines-quality-2010-2. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube's 50 Greatest Viral Videos". Time. March 29, 2010. http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/0,28757,1974961,00.html. Retrieved April 11, 2010.
- ^ Geier, Thom; Jensen, Jeff; Jordan, Tina; Lyons, Margaret; Markovitz, Adam; Nashawaty, Chris; Pastorek, Whitney; Rice, Lynette; Rottenberg, Josh; Schwartz, Missy; Slezak, Michael; Snierson, Dan; Stack, Tim; Stroup, Kate; Tucker, Ken; Vary, Adam B.; Vozick-Levinson, Simon; Ward, Kate (December 11, 2009), "THE 100 Greatest MOVIES, TV SHOWS, ALBUMS, BOOKS, CHARACTERS, SCENES, EPISODES, SONGS, DRESSES, MUSIC VIDEOS, AND TRENDS THAT ENTERTAINED US OVER THE PAST 10 YEARS". Entertainment Weekly. (1079/1080):74-84
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/t/community_guidelines
- ^ Marsden, Rhodri (August 12, 2009). "Why did my YouTube account get closed down?". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/features/rhodri-marsden-why-did-my-youtube-account-get-closed-down-1770618.html. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- ^ "Viacom will sue YouTube for $1bn". BBC News. March 13, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6446193.stm. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
- ^ "Mediaset Files EUR500 Million Suit Vs Google's YouTube". CNNMoney.com. July 30, 2008. http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/articles/djf500/200807301025DOWJONESDJONLINE000654_FORTUNE5.htm. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- ^ "Premier League to take action against YouTube". London: Daily Telegraph. May 5, 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/05/05/ufnrup05.xml. Retrieved May 24, 2008.
- ^ "YouTube law fight 'threatens net'". BBC News. May 27, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7420955.stm. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- ^ "Google must divulge YouTube log". BBC News (BBC News Online). July 3, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7488009.stm.
- ^ Helft, Miguel (July 4, 2008). "Google Told to Turn Over User Data of YouTube". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/04/technology/04youtube.html.
- ^ Lefkow, Chris (June 23, 2010). "US judge tosses out Viacom copyright suit against YouTube". AFP. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h_AfErLSMMGD417l8aR0CYib0aNQ. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- ^ Allen, Katie (November 1, 2009). "Google seeks to turn a profit from YouTube copyright clashes". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/nov/01/google-youtube-monetise-content. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
- ^ Egelko, Bob (August 20, 2008). "Woman can sue over YouTube clip de-posting". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/08/20/MNU412FKRL.DTL. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- ^ [1 "Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC"]. http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=4653165041580834913#. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- ^ a b "YouTube Community Guidelines". YouTube. http://youtube.com/t/community_guidelines. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "YouTube criticized in Germany over anti-Semitic Nazi videos". Reuters. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/898004.html. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- ^ "Fury as YouTube carries sick Hillsboro video insult". icLiverpool. http://icliverpool.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/0100regionalnews/tm_headline=fury-as-youtube-carries-sick-hillsboro-video-insult%26method=full%26objectid=18729523%26page=1%26siteid=50061-name_page.html. Retrieved May 24, 2008.
- ^ Kirkup, James; Martin, Nicole (July 31, 2008). "YouTube attacked by MPs over sex and violence footage". London: The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/connected/main.jhtml?xml=/connected/2008/07/31/dlyoutube131.xml. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- ^ "Al-Awlaki's YouTube Videos Targeted by Rep. Weiner". Fox News. October 25, 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/10/25/rep-weiner-calls-youtube-al-awlakis-videos/. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- ^ Burns, John F.; Helft, Miguel (November 4, 2010). "YouTube Withdraws Cleric’s Videos". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/05/world/05britain.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1289639324-GpxO1vB7vZ5y1qXSlTRnWA. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- ^ Bennett, Brian (December 12, 2010). "YouTube is letting users decide on terrorism-related videos". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-youtube-terror-20101213,0,3375845.story. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- ^ "Time's Person of the Year: You", Time, December 13, 2006
- ^ "Our top 10 funniest YouTube comments – what are yours?", The Guardian, November 3, 2009
- ^ "YouTube's worst comments blocked by filter", Daily Telegraph, September 2, 2008
- Kelsey, Todd (2010). Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9781430225966. http://books.google.com/?id=1EgTu8fFMJgC&lpg=PP1&dq=Social%20Networking%20Spaces%3A%20From%20Facebook%20to%20Twitter%20and%20Everything%20In%20Between&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true.
- Lacy, Sarah (2008). The Stories of Facebook, YouTube and MySpace: The People, the Hype and the Deals Behind the Giants of Web 2.0. Richmond: Crimson. ISBN 9781854584533.
YouTube Founders Related articles Google Inc. Executive Chairman: Eric Schmidt · Director/Technology President/Co-founder: Sergey Brin · CEO/Co-founder: Larry Page
Other directors: John Doerr · John L. Hennessy · Ann Mather · Paul Otellini · Ram Shriram · Shirley M. Tilghman · Senior Advisor: Al Gore
Advertising Communication Software Platforms Development tools Publishing Search (PageRank) Discontinued RelatedAcquisitions · AI Challenge · Bomb · Criticism · Doodles · Driverless car · Fiber · Foundation · Google China · Google Grants · Google.org · Googleplex · History · Hoaxes · Illegal flower tribute · I'm Feeling Lucky · I/O · Logo · Lunar X Prize · Monopoly City Streets · Products · Searchology · Unity · Ventures · WiFi Stock symbol: (NASDAQ: GOOG, NYSE: GOOG, FWB: GGQ1) · Motto: Don't be evil · Website: google.com
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
YouTube — Lema Broadcast Yourself (Transmite tú mismo) Tipo Filial, sociedad de responsabilidad … Wikipedia Español
YouTube — www.youtube.com Motto „Broadcast Yourself“ Kommerziell … Deutsch Wikipedia
Youtube — URL youtube.com (Orignale Version) … Deutsch Wikipedia
YouTube — YouTube, LLC Тип … Википедия
Youtube — Logo de YouTube Création 15 février 2005 Dates clés 2007 : Achat par Google … Wikipédia en Français
Youtube.fr — YouTube Logo de YouTube Création 15 février 2005 Dates clés 2007 : Achat par Google … Wikipédia en Français
Youtube — YouTube, LLC Год основания 2005 год Ключевые фигуры Чад Хёрли, главный исполнительный директор Стив Чен, президент по технологическим разработкам Джавед Карим, советник Расположение … Википедия
YouTube™ — 8 [YouTube] [ˈjuːtjuːb] [ˈjuːtuːb] noun uncountable a website where people can watch and share short videos … Useful english dictionary
YouTube — Création 15 février 2005 Dates clés 2006 : Achat par Google … Wikipédia en Français
YouTube — Популярный видеохостинг Популярный видеохостинг, входящий в тройку самых посещаемых сайтов интернета. Основан в феврале 2005 года, в октябре 2006 года приобретен компанией Google Inc. Сервис YouTube был основан 14 февраля 2005 года в Калифорнии… … Энциклопедия ньюсмейкеров