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subdivision_name = EST
subdivision_type1 = County
map_caption = Location of Pärnu
image_caption = Orthodox Church
official_name = Pärnu
other_name = Pärnu
image_shield = Et-Parnu coa.svg
subdivision_name1 = Pärnu County
leader_name = Mart Viisitamm
area_total_km2 = 32.22
population_total = 44568|population_footnotes=
population_as_of = 2004
population_density_km2 = 1383.2
coor = 58°23' N 24°30' E
Pärnu ( _de. Pernau; _ru. Пярну, formerly Пернов; _pl. Parnawa) is a
cityin southwestern Estoniaon the coast of Pärnu Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Rigain the Baltic Sea. It is a popular summer vacationresort with many hotels, restaurants, and large beaches. The Pärnu Riverflows through the city. The city is served by Pärnu Airport.
The city is occasionally referred to as "Pyarnu", an incorrect reverse-
transliterationfrom Russian "Пярну".
(Perona, German "Alt-Pernau" or Estonian "Vana-Pärnu") was founded by the bishop of Ösel-Wiek ca. 1251, suffered heavily under pressure of the concurrent town, and was finally destroyed ca. 1600. Another town (Embeke, later German "Neu-Pernau" or Estonian "Uus-Pärnu") was founded by the
Livonian Order, who began building an Ordensburgnearby in 1265. The latter town, then known by the German name of "Pernau", was a member of the Hanseatic Leagueand an important ice-free harbor for Livonia. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthtook control of town between 1560-1617; the Poles fought the Swedes nearby in 1609. Sweden took control of the town during the 16th century Livonian War, but it was subsequently taken by the Russian Empirein the 1721 Treaty of Nystadfollowing the Great Northern War.
The town became part of independent Estonia in 1918 following
World War I.
During the Great Northern War, the University of Dorpat (
Tartu) was relocated to Pernau from 1699-1710. The university has a branch campus in Pärnu today (1,000 students in the 2004/2005 school year).
Local administration consists of the town council and the town government. Town council elections take place every three years. The current town council was elected in October 2005. The number of councillors depends on the population. The current number of councillors is 33.
Pärnu is a health resort of international stature. In addition to guests arriving from around fifty countries, it is also proved by its membership in the
European Spas Association(since 2000) and the European Flagthat has been flying at the beach of Pärnu since 2000. Many tourists in Pärnu are Finns and Estonians. Hotel and restaurant staff speak English, Russian and some Finnish in addition to Estonian.
In 1837, a few business-minded entrepreneurs decided to rebuild a lone tavern near the beach into a bathing establishment, thus preparing the ground for the development of the resort of Pärnu. This wooden building was the predecessor of the present-day
mud baths. The establishment, which was opened in 1838, accommodated 5-6 bathrooms that provided hot seawater baths in summer and operated as a sauna in winter. The wooden building was burnt down in the course of World War I. In 1927, the present stone building of Pärnu Mud Baths was erected at the same site. Later, the wings were attached to the building to accommodate a bath unit and a pool.
Today, disorders of the joints, spinal column and
peripheral nervous system, gynaecological problems and dysfunction of the central nervous system are treated at Pärnu Mud Baths. The therapies include hydrotherapy, mud and ozocerite therapies, massage, laser and electrotherapies, lymph and inhalation therapies, aromatherapyand ECG. There are 130 rooms in the hotel of the Mud Baths.
Since 1996 Pärnu has been known as Estonia's Summer Capital.
Lydia Koidula, poet
Friedrich Martens, jurist
David Oistrakh, violinist
Nikita Panin, statesman
Georg Wilhelm Richmann, German physicist
David Samoylov, poet
Olev Siinmaa, architect
* [http://www.visitparnu.com/index.php?id=101&L=1 Municipal website]
* [http://www.nwi.ru/id=6/city_id=11/lang=1/city.cgi Parnu tour overview]
* [http://archive.spaceimaging.com/ikonos/2/kpms/2004/05//browse.238688.crss_sat.0.0.jpgSatellite photo from May, 2004]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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Parnu — Pärnu Le centre ville de Pärnu Le centre … Wikipédia en Français
Pärnu — ▪ Estonia Russian Pyarnu, formerly (until 1918) Pernov, city, Estonia, at the mouth of the Pärnu River on Pärnu Bay of the Gulf of Riga. First mentioned in 1251 as a member of the Hanseatic League, Pärnu was successively controlled by… … Universalium
Pärnu — Parnawa (Polish), Pärnu (Estonian, Finnish, Portuguese, Swedish), Pernau (German), Pērnava (Latvian), Piarnu (Belarusian, Lithuanian) … Names of cities in different languages
Parnu — Original name in latin Prnu Name in other language PJARNU, Paernu, Parnawa, Parnu, Pernau, Pernava, Pernavia, Pernov, Piarnu, Pjarnu, Pyaonu, Pyarnu, Prnu, Prnava, ПЯРНУ, Пярну State code EE Continent/City Europe/Tallinn longitude 58.38588… … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Pärnu — Sp Pèrnu nkt. Ap Pärnu L u. ir mst. Estijoje … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė
Pärnu — noun A city in Estonia … Wiktionary
Pärnu — Pạ̈rnu, russisch Pjạrnu, vor 1918 russisch Pẹrnow, Pẹrnov, deutsch Pẹrnau, Stadt in Estland, an der zur Rigaer Bucht gehörenden Pärnubucht, 60 000 Einwohner; See , Schlammheilbad, Endla Theater; Fischkonserven , Holz , Leder ,… … Universal-Lexikon