Hurricane Calvin (1993)

Infobox Hurricane
Name=Hurricane Calvin
Type=hurricane
Year=1993
Basin=EPac
Image location=Hurricane Calvin- 1993.jpg


Formed=July 4, 1993
Dissipated=July 9, 1993
1-min winds=95
Pressure=966
Da

Inflated=1
Fatalities=34 direct
Areas=Southwestern Mexico
Hurricane season=1993 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Calvin was the deadliest hurricane in the 1993 Pacific hurricane season, killing 34 people as it paralleled the Mexican coastline in July.

Meteorological history

An area of scattered deep convection, possibly associated with a tropical wave, developed in the Gulf of Tehauntepec on July 2. It drifted westward, slowly concentrating over the warm Pacific waters. Banding features became more pronounced, and the system became Tropical Depression Four-E on July 4. Upper level outflow quickly became more favorable, and on the 5th it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Calvin.

Calvin continued to intensify, and reached hurricane status on July 6 after a turn to the north. The storm became embedded within a large, monsoon-like deep layer circulation, allowing Calvin to continue northwestward while increasing in size. The eyewall contracted to around convert|10|mi|km|-1 wide, and the hurricane reached its peak of convert|110|mi/h|km/h|-1|abbr=on on July 7. After paralleling the Mexican coastline for a day, Calvin hit western Mexico near Manzanillo late on the 7th.

Calvin, though over land for about 6 hours, rapidly weakened over the mountainous terrain to a large and disorganized convert|70|mi/h|km/h|0|abbr=on tropical storm. It continued to the northwest, and made landfall near the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula as a tropical depression. Calvin crossed over the peninsula and dissipated over the cooler Pacific waters on July 9.

Impact

In an average July, a high pressure system is located over Texas, preventing a Mexican landfall. However, a trough brought Calvin northward to hit Mexico as a hurricane, one of only 3 in history. The other ones were Hurricane Eugene in 1987 and a storm in 1954.

Before hitting Mexico, Calvin's large wind field brought heavy flooding, and after passing as a hurricane, locations reported as high as convert|18|in|mm of rain. [David M. Roth. [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/calvin1993filledrainblk.gifHurricane Calvin Rainfall.] Retrieved on 2007-07-19.] The flooding led to mudslides, killing 30 direct or indirect deaths on land, with 30,000 people displaced. [Dartmouth Flood Observatory. [http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/Archives/1993sum.htm 1993 Global Register of Extreme Flood Events.] Retrieved on 2007-07-19.] Most of the casualties were due to flooding or car accidents on wet roads. In the state of Michoacán, 700 homes were destroyed, as well as a bridge, highways, and water systems. In addition, heavy waves from the center led to a convert|15|ft|m|sing=on storm surge.

Two fatalities occurred offshore when a trimaran capsized. At least 1600 people were left homeless. Damage occurred to boats and shoreline structures from Acapulco to Manzanillo. Heavy seas near Lázaro Cárdenas in western Mexico caused the Norwegian frigher "Betula" to beach, forcing the nearby port to close. The ship, which contained 4,000 tons of sulfuric acid, leaked its entire cargo on the coastline and into the sea. The cleanup effort took 1 month to complete.

In all, the total level of damage amounted to over 100 million new pesos, or $32 million (1993 USD, $42 million 2005 USD). Despite its effects, the name Calvin was not retired, and was re-used in 1999 and 2005.

ee also

*List of tropical cyclones

References

External links

* [ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/storm_archives/pacific/prelimep/ep1993/calvin/ NHC Calvin Report]
* [ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/storm_archives/pacific/ep1993/calvin/tropdisc/ NHC Calvin Discussions]
* [http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/e_pacific/1993/CALVIN/track.dat Calvin Best Track]
* [http://archive.greenpeace.org/climate/database/records/zgpz0424.html Impact]
* [http://www.titansalvage.com/Titan's%20New%20Web/Photos/Betula/Betula.htm Betula information]


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