Infobox Philippine province
name = Benguet
sealfile = Ph seal benguet.png
Cordillera Administrative Region(CAR)
La Trinidad, Benguet
founded = —
pop2000 = 330,129
pop2000rank = 43rd largest
popden2000 = 219
popden2000rank = 36th highest
areakm2 = 2,599.4
arearank = 49th largest
hucities = 1
municipalities = 13
barangays = 140
districts = 1
languages = Kankanaey, Ibaloi, Kalanguya, Ilokano
locatormapfile = Ph locator map benguet.png
Benguet is a landlocked province of the
Philippinesin the Cordillera Administrative Regionin Luzon. Its capital is La Trinidad and borders, clockwise from the south, Pangasinan, La Union, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya. Baguio City, a popular tourist destination in the country, is located in the interior of the province, however, the city is independent of the province.
People and culture
Cordillerano, or "Cordilleran", is an unofficial and relatively recent term for the people of the hill tribes of Luzon, Philippines, who are residing in the Cordillera and Caraballo mountains. This term is an attempt at political correctness, since a current term, Igorot, has caused controversy due to its perceived negative stigma, which is incorrectly connected to backwardness and inferiority. Of the people in the Cordilleras, some Kalinga and Ifugao refuse to be called Igorot. On the other hand, most Igorot tribes, along with some Kalinga and Ifugao consider themselves as part of the Igorot people.
Based on the May 2000
census, Benguet has a total population of 330,129, which makes it the most populous province in the region. This figure is up by 16,296 from 313,833 persons recorded in the 1995 census, giving an annual growth rate of 1.09% during the 5-year period—much, much lower than the national average of 2.43%. If this growth rate were maintained, Benguet would double its population in approximately 64 years.
The province registered at 63,123 households, an increase of 4,588 households over the 1990 figure. This gave an average household size of 5.2 persons, a little higher than the national average of 4.99.
Benguet is the homeland of several tribes, collectively referred to as the
Igorot. Two of them, the Ibaloiin the southeast and the Kankana-ey in the northwest, are the dominant tribes of Benguet. In the 2000 census, 43% of the household population were Kankana-ey. About 29.2% were Ibaloi and 13.4% were Ilocano. Other ethnic groups included Ikalahan (3.7%) and Tagalog (2.4%).
Most of the tribes in Benguet have their own languages or dialects. The Ibaloi tribe speak Ibaloy, which is similar to Pangasinan. The
Kankana-eytribe speak have their own language, which is related to the Bontoc language. Many inhabitants also speak Ilokano, Tagalog, and English for trade and commerce. Now a days, because of working abroad some can even speak Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc. which shows that they are globally interacting.
The SIL Ethnologue database [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=92519] classifies the tribal languages under the "South-Central Cordilleran" branch. Nabaloy (named in the database as "Ibaloi") is part of the "Southern Cordilleran" branch which also includes Pangasinense. The Kankana-ey language (named in the database as "Kankanaey") is under the "Central Cordilleran" branch, which also includes Bontoc and Ifugao.
Agriculture, mining, and tourismare the major industries in Benguet. Because of its temperate climate and high altitude, Benguet is an ideal place for producing vegetables. Benguet is often called the "Salad Bowl of the Philippines". During February 2007, Benguet suffered crop damage due to freezing temperatures in the area, reaching as low as 5 Celsius and even lower in some areas, and important crops like cabbages were damaged. Major crops include potatoes, Baguio beans, peas, strawberries, cabbage, lettuce, and carrots. Other agricultural-related activities are monggoprocessing, fruit preservation, peanut brittlemanufacturing, broom making, basket weaving, and flowergrowing.
Mining is another major industry of Benguet, which is one of the country's leading
goldproducers. Other mineral deposits are silver, copper, pyrite, and limestone. Silversmithing is a large industry in Benguet, and many entrepreneurs sell silver works at lower prices in Baguio City, compared to Manila. In 2006 alone revenues from mining reached a stunning four billion pesos, and yet this figure comes from just two-Lepanto Consolidated Mining Corporation and Philex Mines- of the many mining firms operating in the province. Nevertheless, the province's mining vigor has never translated into better quality of life of the Benguet people, simply because a bulk of the mining firm's taxes are not paid directly to the province. The two mining corporations, like many others around the country, have principal offices in the City of Makati, a set-up that makes Makati the prime mining tax beneficiary.
The presence of Baguio City in Benguet draws a large number of tourists from the lowlands. Often, people who go to Baguio also explore the province, especially the strawberry and vegetable plantations in La Trinidad. ("See also the Tourist Attractions section below.")
Benguet State Universityis the only university of Benguet and is located in La Trinidad, Benguet. The university has 9 colleges (Including the Graduate School). The 9 Colleges are:
*The College of Agriculture
*The College of Arts and Sciences
*The College of Engineering and Applied Technology
*The College of Forestry
*The College of Home Economics and Technology
*The College of Nursing
*The College of Teacher Education
*The College of Veterinary Medicine
*The Graduate School
Since the Government considers the increasing population of students, the university extended and adapted some schools in far-flung areas like the Buguias Loo Agricultural School and Kapangan. Now, some of the courses offered from the mother university were being taken and learned by students of the said extension.
Benguet also contains the
Cordillera Regional Science High School.
Benguet is subdivided into 13 municipalities and contains
Baguio City. Baguio City used to be part of the province but became independent, when the city's charter was made. However, for statistical convenience, Baguio City is informally considered a part of Benguet, especially in census data or when Baguio City is chosen as a location for Benguet provincial offices, due to its proximity/location.
Baguio Cityis not officially part of Benguet, its location provides additional income in form of tourism for the province. Some of the interesting places are, Kennon Road, Binga Hydroelectic Plant, strawberry and flower farms in La Trinidad, the Ambuklao Damin Bokod, and the Palina and Naguey rice terraces in Atok.Aside from these, Tuba and Tublay hotsprings are usually flock by local tourists from the neighboring provinces. Remote Buguias hotspring can also be reached now and the "Man-asok" river can be appreciated early in the morning because of the "smoking like" but in reality it's the vapors that rise up.
Early History. The mountainous area now covered by Benguet is home to several native tribes which are collectively known as the
Igorot. Two of these, the Ibaloiand the Kankana-ey, are dominant tribes of the area. Many of these tribes are believed by Filipino anthropologists to be of Malay descent. Before the arrival of the Spanish colonizers these tribes had a flourishing trade with the lowlanders such as the Ilocanos and the Pangasinenses.
Spanish Period. When the Spanish arrived, they attempted to colonize the highlands, having heard of the rich gold mines in the mountains. In 1572,
Juan de Salcedoled a small expedition into southern Benguet, but the natives forced them to retreat. The first major expedition into the mountains occurred in 1620, when Spanish explorers went into the La Trinidad Valleyand briefly controlled some Igorot gold mines, which were later abandoned after a few years.
In the 1800s, the Spanish colonizers made more serious attempts at conquering the highlands. The first expeditions were done under the leadership of Col. Guillermo Galvey and it succeeded in establishing presence in the La Trinidad Valley, which he named after his wife.
This area later became a district of the new province of La Union in 1846. Eight years later, in 1854, Benguet became a separate "comandancia politico-militar". Parts of the present province were established as component territories of other "comandancias" such as Lepanto, and Amburayan.
American Period. When the Americans took control of the Philippines, they established local civil governments in many parts of the country. In Benguet, the civil government was established on Nevember 23, 1900 by virtue of Act No. 49. H.P. Whitmarsh, a Canadian journalist, was appointed as the first governor of Benguet.
The Americans then established the
Mountain Provinceon August 18, 1908, with the enactment of Act No. 1876. Benguet, along with Amburayan, Apayao, Bontoc, Ifugao, Kalinga, and Lepanto, became sub-provinces of this new province. Later on, Baguio became a chartered city in 1909. Then in 1920, Benguet absorbed the sub-provinces of Amburayan and Lepanto.
In the 1930s, mining companies were started to mine the gold deposits in the area. This brought it jobs and many lowlanders migrated to Benguet, especially in towns surrounding the mines, such as Itogon.
World War II. During
World War II, Igorot guerrillas and the Filipino and American forces fought battles with Japanese soldiers during the final days of the war in 1945.
Post-war Era. On
June 18, 1966, The huge Mountain Province was split into four provinces with the enactment of Republic Act No. 4695. The four provinces were Benguet, Mountain Province, Kalinga-Apayaoand Ifugao. Benguet became one of the provinces of the Ilocos Region.
July 15, 1987, the Cordillera Administrative Regionwas established and Benguet was made one of its provinces.
* [http://www.benguet.gov.ph The Official Website of the Provincial Government of Benguet] [http://www.karitoon.com your source of Benguet "hometown" news]
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