Truevision TGA


Truevision TGA

Infobox file format
name = Truevision TGA
icon =
extension = .tga
.tpic
mime = image/x-targa
image/x-tga
type code = 'TPIC'
uniform type = com.truevision.tga-image
owner = Truevision
genre = Raster image file
container for =
contained by =
extended from =
extended to =
standard =

Truevision's (now AVID) TGA File Format, often referred to as TARGA File Format, is a raster graphics file format. It was the native format of Truevision Inc.'s TARGA and VISTA boards, which were the first graphic cards for IBM-compatible PCs to support Highcolor/truecolor display. This family of graphic cards was intended for professional computer image synthesis and video editing with PCs; for this reason, usual resolutions of TGA image files match those of the NTSC and PAL video formats.

TARGA is an acronym for Truevision Advanced Raster Graphics Adapter; TGA is an initialism for Truevision Graphics Adapter. Today, most people refer to the format as the "TARGA File Format".

TGA files commonly have the extension ".tga" on PC DOS/Windows systems and Mac OS X (older Macintosh systems use the "TPIC" type code). The format can store image data with 8, 16, 24, or 32 bits of precision per pixel [cite web | url = http://www.dca.fee.unicamp.br/~martino/disciplinas/ea978/tgaffs.pdf | title = Truevision TGAª — FILE FORMAT SPECIFICATION — Version 2.0] – the maximum 24 bits of RGB and an extra 8-bit alpha channel. Color data can be color-mapped, or in direct color or truecolor format; optionally, a lossless PackBits RLE compression can be employed.

The TGA file format was originally defined and specified by AT&T EPICenter with feedback from Island Graphics Inc in 1984. AT&T EPICenter was an internal spin-off of AT&T created to market new technologies AT&T had developed for color frame buffers. What later became Truevision was the result of a leveraged employee buyout from AT&T in 1987.

EPICenter's first two cards, the VDA (video display adapter) and ICB (image capture board), used the first incarnations of the TGA file format. The file extensions ".vda" and ".icb" implied information about the board specific data contained.

It was later determined by Alan Wlasuk (then head of EPICenter), Brad Pillow (EPICenter) and Steven Dompier (Island's president) that a more codified file format was needed. The file format was created and implemented by Brad Pillow and Shawn Steiner (EPICenter) and was developed in response to this need for a less board specific file format. A very simple extension was made to what was already in use, and contained information on width, height, pixel depth, an associated color map and image origin. A label field (up to 255 characters) was also included in the initial spec, but was rarely used.

At the time, another technically superior file format called TIFF also appeared, but its use for true color images was very limited as the implementation and sharing of files between applications supporting the TIFF specification was rather difficult and involved. The TGA file format's simplistic nature and portability between platforms is the main reason its widespread adoption and its continued success in a wide variety of applications worldwide to this day.

Initially the TGA file format was used in the ICB-PAINT and TARGA-PAINT programs (what later became known as TIPS) and for several projects in online real estate browsing and still-frame video teleconferencing.

The current version (2.0) includes several enhancements such as "postage stamps" (better known as thumbnails), an alpha channel, gamma value, and textual metadata, and was authored by Truevision Inc.'s Shawn Steiner with direction from Kevin Friedly and David Spoelstra in 1989.

At the time of its launching, it represented the state-of-the-art in digital image processing. Even today, though its maximum color depth is not well suited for high-end pre-press, intensive image processing systems, TGA is still used extensively throughout the animation and video industry because its primary intended outputs are standard TV screens, not color printed pages.

Uncompressed 24-bit TGA images are relatively simple compared to several other prominent 24-bit storage formats: A 24-bit TGA contains only an 18-byte header followed by the image data as packed RGB data. In contrast, BMP requires padding rows to 4-byte boundaries, TIFF and PNG are metadata containers that do not place the image data or attributes at a fixed location within the file.

Video games using TGA format

Many games create screenshot files in TGA format. The following is a list of the games that use this format, and how it is used in their respective games.



Other media

In the film "Earth Girls are Easy", the aliens are given a makeover at the "Curl up and Dye" Salon. There is a short sequence showing the TARGA video card, and TIPS paint software in action.

References

ee also

* [http://www.gamers.org/dEngine/quake3/TGA.ps.gz Truevision's TGA file format specification]
* [http://www.gamers.org/dEngine/quake3/TGAtoc.ps.gz Truevision's TGA file format specification] – cover pages with title and table of contents
* [http://www.gamers.org/dEngine/quake3/TGA.txt TGA specification] – previous version of the file format taken from the Truevision Technical Guide
* [http://www.dca.fee.unicamp.br/~martino/disciplinas/ea978/tgaffs.pdf Truevision TGA Specification 2.0]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Truevision TGA — Расширение .tga, .tpic MIME image/x targa, image/x tga Разработан Truevision Тип формата растровая графика Truevision TGA (TGA)  растровый графический формат. Первоначально был создан компанией Truevision Inc. для графических адаптеров… …   Википедия

  • Truevision TGA — es un formato de fichero digital para imágenes rasterizadas o de mapas de bits. Fue el formato nativo para las tarjeta TARGA de Truevision Inc., que fueron unas de las primeras tarjetas gráficas para ordenadores personales en soportar imágenes… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Truevision TGA — es un formato de fichero digital para imagenes rasteriradas o de mapas de bits. Fue el formato nativo para las tarjeta TARGA de Truevision Inc., que fueron unas de las primeras tarjetas gráficas para ordenadores personales en soportar imagenes… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Truevision Targa — Extension .tga, .tpic Type MIME image/tga, image/targa, application/targa Développé par Truevision Targa Type de format Raster image file …   Wikipédia en Français

  • TGA (значения) — TGA: Truevision TGA  растровый графический формат TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administratioin)  Администрация терапевтических товаров …   Википедия

  • TGA (disambiguation) — TGA may refer to:* Tennessee Governor s Academy for Math and Science * The Gersh Agency * The Glasgow Academy, Scotland, UK * Therapeutic Goods Administration * Thermogravimetric Analysis * thioglycolic acid * Top Gear Australia, a motoring… …   Wikipedia

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  • Truevision — For the 3D Engine, see Truevision3D. Truevision, Inc. was a maker of digital video processing add on boards for PC computers. It was founded by Cathleen Asch, Carl Calabria, Jospeh Haaf, Bryan Hunt, Brad Pillow, Joe Shepard and Jeff Walters and… …   Wikipedia

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