- Tomchei Temimim
Tomchei Temimim is the central
Yeshiva( Talmudical academy) of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement. Founded in 1896 in the town of Lubavitch by Rabbi Sholom Dovber Schneersohn, it is now a worldwide network of institutions of advanced Torah study.
Towards the late 1800s, the position of traditional
Orthodox Judaismwas declining. Various new movements eroded the traditional fabric of Jewish life, notably the Haskalahand Zionism. Many students were being lured away from a traditional yeshiva education to gymnasiums and universities. Even within the yeshiva framework, times had changed; no longer was the atmosphere one of exclusive devotion to Judaism, according to which Torah studyhas traditionally been not simply an acquisition of another science, but an end in itself. The winds of Enlightenment were blowing; students were reading books considered heretical by the yeshivot, and were for the first time exposed to ideas at odds with Orthodox Judaism. It was not uncommon for students to flagrantly violate basic Jewish laws, and ultimately join these secular movements.
Against this backdrop, Rabbi Sholom DovBer believed it necessary to found a new type of yeshiva, one which would regularly study
Hasidic philosophy("Chassidus") according to the Chabad tradition, and thereby inoculate its students against the heretical views spreading through the Orthodox Jewish world. Moreover, he expressed his confidence that the students of this yeshiva (whom he termed "temimim"; sing. "tamim") would be suitably prepared to overcome the problems plaguing the yeshiva community and Jewry in general.
In 1917, the
Bolshevik Revolutiontook place in Russia; within a short time, virtually any kind of formal Jewish education was outlawed by the new Communist rulers. The yeshiva took to operating underground, with teachers facing harsh penalties if caught: sentences of ten or more years of hard labor in Siberia, or a merciful death at the hands of a firing squad. Tens of young rabbis paid the ultimate price for continuing the survival of Judaism in the Soviet Union, at any cost.
Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn(the "Rebbe Rayatz") exited the Soviet Union in 1927, the yeshiva reestablished itself in Warsawand later in Otwock, Poland. When in the course of World War IIthe "Rebbe" was safely evacuated to New York. The yeshiva first escaped to Shanghai, along with some other yeshivot like Mir, and then was reestablished in America, where it remains to this day.
The central Yeshiva is housed today in Lubavitch World Headquarters, at
770 Eastern Parkway, with approximately four hundred students. Branches of the yeshiva, formally independent but recognized to be part of one global network, are to be found in major cities in the United States, Canada, Europe, South America, South Africa, Australia, and the former Soviet Union, and a distinct network of yeshivot in Israel. Many of the branches also perform the functions necessary to grant ordination to their students. A large number of graduates of Tomchei Temimim continue working within Chabad, in Chabad Houses or in education as "shluchim".
About the Yeshiva
Menachem Mendel Schneersonasserted that the impact of studying in Tomchei Temimim is everlasting: [ [http://www.sichosinenglish.org/books/sichos-in-english/11/08.htm Public address of 13th Tishrei, 5742] ]
The following is a typical daily schedule for Chabad Yeshiva students:
*7:30 a.m. - "Chasidus" - Hasidic philosophy (in some locales such as Israel and Australia first classes start at 7:00 a.m.)
*9:00 a.m. - preparation for prayers, including
Mikvehimmersion (for those who didn't do so before 7:30 a.m.)
*9:15 a.m. - "
Shacharis" - Morning prayers
*10:15 a.m. - Breakfast
*11:00 a.m. - "Iyun" - Morning in depth "Talmud" study
*1:00 p.m. -
Shiur(lecture) - more advanced students receive lectures less often
*2:00 p.m. - "
Mincha" - afternoon prayers
*2:15 p.m. - Lunch and break period
*3:30 p.m. - Afternoon "
Talmud", including review of morning study and less in-depth Talmudic study known as "girsa"
*6:00 p.m. - "
*7:00 p.m. - Dinner and break period
*8:00 p.m. - Night "Seder": Hasidic philosophy - "Chasidus"
*9:30 p.m. - "
Ma'ariv" - Evening prayers
*9:50 p.m. - "Seder Inyanei Ge'ulah U'Moshiach" - unofficial study of Torah topics related to the Messianic redemption (as per Rabbi M. M. Schneerson's instructions)
*10:00 p.m. - "Seder Sichos" - unofficial study of Rabbi M. M. Schneerson's public addresses
In North America:
* Central Branch:
Crown Heights( Brooklyn, New York)
* Montreal, Quebec, Canada. See
Rabbinical College of Canada
* Morristown, NJ. See
Rabbinical College of America
* Miami, Florida
* Baltimore, Maryland
* Los Angeles, California. See
Yeshivas Ohr Elchonen Chabad
* Detroit, Michigan
* Monsey, NY
* Lod, Israel
* Safed, Israel
* Kfar Chabad, Israel
* Kiryat Gat, Israel
* Jerusalem, Israel.
In other locations:
* Melbourne, Australia
* Sydney, Australia
* Brunoy, France (suburb of Paris)
* London, England
* Manchester, England
* Rostov, Russia
* Johannesburg, South Africa
*Yeshiva Gedolah in Sydney.
Rabbinical College of America
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