Cuckoo-shrike

Taxobox
name = Cuckoo-shrike


image_width = 250px
image_caption = Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina novaehollandiae"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Passeriformes
subordo = Passeri
familia = Campephagidae
familia_authority = Vigors, 1825
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision =
*"Pteropodocys"
*"Coracina"
*"Campochaera"
*"Lalage"
*"Lobotos"
*"Campephaga"
*"Pericrocotus"
*"Hemipus"

The cuckoo-shrikes and allies in the Campephagidae family are small to medium-sized passerine bird species found in the subtropical and tropical Africa, Asia and Australasia. The roughly 85 species are found in eight (or nine) genera which comprise five distinct groups, the 'true' cuckoo-shrikes ("Campephaga", "Coracina", "Lobotos", "Pteropodocys" and "Campochaera") the trillers ("Lalage"), the minivets ("Pericrocotus"), the flycatcher-shrikes ("Hemipus"). The wood-shrikes ("Tephrodornis") were often considered to be in this family but are probably closer to the helmetshrikes or bushshrikes. Another genus, "Chlamydochaera", which has one species, the Black-breasted Fruithunter was often placed in this family but has now been shown to be a thrush (Turdidae).

Cuckoo-shrikes are neither closely related to the cuckoos or shrikes, the name probably comes from the grey colour of many of the cuckoo-shrikes. Some of the species also bear a superficial resemblance to cuckoos, and have a similar undulating flight. The grey colouration has led to one of their other names, the greybird. In some parts of the world they have also been known as caterpillar-birds, a name derived from their diet. They are in fact thought by some to be closely related to the Old World orioles (Oriolidae), although they differ strongly in some morphological characteristics (such as skull morphology and the arrangements of feathers on the wing).

Description

Overall the cuckoo-shrikes are medium to small arboreal birds, generally long and slender. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although the minivets are brightly coloured in red, yellow and black, and the Blue Cuckoo-shrike of central Africa is all-over glossy blue. The four cuckoo-shrikes in the genus "Campephaga" exhibit sexual dimorphism, with males that have glossy black plumage and bright red or yellow wattles, the females having more subdued olive-green plumage.cite book |editor=Forshaw, Joseph|author= Clancey, P.A.|year=1991|title=Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds|publisher= Merehurst Press|location=London|pages= 176|isbn= 1-85391-186-0]

Of the 84 species of cuckoo-shrike, the majority are forest birds. Some species are restricted to primary forest, like the New Caledonian Cuckoo-shrike, others are able to use more disturbed forest. Around eleven species use much more open habitat, one Australian species, the Ground Cuckoo-shrike being found in open plains and scrubland with few trees.

The 'true' cuckoo-shrikes are usually found singly, in pairs, and in small family groups, whereas the minivets, flycatcher-shrikes and wood-shrikes more frequently form small flocks. There is a considerable amount of variation within the family as a whole with regards to calls, some call very infrequently and some, principally the minivets, are extremely vocal.

These are mainly insectivorous, and will take large hairy caterpillars. They have also been recorded eating small vertebrates, and some fruit, seeds and other plant matter. About four blotchy white, green or blue eggs are laid in a cup nest in a tree. Incubation is about two weeks.

Taxonomic list of Campephagidae

FAMILY: CAMPEPHAGIDAE
* Genus "Pteropodocys"
** Ground Cuckoo-shrike, "Pteropodocys maxima"
* Genus "Coracina"
** Large Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina macei"
** Sunda Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina larvata"
** Javan Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina javensis"
** Slaty Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina schistacea"
** Wallacean Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina personata"
** Melanesian Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina caledonica"
** Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina novaehollandiae"
** Stout-billed Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina caeruleogrisea"
** Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina striata"
*** Cebu Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina striata cebuensis" - extinct (early 20th century)
** Pied Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina bicolor"
** Moluccan Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina atriceps"
** Buru Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina fortis"
** Cerulean Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina temminckii"
** Yellow-eyed Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina lineata"
** Boyer's Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina boyeri"
** White-rumped Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina leucopygia"
** White-bellied Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina papuensis"
** Hooded Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina longicauda"
** Halmahera Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina parvula"
** Pygmy Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina abbotti"
** New Caledonian Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina analis"
** White-breasted Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina pectoralis"
** Blue Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina azurea"
** Gray Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina caesia"
** Grauer's Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina graueri"
** Ashy Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina cinerea"
** Mauritius Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina typica"
** Reunion Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina newtoni"
** Cicadabird, "Coracina tenuirostris"
*** Maros Cicadabird, "Coracina tenuirostris edithae" - disputed; extinct (mid-20th century)
** Blackish Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina coerulescens"
*** Cebu Blackish Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina coerulescens altera" - possibly extinct (early 20th century?)
*** Marinduque Blackish Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina coerulescens deschauenseei" - possibly extinct (late 20th century?)
** Sumba Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina dohertyi"
** Sula Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina sula"
** Kai Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina dispar"
** Black-bibbed Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina mindanensis"
** Sulawesi Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina morio"
** Pale-grey Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina ceramensis"
** Papuan Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina incerta"
** Gray-headed Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina schisticeps"
** New Guinea Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina melas"
** Black-bellied Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina montana"
** Solomon Islands Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina holopolia"
** McGregor's Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina mcgregori"
** Indochinese Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina polioptera"
** White-winged Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina ostenta"
** Black-winged Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina melaschistos"
** Lesser Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina fimbriata"
** Black-headed Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina melanoptera"
* Genus "Campochaera"
** Golden Cuckoo-shrike, "Campochaera sloetii"
* Genus "Lalage"
** Black-and-white Triller, "Lalage melanoleuca"
** Pied Triller, "Lalage nigra"
** White-rumped Triller, "Lalage leucopygialis"
** White-shouldered Triller, "Lalage sueurii"
** White-winged Triller, "Lalage tricolor"
** Rufous-bellied Triller, "Lalage aurea"
** White-browed Triller, "Lalage moesta"
** Varied Triller, "Lalage leucomela"
** Black-browed Triller, "Lalage atrovirens"
** Samoan Triller, "Lalage sharpei"
** Polynesian Triller, "Lalage maculosa"
** Long-tailed Triller, "Lalage leucopyga"
*** Norfolk Island Long-tailed Triller, "Lalage (leucopyga) leucopyga" - extinct (1976)
* Genus "Campephaga"
** Petit's Cuckoo-shrike, "Campephaga petiti"
** Black Cuckoo-shrike, "Campephaga flava"
** Red-shouldered Cuckoo-shrike, "Campephaga phoenicea"
** Purple-throated Cuckoo-shrike, "Campephaga quiscalina"
* Genus "Lobotos"
** Western Wattled Cuckoo-shrike, "Lobotos lobata"
** Eastern Wattled Cuckoo-shrike, "Lobotos oriolina"
* Genus "Pericrocotus"
** Rosy Minivet, "Pericrocotus roseus"
** Brown-rumped Minivet, "Pericrocotus cantonensis"
** Ashy Minivet, "Pericrocotus divaricatus"
** Small Minivet, "Pericrocotus cinnamomeus"
** Ryūkyū Minivet, "Pericrocotus tegimae"
** Fiery Minivet, "Pericrocotus igneus"
** Flores Minivet, "Pericrocotus lansbergei"
** White-bellied Minivet, "Pericrocotus erythropygius"
** Long-tailed Minivet, "Pericrocotus ethologus"
** Short-billed Minivet, "Pericrocotus brevirostris"
** Sunda Minivet, "Pericrocotus miniatus"
** Scarlet Minivet, "Pericrocotus flammeus"
** Gray-chinned Minivet, "Pericrocotus solaris"
* Genus "Hemipus"
** Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike, "Hemipus picatus"
** Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike, "Hemipus hirundinaceus"

References

*del Hoyo. J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., (eds), "Handbook of the Birds of the World", Volume Ten, Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes, ISBN 84-87334-72-5

External links

* [http://ibc.hbw.com/ibc/phtml/familia.phtml?idFamilia=124 Cuckoo-shrike videos] on the Internet Bird Collection


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • cuckoo-shrike — /kooh kooh shruyk , kook ooh /, n. any of numerous Old World passerine birds of the family Campephagidae, certain species of which superficially resemble cuckoos and have hooked bills like shrikes. * * * ▪ bird  any of several Old World songbirds …   Universalium

  • cuckoo-shrike — /ˈkʊku ʃraɪk/ (say kookooh shruyk) noun any of various birds of the mainly tropical family Campephagidae as the black faced cuckoo shrike, Coracina novaehollandiae, the ground cuckoo shrike, C. maxima, and the cicadabird …   Australian English dictionary

  • cuckoo shrike — noun : any of numerous Old World birds somewhat like flycatchers in habits constituting the family Campephagidae but formerly often included in the family Laniidae and differing from the true shrikes especially in their undulating flight… …   Useful english dictionary

  • cuckoo-shrike — /kooh kooh shruyk , kook ooh /, n. any of numerous Old World passerine birds of the family Campephagidae, certain species of which superficially resemble cuckoos and have hooked bills like shrikes …   Useful english dictionary

  • Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike — Conservation status Least Concern  …   Wikipedia

  • Reunion cuckoo-shrike — Taxobox name = Reunion Cuckoo shrike status = CR status system = iucn3.1 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes familia = Campephagidae genus = Coracina species = C. newtoni binomial = Coracina newtoni binomial… …   Wikipedia

  • Ashy Cuckoo-shrike — Taxobox name = Ashy Cuckoo shrike status = LC | status system = IUCN3.1 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes familia = Campephagidae genus = Coracina species = C. cinerea binomial = Coracina cinerea binomial… …   Wikipedia

  • Ground Cuckoo-shrike — Taxobox name = Ground Cuckoo shrike status = LC | status system = IUCN3.1 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes familia = Campephagidae genus = Coracina species = C. maxima binomial = Coracina maxima binomial… …   Wikipedia

  • Black-winged Cuckoo-shrike — Taxobox name = Black winged Cuckoo shrike image caption = on Banyan Ficus benghalensis at Jayanti in Buxa Tiger Reserve in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, India. status = LC | status system = IUCN3.1 status ref = [IUCN2006|assessors=BirdLife… …   Wikipedia

  • Melanesian Cuckoo-shrike — Taxobox name = Melanesian Cuckoo shrike status = LC | status system = IUCN3.1 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes familia = Campephagidae genus = Coracina species = C. caledonica binomial = Coracina caledonica… …   Wikipedia

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