name = WildcatMSW3 Wozencraft | pages = 536-537]
status = LC
trend = down
status_system = iucn3.1
status_ref =IUCN2006|assessors=Cat Specialist Group|year=2002|id=8543|title=Felis silvestris|downloaded=5 May 2006 Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern]
image_width = 200px
European Wildcat("Felis silvestris silvestris")
phylum = Chordata
genus = "
species = "F. silvestris"
binomial = "Felis silvestris"
binomial_authority = Schreber,
subdivision_ranks = subspecies
subdivision = See text
range_map_caption = The five subspecies of "Felis silvestris" according to a 2007 DNA study.
The Wildcat ("Felis silvestris"), sometimes Wild Cat or Wild-cat, is a small felid native to
Europe, the western part of Asia, and Africa. It is a hunter of small mammals, birds, and other creatures of a similar size. There are several subspeciesdistributed in different regions. Sometimes included is the ubiquitous domestic cat("Felis silvestris catus"), which has been introduced to every habitable continent and most of the world's larger islands, and has become feral in many of those environments.
In its native environment, the Wildcat is adaptable to a variety of habitat types: savanna, open forest, and steppe. Although domesticated breeds show a great variety of shapes and colours, wild individuals are medium-brown with black stripes, between 45 and 80 cm (18–32
inches) in length, and weigh between 3 and 8 kilograms (6–17.6 pounds). Shoulder height averages about 35 cm (14 in) and tail length is about 30 cm (12 in). The African subspecies tends to be a little smaller and a lighter brown in colour.
The Wildcat is extremely timid. It avoids approaching human settlements. It lives solitarily and holds a territory of about 3 km².
A study by the
National Cancer Institutesuggests that all current house cats in the world are descendants from a group of self-domesticating Wildcats 10,000 years ago, somewhere in the Near East. The closest relative of the Wildcat is the Sand Cat("Felis margarita").
It is an obligate carnivore, like all
felines, and consumes almost every part of any kill it makes;fact|date=May 2008 the coat providing roughage, the bones calcium, and the meat everything else, in fact they rarely need to drink because meat has such a high water content. The Wildcat often carries parasitic worms in its gut and will eat long blades of grass to help clear out its system and probably also to obtain certain necessary acids not present in meat.fact|date=May 2008
According to a 2007 DNA analysis, there are only 5 subspecies:cite journal | author = Driscoll, CA, et al | title = The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication | journal = Science | date =
2007-06-28| volume = 317 | issue = 5837 | pages = 519–523 | doi = 10.1126/science.1139518 | pmid = 17600185]
Felis silvestris silvestris" ( Europeand Turkey).
Felis silvestris lybica" ( North Africa, Middle Eastand Western Asia, to the Aral Sea).
Felis silvestris cafra" ( Southern Africa).
Felis silvestris ornata" (Pakistan, north east of India, Mongolia and northern China).
Felis silvestris bieti" (China).
Older texts separated out many more subspecies:
Felis silvestris cafra" ( Southern Africa)
Felis silvestris foxi" ( West Africa)
Felis silvestris griselda" ( Central Africa)
**"Felis silvestris lybica" African wildcat (
Felis silvestris ocreata" (East Central Africa)
Felis silvestris mellandi" (West Central Africa)
Felis silvestris caudata" ( Caspian Seaarea)
**"Felis silvestris ornata" Indian desert cat (
Felis silvestris bieti" Chinese mountain cat (possible subspecies)
**"Felis silvestris cretensis" (
Crete) (extinct, though some sightings have been reported).
Felis silvestris caucasica" Caucasian wildcat ( Caucasus Mountainsand Turkey)
Felis silvestris grampia" Scottish wildcat (northern and western Scotland)
Felis silvestris jordansi" Balearic wildcat ( Balearic Islands)
**"Felis silvestris reyi" Corsican wildcat (
Corsica) (Possibly Extinct)
**"Felis silvestris silvestris" European wildcat (
Felis silvestris chutuchta"
Felis silvestris gordoni"
Felis silvestris haussa"
Felis silvestris iraki"
Felis silvestris nesterovi"
Felis silvestris rubida"
Felis silvestris tristrami"
Felis silvestris ugandae"
Felis silvestris vellerosa"
* [http://www.lioncrusher.com/animal.asp?animal=72 "Felis silvestris":] three distinct populations
* [http://lynx.uio.no/lynx/catsgportal/cat-website/20_cat-website/home/index_en.htm "IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group - Cat Species Information"]
* [http://www.scottishwildcats.co.uk/ Scottish Wildcat Association]
* [http://digimorph.org/specimens/Felis_sylvestris_lybica/female/ Digimorph.org:] 3D computed tomographic (CT) animations of male and female African wild cat skulls
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