Waldo-Hancock Bridge

Infobox Bridge
bridge_name = Waldo-Hancock Bridge



caption = Waldo-Hancock Bridge as it looks from Verona Island
official_name = Waldo-Hancock Bridge
carries = U.S. Route 1
crosses = Penobscot River
locale = Bucksport, Maine, (Hancock County, Maine)
maint = Maine Department of Transportation
id = (Bridge No. 2973)
design = Suspension bridge
mainspan = 800 ft (244 m)
length = 2040 ft (622 m)
width = 20 ft (6 m) roadway with 2 3½ ft (1 m) sidewalks
height = 72 m
load =
clearance =
below = 135 ft (41 m)
traffic =
begin = 1929
complete = 1931
open = November 16, 1931
closed = December 30, 2006
toll = 1931-1953
map_cue =
map_

map_text =
map_width =
coordinates =
lat = 44.560692
long = -68.801966

The Waldo-Hancock Bridge was the first long-span suspension bridge erected in Maine, as well as the first permanent bridge across the Penobscot River below Bangor. The name comes from connecting Waldo and Hancock counties. The bridge was retired in 2006 as the new Penobscot Narrows Bridge was opened just a few yards away.

The bridge is 2,040 feet (622 m) long with a clear center span of 800 feet (244 m) between towers. It has two 350 foot (107 m) side spans and carries a 20 foot (6 m) wide roadway with two 3-1/2 foot (1 m) sidewalks. It uses stiffening trusses that are 9 feet (2.7 m) deep. Each of the main suspender cables is 9-5/8 inches (24 cm) in diameter, and consists of 37 strands of 37 wires. The deck is 135 feet (41 m) above water level to allow passage of large ships. The total cost of the span was less than $850,000 in 1931 dollars (about $10 million in 2006 dollars), significantly under its allocated budget.

Construction

David B. Steinman, of Robinson and Steinman, was the designer. The bridge was fabricated by American Bridge Company (superstructure) and Merritt-Chapman & Scott (substructure).

Technologically, the Waldo-Hancock Bridge represents a number of firsts. It was one of the first two bridges in the U.S. (along with the St. Johns Bridge in Portland, Oregon, completed in June, 1931) to employ Robinson and Steinman’s prestressed twisted wire strand cables, which were first used on the 1929 Grand Mère Suspension Bridge over the Saint-Maurice River in Quebec. The prefabrication and prestressing of the cables decreased the number of field adjustments required, saving considerable time, effort, and money. As an additional experiment in efficiency, the Waldo-Hancock cables were marked prior to construction, ensuring proper setting. This method had never been used before and proved successful in this instance. These innovations, invented and pioneered by Steinman, were a significant step forward for builders of suspension bridges.

The Waldo-Hancock was also the first bridge to make use of the Vierendeel truss in its two towers, giving it an effect that Steinman called “artistic, emphasizing horizontal and vertical lines.” This attractive and effective truss design was later used in a number of important bridges, including the Triborough Bridge and Golden Gate Bridge. [cite web| last = Larson Farnham| first = Katherine| year = 1999| url = http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=hhdatapage&fileName=me/me0300/me0313/data/hhdatapage.db&recNum=1
title = Waldo-Hancock Bridge| work = Historic American Engineering Record| pages = 1| publisher = Library of Congress| accessdate = May 1| accessyear = 2006
]

The Waldo-Hancock Bridge was noted at the time for its economy of design and construction. It cost far less than had been appropriated by the State Highway Commission, which enabled the construction of a second bridge between Verona Island and Bucksport.

Rehabilitation and replacement

The bridge was opened as a toll bridge to retire the bonds issued to finance construction. Tolls were lifted on 31 October, 1953. [cite web| url = http://www.waldohancockbridge.com/waldo-county-bridge/hisfacts.php| title = History| work = Waldo-Hancock Bridge Replacement Project| publisher =Maine Department of transportation| accessdate = May 1| accessyear = 2006]

Work was undertaken to rehabilitate the bridge starting in 2000 [cite web| url = http://en.structurae.de/structures/data/index.cfm?ID=s0001116| title = Waldo-Hancock Bridge| publisher = Structurae| accessdate = May 1| accessyear = 2006] by Cianbro and Piasecki Steel Construction Corp. with cable work by Williamsport Wirerope Works Inc, by focusing on strengthening the cables. The two cables were done separately, one a time. Piasecki Steel Construction Corp., Castleton, N.Y., rehabilitated the north cable in 2002. At this point the bridge was determined to be too far gone [cite web| url = http://www.bridgemeister.com/pic.php?pid=172 | title = Waldo-Hancock Suspension Bridge| publisher = Bridgemeister.com | accessdate = May 1 | accessyear =2006] to be rehabilitated to modern load factors and standards and work shifted to temporary strengthening.

For the south cable, MDOT in August 2003 hired Pittsfield, Maine-based Cianbro Corp. under a $4-million emergency contract (almost 5 times the original bridge’s nominal cost) with a very short completion time.

The rehabilitation used a single wire thickness (2-inch (5.1 cm) diameter galvanized helical 91-wire strands.) to facilitate fabricating and installing the cables more quickly. New concrete anchorages with up to 30-foot (9.1 m) long anchor rods were built by Cianbro. Crews installed continuous runs of strands on new saddles bolted and welded on new base plates atop cable bents and the main towers. Workers placed two groups of four strands 12 feet (3.6 m) above each main cable to allow for pulls. Each strand weighs 4 tons (3.6 metric tons). A rope pull was walked across, connected to a 7/8-inch (2.2 cm) pull cable, then winched back across and connected to the strand, which was fed through a tensioner holding back about 15,000 pounds (6,803 kg) to smooth the pull.

“We hooked and rehooked one strand per day on average,” says Archie J. Wheaton, Cianbro project superintendent. “The strands were connected to anchor rods; then we set the sag.” The new auxiliary cables are connected to existing double suspender cables by 1 1/8 inch (2.9 cm) steel rods, then tensioned with 30-ton (27.2 metric ton) jacks, bringing the new cables about 3 feet (0.9 m) from the main cables. [cite web| last = Angelo| first = William J.| year = 2003| url = http://enr.construction.com/news/transportation/archives/031110a.asp| title = Maine Cables Get Extra Support in Rare Procedure| publisher = ENR.com Engineering News Record| accessdate =May 1| accessyear =2006]

A new construction, the Penobscot Narrows Bridge, was built alongside the older one. [This [http://www.waldohancockbridge.com/waldo-county-bridge/slides/4_21.jpgimage] is a spectacular overhead view of the roadway advancing on the new bridge from the Maine DOT site] The new bridge was opened to traffic on December 30, 2006, at which point the Waldo-Hancock Bridge was ceremoniously closed. Barricades have been erected at both ends closing the bridge to both cars and pedestrians.

Further reading

The following sources referenced at the HAER site [cite web| last = Larson Farnham| first = Katherine| year = 1999| url = http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=hhdatapage&fileName=me/me0300/me0313/data/hhdatapage.db&recNum=2
title = Waldo-Hancock Bridge| work = Historic American Engineering Record| pages = 3| publisher = Library of Congress| accessdate = May 1| accessyear = 2006
] may be of value:
*Jackson, Donald C. Great American Bridges and Dams. A National Trust guide. Great American Places Series. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1988.
*Jakkula, Ame A. “A History of Suspension Bridges in Bibliographical Form” Bulletin of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. Fourth Series, Vol. 12, No. 7(1 July 1941), p. 327.
*Plowden, David. Bridges: The Spans of North America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1974; reprint, 1984.


=External links=
* — major source of information used in article, although not directly cited.
* [http://www.bridgemeister.com/pic.php?pid=20 Entry] at [http://bridgemeister.com Bridgemeister.com] (includes builders plate)
* [http://www.bridgemeister.com/pic.php?pid=172 Entry] at [http://bridgemeister.com Bridgemeister.com] (includes distance shots)
* [http://bridgepros.com/projects/Waldo-Hancock/index.htm entry] on reconstruction at [http://bridgepros.com BridgePros.com]
* [http://enr.construction.com/news/transportation/archives/031110a.asp Recabling project] from McGraw Hill Engineering News Record site (effort ended up being a temporary stopgap)
* [http://www.waldohancockbridge.com/waldo-county-bridge Replacement project] at Maine DOT site

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Waldo — may refer to:Things* a remote manipulatorLiterature* Waldo (short story), a novella by Robert A. Heinlein about a crippled man who uses remote manipulators * Waldo (1967 novel), a novel written by Paul Theroux and first published in 1967 * Where… …   Wikipedia

  • Waldo — est un terme pouvant désigner: Sommaire 1 Patronyme 2 Prénom 3 Toponyme 4 Voir aussi Patronyme …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Waldo Bridge — may refer to:*Waldo Covered Bridge, a covered bridge in Alabama, United States *Waldo Hancock Bridge, a suspension bridge in Maine, United States …   Wikipedia

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Hancock County, Maine — Location of Hancock County in Maine This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hancock County, Maine. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places… …   Wikipedia

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Waldo County, Maine — Location of Waldo County in Maine This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Waldo County, Maine. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in… …   Wikipedia

  • Penobscot Narrows Bridge — Infobox Bridge bridge name = Penobscot Narrows Bridge caption = The Penobscot Narrows Bridge with the Waldo Hancock Bridge in the background official name = Penobscot Narrows Bridge and Observatory carries = US 1 and ME 3 crosses = Penobscot… …   Wikipedia

  • Deer Isle Bridge — Carries Motor vehicles, pedestrians, bicycles Crosses Eggemoggin Reach Locale Deer Isle, Maine …   Wikipedia

  • Verona Island, Maine — Verona Island is a town located on an island of the same name in the Penobscot River in Hancock County, Maine, United States. The population was 533 at the 2000 census. History This island and community has undergone numerous name changes. It was …   Wikipedia

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Maine — This is a list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Maine. There are approximately 1,500 listed sites in Maine. Each of the state s 16 counties has more than forty listings on the National Register.… …   Wikipedia

  • David B. Steinman — Not to be confused with David Steinman, American environmentalist.. David Bernard Steinman (June 11, 1886[1] August 21, 1960) was an American structural engineer. He was the designer of the Mackinac Bridge and many other notable bridges, and a… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.