- Hong Kong Tramways
Hong Kong Tramways is one of the three
tramways in the world that have regular operation of double-deckertrams (the others being Blackpool, Englandand Alexandria, Egypt), and is the only system that runs exclusively on double-deckers.
Operated by The Wharf, the tramway runs on
Hong Kong Islandin Hong Kongbetween Shau Kei Wan and Kennedy Town, with a branch circulating Happy Valley. 240,000 residents commute by tram every day. Serving from 1904, it is one of the earliest forms of public transportin Hong Kong. Trams in Hong Kong have not only been a form of transport for over 100 years, but also a major tourist attraction.
The electric tram system was proposed in 1881; however nobody was willing to invest in a system at the time. In August 1901, the Second Tramway Bill was introduced and passed into law as the
1902 Tramway Ordinance. Hong Kong Tramway Electric Company Limited, a British company, was authorised to construct and operate the system. It was soon taken over by the Electric Traction Company of Hong Kong Limited on 30 Jul 1904, and the name was changed to Hong Kong Tramways Company Limited in 1910.
A boycott in November 1912 followed the company’s refusal to accept Chinese coins in payment for fare. What initially was a peaceful protest grew into intimidation, violence, arrests and attacks on (apparently exclusively) Chinese passengers. [Tsai Jung-fang, "Hong Kong in Chinese History: Community and Social Unrest in the British Colony, 1842-1913", Columbia University Press (New York: 1993), Chapter 10.]
In 1922, a new company, Hong Kong Tramway Limited (HKT), was founded to take over and operate the system. The Tramway Ordinance of 1902 had awarded a 25-year operating mandate, which was then extended to a 50-year contract and expired on 23 May 1952. Due to the extension of the mandate, the Hong Kong Government had the chance to purchase the tramway at 5-year intervals, provided always that 6 months' notice of such intention was given. In 1974, Hong Kong Tramways became part of the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited and is now operated under subsidiary Wharf Transport Investments Ltd.
The Hong Kong Tramways system was built from May 1903 (see timeline below). After equipment testing, the electric tram began operation on
July 30 1904. At that time the main route went along the northern waterfront of Hong Kong Island from Arsenal Street in Wan Chaito Shau Kei Wan, with a branch serving Happy Valley. Shortly after, the line was extended westards to Kennedy Town. The length of the route was 15 km (9.3 miles), the same as today, except for track relocations and the extension of the Happy Valley branch in 1914. Originally constructed with both single and double-track sections, the last single-track section was eliminated in August 1949. Reserved track along Queensway (then part of Queen's Road East) was introduced from 1955.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s there were fears about the survival of the trams when the
Mass Transit Railwaybegan to construct the Island Line, which was proposed to run along a route that is similar to the trams'. A survey was taken by the company in 1984, and the results concluded that the public would prefer to keep the tram system intact.
The system is 13 km (8 miles) long, with a total track length of 30 km (18.6 miles), and it runs together with other vehicles on the street. Its operation relies on the 550 V
direct current(d.c.) from the overhead cables, on 3'6" gauge (1067 mm) tracks. The trams provide service to only part of Hong Kong Island: they run on a double track along the northern coast of Hong Kong Island from Kennedy Town to Shaukeiwan, with a single clockwise-running track of about 3 km (1.9 miles) around the Happy Valley Racecourse. There are six major overlapping routes:
* Shaukeiwan ↔ Western Market
* Shaukeiwan ↔ Happy Valley
* North Point ↔ Whitty Street
* Happy Valley ↔ Kennedy Town
Causeway Bay↔ Kennedy Town
* Western Market ↔ Kennedy Town
* Cantor Overhead cable maintenance vehicle
;North Point DepotWith the upsurge in the number of trams the original depot had become too crowded by 1932, prompting Hongkong Tramways to secure the
North PointDepot site at King's Road for tram parking purposes (storage for 30 cars).
In 1951, the North Point Depot was closed and the operations moved to new facility in Russell Street, Wanchai bordering
;Sharp Street DepotA single comprehensive depot at Russell Street to house the whole tram fleet (approximately 120 cars) was started to alleviate overcrowding at North Point. Upon its completion, the depot was renamed Sharp Street Depot. Sharp Street Depot was closed in 1989 and its services were divided between two new depots, the present
Sai Wan Hodepot (East Depot) and the Whitty Streetdepot (West Depot).
The Executive Council approved Tramways' plan to relocate its depots to
Sai Wan Hoand Sai Ying Punin July 1986, on the argument that the HK$3.5 million in operating costs would be saved. The company promised that tram fares would be frozen until the end of 1988 [http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/newspaper/view/16_14.02/68721.pdf Plan to relocate depot keeps tram-fares down] , South China Morning Post, July 16, 1986] . The old Sharp Street tram depot was decommissioned in 1988, and the Times Square commercial complex was constructed on its site.
;Arsenal Street DepotArsenal Street Depot was the earlier of the HKT's storage facilities and replaced by Whitty and Sharp Street Depots.
;Whitty Street Terminus and DepotWhitty Street , also known as West Depot, is the location of the main depot for HK Trams current operations. It was previously operated as a terminus. When the Sharp Street Depot was closed, the site was expanded by the addition of 1.28 hectares on the Western reclamation in Sai Ying Pun leased from the Government, and henceforth became the main depot.
There is a two storey work shop, which was responsible for re-builds in the 1980s. Car # 168, the newest in the fleet was built here.
;Sai Wan Ho DepotSai Wan Ho became East Depot after the closure of the Sharp Street Depot in 1989. This depot occupies a site or 0.7 hectares leased from the Government on a 5-year renewable tenancy. It lies beneath the
Island Eastern Corridornear to Shau Kei Wan Roadand Hoi Foo Street and is home to 56 cars.
Fares on the trams are low by local standards. The fare is HK$2 for adults, and HK$1 for children under 12 and senior citizens 65 and above. Unlike other forms of public transport in Hong Kong, there is a uniform tariff regardless of the distance travelled. Payment using the exact fare in coins or
Octopus cardis made upon alighting from a tram. Monthly tickets are also available at the cost of HK$170, sold at Whitty Street tram depot and Causeway Bay and North Point termini at the end of each month.
Ordinary and antique trams are also available for private hire. The open-balcony antique trams are available for parties or promotional events. Tourists can also travel the open-top trams through tours organised by the
Hong Kong Tourism Board.cite web | url = http://www.hktramways.com/en/advert/index_tramhire.html | title = Tram Hire | publisher = Hongkong Tramways Limited | accessdate = July 4 | accessyear = 2006]
Timeline of Tramways history
* 1881: Idea of tramway system was proposed in Hong Kong
* 1901: Proposal accepted by Hong Kong Government
* 1902: Hong Kong Tramway Electric Company Ltd founded, and the name changed by the end of this year to Electric Tranction Company of Hong Kong Ltd
* 1903: Tramways
* 1904: Track connecting Wan Chai, Happy Valley and Shau Kei Wan were completed
* 1910: Name of the company changed to The Hongkong Tramways Ltd
Double-deckertrams were introduced
Electricitywas contracted and supplied by Hongkong Electric Co. Ltd (HEC)
North PointDepot came into service
* 1949: Double track adopted, and radical renewal started
* 1954: North Point Depot closed and Russell Street Depot expanded and renamed Sharp Street Depot
* 1964: Three locally-made trams added
* 1967: New-type trams designed
* 1974: The Hongkong Tramways Ltd acquired by
The Wharf (Holdings) Limited
* 1979: Last tram was manufactured
* 1982: All trams were mustered out
* 1986: Another renewal
* 1989: Sharp Street Depot closed and split into Sai Wan Ho and the Whitty Street depots
* 2000: New generation trams (Millennium trams) introduced
* 2001: The electronic
smart cardpayment system Octopus introduced on trams
* 2004: Hongkong Tramways Ltd celebrated its 100th anniversary
* 2007: Route map was installed on each tram stop
* 2008: Air-conditioner was installed on antique tram #128
Transport in Hong Kong
* [http://www.hktramways.com Hong Kong Tramways]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/9585/index.html History of Trams - HK Tramways]
* [http://www.blickpunktstrab.net/report04_e.html Report #4 "British Double Deck Trams in China" Hongkong Tramways]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Hong Kong Tramways — Doppeldecker Nr. 120 der Hong Kong Tramway Die Hong Kong Tramways (chinesisch 香港電車), auch Ding Ding genannt, ist eine seit 1904 bestehende Straßenbahn in Central (Hongkong), einer Stadt in der Sonderverwaltungszone Hongkong in der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hong Kong Tramway — Doppeldecker Nr. 120 der Hong Kong Tramway Die Hong Kong Tramways (chin. 香港電車) ist eine seit 1904 bestehende Straßenbahn in Central (Hongkong), einer Stadt in der Sonderverwaltungszone Hongkong in der Volksrepublik China. Deren Strecke befindet… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hong-Kong — 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People s Republic of China Sonderverwaltungszone Hongkong der Volksrepublik China … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hong Kong — 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People s Republic of China Sonderverwaltungszone Hongkong der Volksrepublik China … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China — 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People s Republic of China Sonderverwaltungszone Hongkong der Volksrepublik China … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hong Kong — HK redirects here. For other uses, see HK (disambiguation). Coordinates: 22°16′42″N 114°09′32″E … Wikipedia
Hong Kong International Airport — HKIA redirects here. HKIA may also refer to Hong Kong Institute of Architects. Hong Kong Airport redirects here. For the old airport at Kai Tak, see Kai Tak Airport. Hong Kong International Airport Chek Lap Kok Airport 香港國際機場 赤鱲角機場 … Wikipedia
Hong Kong — 22°16′55″N 114°9′43″E / 22.28194, 114.16194 … Wikipédia en Français
Hong Kong Island — Infobox Islands name = Hong Kong image caption = image size = locator Location map|China|lat=22.255|long=114.195 map custom = yes native name = 港島 native name link = Chinese language nickname = location = Hong Kong coordinates =… … Wikipedia
Hong Kong Island — Vorlage:Infobox Insel/Wartung/Höhe fehlt Hong Kong Island Blick auf Hong Kong Island von Kowloon aus Gewässer … Deutsch Wikipedia