Hong Kong Tramways


Hong Kong Tramways

Hong Kong Tramways is one of the three tramways in the world that have regular operation of double-decker trams (the others being Blackpool, England and Alexandria, Egypt), and is the only system that runs exclusively on double-deckers.

Operated by The Wharf, the tramway runs on Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong between Shau Kei Wan and Kennedy Town, with a branch circulating Happy Valley. 240,000 residents commute by tram every day. Serving from 1904, it is one of the earliest forms of public transport in Hong Kong. Trams in Hong Kong have not only been a form of transport for over 100 years, but also a major tourist attraction.

History

The electric tram system was proposed in 1881; however nobody was willing to invest in a system at the time. In August 1901, the Second Tramway Bill was introduced and passed into law as the 1902 Tramway Ordinance. Hong Kong Tramway Electric Company Limited, a British company, was authorised to construct and operate the system. It was soon taken over by the Electric Traction Company of Hong Kong Limited on 30 Jul 1904, and the name was changed to Hong Kong Tramways Company Limited in 1910.

A boycott in November 1912 followed the company’s refusal to accept Chinese coins in payment for fare. What initially was a peaceful protest grew into intimidation, violence, arrests and attacks on (apparently exclusively) Chinese passengers. [Tsai Jung-fang, "Hong Kong in Chinese History: Community and Social Unrest in the British Colony, 1842-1913", Columbia University Press (New York: 1993), Chapter 10.]

In 1922, a new company, Hong Kong Tramway Limited (HKT), was founded to take over and operate the system. The Tramway Ordinance of 1902 had awarded a 25-year operating mandate, which was then extended to a 50-year contract and expired on 23 May 1952. Due to the extension of the mandate, the Hong Kong Government had the chance to purchase the tramway at 5-year intervals, provided always that 6 months' notice of such intention was given. In 1974, Hong Kong Tramways became part of the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited and is now operated under subsidiary Wharf Transport Investments Ltd.

The Hong Kong Tramways system was built from May 1903 (see timeline below). After equipment testing, the electric tram began operation on July 30 1904. At that time the main route went along the northern waterfront of Hong Kong Island from Arsenal Street in Wan Chai to Shau Kei Wan, with a branch serving Happy Valley. Shortly after, the line was extended westards to Kennedy Town. The length of the route was 15 km (9.3 miles), the same as today, except for track relocations and the extension of the Happy Valley branch in 1914. Originally constructed with both single and double-track sections, the last single-track section was eliminated in August 1949. Reserved track along Queensway (then part of Queen's Road East) was introduced from 1955.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s there were fears about the survival of the trams when the Mass Transit Railway began to construct the Island Line, which was proposed to run along a route that is similar to the trams'. A survey was taken by the company in 1984, and the results concluded that the public would prefer to keep the tram system intact.

Operations

The system is 13 km (8 miles) long, with a total track length of 30 km (18.6 miles), and it runs together with other vehicles on the street. Its operation relies on the 550 V direct current (d.c.) from the overhead cables, on 3'6" gauge (1067 mm) tracks. The trams provide service to only part of Hong Kong Island: they run on a double track along the northern coast of Hong Kong Island from Kennedy Town to Shaukeiwan, with a single clockwise-running track of about 3 km (1.9 miles) around the Happy Valley Racecourse. There are six major overlapping routes:


* Shaukeiwan ↔ Western Market
* Shaukeiwan ↔ Happy Valley
* North Point ↔ Whitty Street
* Happy Valley ↔ Kennedy Town
* Causeway Bay ↔ Kennedy Town
* Western Market ↔ Kennedy Town

ervice Fleet

* Cantor Overhead cable maintenance vehicle

Depots

Defunct depots

;North Point DepotWith the upsurge in the number of trams the original depot had become too crowded by 1932, prompting Hongkong Tramways to secure the North Point Depot site at King's Road for tram parking purposes (storage for 30 cars).

In 1951, the North Point Depot was closed and the operations moved to new facility in Russell Street, Wanchai bordering Causeway Bay.

;Sharp Street DepotA single comprehensive depot at Russell Street to house the whole tram fleet (approximately 120 cars) was started to alleviate overcrowding at North Point. Upon its completion, the depot was renamed Sharp Street Depot. Sharp Street Depot was closed in 1989 and its services were divided between two new depots, the present Sai Wan Ho depot (East Depot) and the Whitty Street depot (West Depot).

The Executive Council approved Tramways' plan to relocate its depots to Sai Wan Ho and Sai Ying Pun in July 1986, on the argument that the HK$3.5 million in operating costs would be saved. The company promised that tram fares would be frozen until the end of 1988 [http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/newspaper/view/16_14.02/68721.pdf Plan to relocate depot keeps tram-fares down] , South China Morning Post, July 16, 1986] . The old Sharp Street tram depot was decommissioned in 1988, and the Times Square commercial complex was constructed on its site.

;Arsenal Street DepotArsenal Street Depot was the earlier of the HKT's storage facilities and replaced by Whitty and Sharp Street Depots.

Current depots

;Whitty Street Terminus and DepotWhitty Street , also known as West Depot, is the location of the main depot for HK Trams current operations. It was previously operated as a terminus. When the Sharp Street Depot was closed, the site was expanded by the addition of 1.28 hectares on the Western reclamation in Sai Ying Pun leased from the Government, and henceforth became the main depot.

There is a two storey work shop, which was responsible for re-builds in the 1980s. Car # 168, the newest in the fleet was built here.

;Sai Wan Ho DepotSai Wan Ho became East Depot after the closure of the Sharp Street Depot in 1989. This depot occupies a site or 0.7 hectares leased from the Government on a 5-year renewable tenancy. It lies beneath the Island Eastern Corridor near to Shau Kei Wan Road and Hoi Foo Street and is home to 56 cars.

Costs

Fares on the trams are low by local standards. The fare is HK$2 for adults, and HK$1 for children under 12 and senior citizens 65 and above. Unlike other forms of public transport in Hong Kong, there is a uniform tariff regardless of the distance travelled. Payment using the exact fare in coins or Octopus card is made upon alighting from a tram. Monthly tickets are also available at the cost of HK$170, sold at Whitty Street tram depot and Causeway Bay and North Point termini at the end of each month.

Ordinary and antique trams are also available for private hire. The open-balcony antique trams are available for parties or promotional events. Tourists can also travel the open-top trams through tours organised by the Hong Kong Tourism Board.cite web | url = http://www.hktramways.com/en/advert/index_tramhire.html | title = Tram Hire | publisher = Hongkong Tramways Limited | accessdate = July 4 | accessyear = 2006]

Timeline of Tramways history

* 1881: Idea of tramway system was proposed in Hong Kong
* 1901: Proposal accepted by Hong Kong Government
* 1902: Hong Kong Tramway Electric Company Ltd founded, and the name changed by the end of this year to Electric Tranction Company of Hong Kong Ltd
* 1903: Tramways engineering development started
* 1904: Track connecting Wan Chai, Happy Valley and Shau Kei Wan were completed
* 1910: Name of the company changed to The Hongkong Tramways Ltd
* 1912: Double-decker trams were introduced
* 1922: Electricity was contracted and supplied by Hongkong Electric Co. Ltd (HEC)
* 1932: North Point Depot came into service
* 1949: Double track adopted, and radical renewal started
* 1954: North Point Depot closed and Russell Street Depot expanded and renamed Sharp Street Depot
* 1964: Three locally-made trams added
* 1967: New-type trams designed
* 1974: The Hongkong Tramways Ltd acquired by The Wharf (Holdings) Limited
* 1979: Last tram was manufactured
* 1982: All trams were mustered out
* 1986: Another renewal
* 1989: Sharp Street Depot closed and split into Sai Wan Ho and the Whitty Street depots
* 2000: New generation trams (Millennium trams) introduced
* 2001: The electronic smart card payment system Octopus introduced on trams
* 2004: Hongkong Tramways Ltd celebrated its 100th anniversary
* 2007: Route map was installed on each tram stop
* 2008: Air-conditioner was installed on antique tram #128

ee also

* Transport in Hong Kong

References

External links

* [http://www.hktramways.com Hong Kong Tramways]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/9585/index.html History of Trams - HK Tramways]
* [http://www.blickpunktstrab.net/report04_e.html Report #4 "British Double Deck Trams in China" Hongkong Tramways]


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