- Atom probe
The atom probe is an atomic-resolution
microscopeused in materials sciencethat was invented in 1967 by Erwin Müller, J. A. Panitz, and S. Brooks McLane[cite journal|last=Müller|first=Erwin W.|authorlink=Erwin Müller|coauthors=John A. Panitz, S. Brooks McLane|year=1968|title=The Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscope|journal=Review of Scientific Instruments|volume=39|issue=1|pages=83–86|issn=0034-6748|doi=10.1063/1.1683116]
Atom-probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM)
The atom probe made one-dimensional compositional maps by combining
time-of-flightspectroscopy and field ion microscopy (FIM). The instrument allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of up-to hundreds-of-millions of atoms from a sharp tip (corresponding to specimen volumes of 10,000-1,000,000 nm3).
As in FIM, a sharp tip is made, placed in
ultra high vacuumat cryogenic temperature (typically 20-100 K). A region of the tip's surface is selected (sometimes from an FIM image) and placed over a "probe hole" by moving the tip. The atoms at the apex of the tip are ionized, either by a positive pulsed voltageor a laser. These ions are repelled from the tip electrostatically and those passing through the probe hole reach a detector. A fast timing circuit is used to measure the time taken between the pulse and the impact of the ion on the detector, thus allowing the mass-to-charge ratio of the ion to be calculated and; therefore, the corresponding element (or elements) to be identified. From the collection of many of these ions, a chemical profile of the sample can be made with relative position accuracy of less than one atomic spacing.
Imaging atom probe (IAP)
The imaging atom probe (IAP), invented in 1974 by J. A. Panitz, decreased the need to moving the tip. In the IAP, ions emitted from the surface are recorded and mass analyzed at a detector placed within 12 cm of the tip (to provide a reasonably large field of view). By "time-gating" the detector for the arrival of a particular species of interest its crystallographic distribution on the surface, and as a function of depth, can be determined. Without time-gating all of the species reaching the detector are analyzed. [cite journal|last=Panitz|first=John A.|authorlink=J. A. Panitz|year=1974|title=The Crystallographic Distribution of Field-Desorbed Species|journal=Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology|volume=11|issue=1|pages=207–210|issn=0022-5355|doi=10.1116/1.1318570] [cite journal|last=Panitz|first=John A.|authorlink=J. A. Panitz|year=1978|title=Imaging Atom-Probe Mass Spectroscopy|journal=Progress in Surface Science|volume=8|issue=6|pages=219–263|issn=0079-6816|doi=10.1016/0079-6816(78)90002-3]
Atom-probe tomography (APT)
Atom-probe tomography (APT) uses a position-sensitive detector to deduce the lateral location of atoms. This allows 3-D reconstructions to be generated. The idea of the APT, inspired by
J. A. Panitz's patent, was developed by Mike Millerstarting in 1983 and culminated with the first prototype in 1986 [cite book |last=Miller|first=Michael K.|authorlink=Mike Miller|title=Atom Probe Tomography: Analysis at the Atomic Level|date=2000-07-01|publisher=Kluwer Academic/Plenum|location=New York|isbn=0306464152] . Various refinements were made to the instrument, including the use of a so-called position-sensitive (PoS) detector by Alfred Cerezo, Terence Godfrey, and George D. W. Smithin 1988. This PoSAP was commercialized by the developers. Since then, there have been many refinements to increase the field of view, mass and position resolution, and data acquisition rate of the instrument. Imago Scientific Instruments( Madison, WI) and Cameca( France) are now the sole commercial developers of APTs.
* [http://arc.nucapt.northwestern.edu/ Northwestern University Center for Atom-Probe Tomography]
* [http://www.nims.go.jp/apfim/ Metallic Nanostructure group of the National Institute for Materials Science (Japan)]
* [http://www.emu.usyd.edu.au/ The Australian Key Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (Australia)]
* [http://www.materials.ox.ac.uk/fim/ Field Ion Microscopy Group University of Oxford (United Kingdom)]
* [http://www.material.physik.uni-goettingen.de/index.php?site=alkassab&lang=en Atom Probe Tomography Group, Göttingen University (Germany)]
* [http://caf.ua.edu/ Central Analytical Facility at The University of Alabama (USA)]
* [http://www.cameca.com Cameca]
* [http://www.imago.com Imago Scientific Instruments]
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