Shaper


Shaper

:"This article is about shapers designed for metal workpieces; for wood applications, see Wood shaper.":"For a person who makes surfboards see Shaper (surfboard)A shaper is a machine tool used for shaping or surfacing metal and other materials.

Introduction

Shapers have been largely superseded by milling machines or grinding machines in modern industrial practice. The basic function of the machine is still sound and tooling for them is minimal and very cheap to reproduce. They can be invaluable for jobbing or repair shops where only one or a few pieces are required to be produced and the alternative methods are cost or tooling intensive. The mechanically operated machines are simple and robust in construction, making their repair and upkeep easily achievable.

Types

Shapers are mainly classified as standard, draw-cut, horizontal, universal, vertical, geared, crank, hydraulic, contour and travelling head. The horizontal arrangement is the most common. Vertical shapers are generally fitted with a rotary table to enable curved surfaces to be machined. The vertical shaper differs from a slotter (slotting machine), as the slide can be moved from the vertical. A slotter is fixed in the vertical plane. Very small machines have been successfully made to operate by [http://www.lathes.co.uk/adeptshaper/ hand power] . Once size increases, up to a potential 36 inch stroke, the power needs increase and it becomes necessary to use an electric motor. This motor drives a mechanical arrangement (using a pinion gear, bull gear and crank) or a hydraulic motor which supplies the necessary movement via hydraulic cylinders.

Operation

A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backwards and forwards across the workpiece. On the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the workpiece, reducing the cutting action to one direction only.

The workpiece mounts on a rigid, box shaped table in front of the machine. The height of the table can be adjusted to suit this workpiece, and the table can traverse sideways underneath the reciprocating tool which is mounted on the ram, the table motion is usually under the control of an automatic feed mechanism which acts on the feedscrew. The ram slides back and forth above the work, at the front end of the ram is a vertical tool-slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane. This tool-slide holds the "clapper box " and toolpost from where the tool can be positioned to cut the straight, flat surface on the top of the workpiece. The tool-slide permits feeding the tool downwards to put on a cut it or may be set away from the vertical plane, as required.

The ram is adjustable for stroke and, due to the geometry of the linkage, it moves faster on the return (non-cutting) stroke than on the forward, cutting stroke. This action is via a "slotted link" or "whitworth" link.

Cutting fluid may be employed to improve the finish and prolong the tool's life.

Uses

The most common use is to machine straight, flat surfaces but with ingenuity and some accessories a wide range of work can be done. Other examples of its use are:
* Keyways in the boss of a pulley or gear can be machined without resorting to a dedicated broaching setup.
* Dovetail slides
* Internal splines
* Keyway cutting in blind holes

ee also

* Planer (metalworking) or planing machine
* Metalworking
* Machining
* CNC

References

* [http://shopswarf.orcon.net.nz/b/sh.html Shaper Mechanism Types] Crank, Rack or Geared, Friction Geared and Hydraulic
* [http://www.equipmentmls.com/info/howtobuy-shapers.html An informative page on the workings of a shaper] with a leaning to second hand buyers.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Shaper — Shap er, n. 1. One who shapes; as, the shaper of one s fortunes. [1913 Webster] The secret of those old shapers died with them. Lowell. [1913 Webster] 2. That which shapes; a machine for giving a particular form or outline to an object.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Shaper — (Spinning) The mechanism on a mule by which the shape of a cop is determined …   Dictionary of the English textile terms

  • Shaper — Les shapeurs ou shapers sont les artisans qui fabriquent les planches de surf. Ils travaillent dans un shaperoom. Le shape d une planche se fait le plus souvent à partir d un pain de mousse polyuréthane que le shaper va dégrossir, à l aide d… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • shaper — noun a) person who designs and builds surfboards. He apprenticed with several notable Southern California shapers before packing his bags for Hawaii mdash; Tom Linker [ …   Wiktionary

  • shaper — formuotuvas statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. former; shaper vok. Former, m; Formierschaltung, f; Formierungseinrichtung, f; Formungseinheit, f rus. формирователь, m pranc. dispositif de formation, m; formateur, m …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • shaper — See pulse shaper …   Dictionary of automotive terms

  • shaper — shape ► NOUN 1) the external form or appearance of someone or something as produced by their outline. 2) a piece of material, paper, etc., made or cut in a particular form. 3) a particular condition or state: the house was in poor shape. 4) a… …   English terms dictionary

  • shaper — noun see shape I …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • shaper — /shay peuhr/, n. 1. a person or thing that shapes. 2. a machine tool for forming flat surfaces, consisting of a frame, usually horizontal, on which the work is held while a cutting tool moves along it with a reciprocating motion. Cf. planer (def …   Universalium

  • shaper — Everyday English Slang in Ireland n young guy who takes up a lot of space when he struts around …   English dialects glossary


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