S-100 protein

S-100/ICaBP type calcium binding domain
Symbol S_100
Pfam PF01023
InterPro IPR013787
SCOP 1cnp

S-100 protein is a family of low molecular weight protein found in vertebrates characterized by two calcium binding sites of the helix-loop-helix ("EF-hand type") conformation. There are at least 21 different types of S100 proteins.[1] The name is derived from the fact that the protein is 100% Soluble in ammonium sulfate at neutral pH.



Most S100 proteins are homodimeric, consisting of two identical polypeptides held together by non-covalent bonds. Although S100 proteins are structurally similar to calmodulin, they differ in that they are cell-specific, expressed in particular cells at different levels depending on environmental factors. To contrast, calmodulin is a ubiquitous and universal intracellular Ca2+ receptor widely expressed in many cells.

Normal function

S100 is normally present in cells derived from the neural crest (Schwann cells, melanocytes, and glial cells), chondrocytes, adipocytes, myoepithelial cells, macrophages, Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and keratinocytes. It may be present in some breast epithelial cells.

S100 proteins have been implicated in a variety of intracellular and extracellular functions.[2] S100 proteins are involved in regulation of protein phosphorylation, transcription factors, Ca++ homeostasis, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, enzyme activities, cell growth and differentiation, and the inflammatory response. S100A7 (psoriasin) and S100A15 have been found to act as cytokines in inflammation, particularly in autoimmune skin conditions such as psoriasis.[3]


Several members of the S-100 protein family are useful as markers for certain tumors and epidermal differentiation. It can be found in melanomas,[4] 50% of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, schwannomas, paraganglioma stromal cells, histiocytoma and clear cell sarcomas. Further, S100 proteins are markers for inflammatory diseases and can mediate inflammation and act as antimicrobials.[5]

S100 proteins have been used in the lab as cell markers for anatomic pathology.

Human Genes



  1. ^ Marenholz I, Heizmann CW, Fritz G (October 2004). "S100 proteins in mouse and man: from evolution to function and pathology (including an update of the nomenclature)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 322 (4): 1111–22. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.07.096. PMID 15336958. 
  2. ^ Donato R (April 2003). "Intracellular and extracellular roles of S100 proteins". Microsc. Res. Tech. 60 (6): 540–51. doi:10.1002/jemt.10296. PMID 12645002. 
  3. ^ Wolf R, Howard OM, Dong HF, Voscopoulos C, Boeshans K, Winston J et al. (2008). "Chemotactic activity of S100A7 (Psoriasin) is mediated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products and potentiates inflammation with highly homologous but functionally distinct S100A15.". J Immunol 181 (2): 1499–506. PMC 2435511. PMID 18606705. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=18606705. 
  4. ^ Nonaka D, Chiriboga L, Rubin BP (November 2008). "Differential expression of S100 protein subtypes in malignant melanoma, and benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors". J. Cutan. Pathol. 35 (11): 1014–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0560.2007.00953.x. PMID 18547346. 
  5. ^ Wolf R, Ruzicka T, Yuspa SH (July 2010). "Novel S100A7 (psoriasin)/S100A15 (koebnerisin) subfamily: highly homologous but distinct in regulation and function". Amino Acids. doi:10.1007/s00726-010-0666-4. PMID 20596736. 

Further reading

  • Wolf R, Voscopoulos CJ, FitzGerald PC, et al. (2006). "The mouse S100A15 ortholog parallels genomic organization, structure, gene expression, and protein-processing pattern of the human S100A7/A15 subfamily during epidermal maturation". J. Invest. Dermatol. 126 (7): 1600–8. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700210. PMID 16528363. 
  • Ronald Wolf, O. M. Zack Howard, Hui-Fang Dong, Christopher Voscopoulos, Karen Boeshans, Jason Winston, Rao Divi, Michele Gunsior, Paul Goldsmith, Bijan Ahvazi, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Joost J. Oppenheim and Stuart H. Yuspa (2010.). "Chemotactic Activity of S100A7 (Psoriasin) Is Mediated by the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Potentiates Inflammation with Highly Homologous but Functionally Distinct S100A15.". The Journal of Immunology 181 (2): 1499–1506. 
  • Ronald Wolf, Francesca Mascia, Alif Dharamsi, O. M. Zack Howard, Christophe Cataisson, Val Bliskovski, Jason Winston, Lionel Feigenbaum, Ulrike Lichti, Thomas Ruzicka Triantafyllos Chavakis, and Stuart H. Yuspa. (2010). "Gene from a Psoriasis Susceptibility Locus Primes the Skin for Inflammation.". Science Translational Medicine 2 (61): 61ra90. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3001108. PMID 21148126. 

External links