Red Hot Chili Peppers
Infobox musical artist
Name = Red Hot Chili Peppers
Img_capt = Red Hot Chili Peppers. From left to right: Michael "Flea" Balzary, Anthony Kiedis, Chad Smith, John Frusciante.
Img_size = 250
Landscape = yes
Background = group_or_band
Los Angeles, California, United States
Years_active = 1983–present
Label = Warner Bros.,
What Is This?, Jane's Addiction, Ataxia, The Mars Volta, Eleven, Pearl Jam
URL = [http://www.redhotchilipeppers.com/ Official site]
Anthony Kiedis John FruscianteFlea Chad Smith
Hillel Slovak Jack Irons Cliff MartinezJack Sherman D. H. Peligro DeWayne "Blackbyrd" McKnight Jesse Tobias Arik Marshall Dave Navarro
Red Hot Chili Peppers are an American rock band formed in Los Angeles,
California, in 1983. For most of its existence, the band has consisted of vocalist Anthony Kiedis, guitarist John Frusciante, bassist Michael "Flea" Balzary, and drummer Chad Smith. The band's varied musical style has fused traditional rock and funkwith various elements of heavy metal, punk rockand psychedelic rock.
In addition to Kiedis and Flea, the group originally featured guitarist
Hillel Slovakand drummer Jack Irons. However, Slovak died of a heroin overdose in 1988, resulting in Irons resigning. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 224] Irons was replaced briefly by former Dead Kennedysdrummer D. H. Peligrobefore the band found a permanent replacement in Smith, while Slovak was replaced by up-and-coming guitarist Frusciante. This lineup recorded the band's fourth and fifth albums, " Mother's Milk" (1989) and " Blood Sugar Sex Magik" (1991).
"Blood Sugar Sex Magik" was a critical success and sold over thirteen million copies. However, Frusciante grew uncomfortable with the band's success, leaving abruptly in 1992. Kiedis, Flea, and Smith employed
Dave Navarroof Jane's Addictionfor their subsequent album, " One Hot Minute" (1995). However, it failed to match the critical acclaim of "Blood Sugar Sex Magik" and sold fewer than half the copies of its predecessor. Shortly afterwards, Navarro was fired from the band due to creative differences.
Frusciante, during his time away from the band in 1998, completed rehabilitation, rejoining the band at Flea's request. The reunited foursome returned to the studio to record "Californication" (1999), which went on to sell fifteen million units worldwide, becoming their most successful album to date. It was followed three years later with "
By the Way" (2002), which continued their success. In 2006, the group released the double album " Stadium Arcadium". The band has won six Grammy Awards. They have sold over fifty million albums worldwide, have had seven singles in the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100 (including three singles in the Top 10), have had five #1 singles on the Mainstream Rock charts, and a record eleven #1 singles on the Modern Rock charts.Cite web|url=http://www.bmi.com/musicworld/entry/334998|author=Britt, Bruce|date=October 5, 2006|title="Stadium" Set Keeps Chili Peppers Red Hot"|accessdate=2007-10-02|publisher=BMI.com]
Formation and first album (1983–1984)
Red Hot Chili Peppers (originally Tony Flow and the Miraculously Majestic Masters of Mayhem)Apter, 2004. p. 60] were formed by Fairfax High School alumni
Anthony Kiedis, Hillel Slovak, Jack Irons, and Michael "Flea" Balzary in 1983.cite web | url=http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:difrxqr5ldje~T1 | title=Red Hot Chili Peppers > Biography | accessdate=2007-06-05 | author=Prato, Greg | publisher=" Allmusic"] RHCP's first performance was at the Rhythm Lounge, to a crowd of roughly thirty people, opening for Tim Allen.Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 106] One song had been created for the occasion, which involved the band improvising music while Kiedis rapped a poem he had written called "Out in L.A.". [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 105] As Slovak and Irons were already committed to another group, What Is This?, it was intended to be a one time performance. However, the performance was so lively that the band were asked to return the following week. Due to this unexpected success, the band changed its name to the Red Hot Chili Peppers, playing several more shows at various LA clubs and musical venues. Six songs from these initial shows were recorded onto the band's first demo tape. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 115]
Several months after their first performance, the band was signed to the record label
EMI. Two weeks earlier, What Is This?had obtained a record deal with MCA, and as Slovak and Irons considered the Red Hot Chili Peppers a side project, they quit to focus on What Is This?. Instead of dissolving the band, Kiedis and Flea decided to recruit new members. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 127] Cliff Martinez, an acquaintance of Flea's, was asked to join the Chili Peppers shortly thereafter. Auditions for a new guitarist produced Jack Sherman.
Gang of Four guitarist
Andy Gillwas hired to produce their first album. Despite Kiedis and Flea's misgivings, he pushed the band to play with a cleaner, crisper and more radio-friendly sound. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 144] "The Red Hot Chili Peppers" was released on August 10, 1984, and was a commercial flop.cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:judayl4jxpvb~T5 | title=Red Hot Chili Peppers > Charts and Awards > Billboard Albums | accessdate=2007-06-06 | publisher=" Allmusic"] It initially sold approximately 25,000 units, and garnered little marketable recognition. [cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:sz6wtr79kl1x | title=The Red Hot Chili Peppers > Overview | accessdate=2007-06-06 | author=Erlewine, Stephen Thomas | publisher=" Allmusic"] The ensuing tour fared little better, as continuing musical and lifestyle tension between Kiedis and Sherman complicated the transition between concert and daily band life. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 133] [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 134] Sherman was fired soon after, with Slovak returning to the Chili Peppers after growing tired of What is This?.
"Freaky Styley" and "The Uplift Mofo Party Plan" (1985–1988)
George Clinton was selected to produce the next Red Hot Chili Peppers album, "
Freaky Styley". The album was recorded in Detroit's famed R&B and funky United Sound Systems studios on the edge of Wayne State University's campus. Clinton combined various elements of punk and funk into the band's repertoire, [cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:cl5e8qztbtx4 | title=Freaky Styley > Review | accessdate=2007-06-06 | author=Birchmeier, Jason | publisher=" Allmusic"] allowing their music to incorporate a variety of distinct styles. However, though the band had a much better relationship with Clinton than with Gill, [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 175] "Freaky Styley", released on August 16, 1985, also achieved little success, failing to make an impression on any chart. The subsequent tour was also considered unproductive by the band. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. pp. 178-9]
Cliff Martinez was dismissed from the group in the summer of 1986, with Kiedis saying that he sensed that Martinez wished to leave. The band temporarily hired
Chuck Biscuitsbefore Jack Irons, out of work and finally separated from other commitments, rejoined the group, to Kiedis, Flea, and Slovak's great surprise. The Chili Peppers attempted to hire Rick Rubinto produce their third album, but he turned the offer down. The band eventually hired Michael Beinhorn, who was the band's last choice.Apter, 2004. pp. 130-141] Songs began to form quickly, and the album's shape came into view, blending the same funk feel and rhythms as "Freaky Styley", but also taking a harder, more immediate approach to punk rockand funk metal. [cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:23o20rnac48j | title=Uplift Mofo Party Plan > Review | accessdate=2007-06-06 | author=Meredith, Bill | publisher=" Allmusic"] Reuniting all four original members renewed their creativity, enlivening the recording process. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 205]
On September 29, 1987, "
The Uplift Mofo Party Plan" was released, becoming the first Red Hot Chili Peppers album to appear on any chart. Although it peaked at only #148 on the " Billboard Hot 200", [cite web | url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/discography/more.jsp?tp=albums&pid=5507&aid=14131 | title=The Uplift Mofo Party Plan | accessdate=2007-06-07 | publisher="Billboard Magazine"] this was a significant success compared to the Chili Peppers' first two albums.
During this period, however, Kiedis and Slovak had both developed serious drug addictions, [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. pp. 219-25] often abandoning the band, each other, and their significant others for days on end. Slovak's addiction led to his death on June 25, 1988, not long after the conclusion of the "Uplift" tour. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 222] Kiedis fled the city and did not attend Slovak's funeral, considering the situation to be surreal and dreamlike. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. pp. 210-223] Jack Irons subsequently left the group, saying that he did not want to be part of a group where his friends were dying. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 224]
"Mother's Milk" (1989-1990)
In an attempt to cope with the death of Slovak and the departure of Irons, Kiedis and Flea temporarily employed
Dead Kennedysdrummer D. H. Peligroand former P-Funkguitarist DeWayne "Blackbyrd" McKnight. Neither sparked any notable chemistry and they were each replaced rapidly. However, Peligro's brief tenure did have one vital, long-term consequence for the Red Hot Chili Peppers—his association with the band led to John Frusciante, an acquaintance of Peligro, to audition for the band's empty guitarist role. Frusciante was fascinated with the Red Hot Chili Peppers and, as a result, was particularly interested in auditioning. Following a constructive jam (which would later appear on " Mother's Milk" as " Pretty Little Ditty"), there was a unanimous decision to accept Frusciante into the band. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 229]
Three weeks prior to the beginning of recording, the band was still without a drummer, despite several auditions. Eventually, a close friend of the band told them about a drummer she knew,
Chad Smith, who was so proficient on the drums he "ate [them] for breakfast". [Kiedis, Sloman, 2006. p. 233] Kiedis had qualms about allowing Smith to try out; however, he agreed to give him a chance. At his audition, Smith overwhelmed the band by not only matching Flea's intricate and complex rhythm, but even beginning to lead him. After this successful jam session, Kiedis, Frusciante and Flea admitted Smith into the band.
The recording of the band's fourth album was hindered by conflict with producer Michael Beinhorn, whose primary agenda was to give Frusciante's guitar playing a loud, overpowering sound, similar to the abrasive tones utilized in heavy metal. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. pp. 240-4] This modification caused Frusciante great discomfort, as it did not fit with his preferred style of playing. An example of this can be heard on the song "Stone Cold Bush". [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 240-250]
The Chili Peppers' fourth album, "
Mother's Milk" was released in August 1989, and gave them their first top modern rock hits—a tribute ballad to Slovak, " Knock Me Down", and their cover of Stevie Wonder's "Higher Ground". The album reached #52 on the American album charts and became the band's first gold record. [cite web | url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/discography/more.jsp?tp=albums&pid=5507&aid=14133 | title=Mother's Milk | accessdate=2007-06-07 | publisher="Billboard Magazine"]
"Blood Sugar Sex Magik" (1990–1992)
In 1990, the group switched labels to
Warner Bros. Records, with Rick Rubinhired to produce their then-untitled fifth album. Rubin has produced all of the band's subsequent studio albums. The writing process for this album was far more productive than it had been during the creation of "Mother's Milk", with Kiedis saying that " [every day] now, there was new music for me to lyricize". [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 264]
The band embarked on the grueling six-month process of recording a new album—the long periods of rehearsal, songwriting, and the incubating of ideas—but Rubin was dissatisfied with a regular recording studio, thinking the band would work better in a less orthodox setting. He came across an "amazing, huge, empty historically landmarked Mediterranean haunted mansion a stone's throw from where we all lived." [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 274] For the next month or so, Frusciante, Kiedis and Flea remained in seclusion, never once leaving the house during the entire recording process. Smith, however, decided not to live in the house, believing it to be haunted. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. pp. 274-275]
The band was unable to decide on the title of the album, but to Rubin, one particular song title stuck out: "Blood Sugar Sex Magik". Although it was not a featured song, Rick believed it to be "clearly the best title" they had at the time. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 279]
On September 24, 1991, "
Blood Sugar Sex Magik" was released. "Give It Away" was released as the first single; it won a Grammyaward in 1992 for "Best Hard Rock Performance With Vocal"and became the band's first number one single on the Modern Rock chart. [cite web | url=http://www.grammy.com/GRAMMY_Awards/Winners/Results.aspx | title=Artists: Red Hot Chili Peppers | accessdate=2007-06-07 | publisher=Grammy.com] The ballad " Under the Bridge" was released as the follow up single, and went on to reach #2 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart,cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:mx6m967o3ep8~T51 | title=Red Hot Chili Peppers > Charts and Awards > Billboard Singles | accessdate=2007-06-07 | publisher=" Allmusic"] the highest the band has reached on that chart, and became one of the band's most recognizable songs. Other singles such as " Breaking the Girl" and " Suck My Kiss" also fared well on the charts. The album itself was an international sensation, selling over 12 million copies and greatly broadening the Chili Peppers' audience. [cite web | url=http://top40.about.com/od/discographies/a/redhotdisc.htm | title=Red Hot Chili Peppers Discography | accessdate=2007-06-10 | author=Lamb, Bill | publisher=About.com] " Blood Sugar Sex Magik" was listed at number 310 on the Rolling Stone magazinelist of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, and in 1992 it rose to #3 on the U.S. album charts, almost a year after its release.
The band's success and drug addiction were taking their toll on Frusciante, who abruptly quit the band during the Blood Sugar Japanese tour in May 1992. The band headlined the
Lollapaloozafestival in 1992 with replacement guitarist Arik Marshall(who appeared with them in " The Simpsons" fourth season finale, " Krusty Gets Kancelled", and the videos for " Breaking the Girl" and " If You Have to Ask"), and briefly with Jesse Tobiasof the Los Angeles-based band Mother Tongue. Neither lasted very long, with the rest of the band stating that "The chemistry wasn't right." [cite web| author=Foege, Alec| url=http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5938152/the_red_hot_chili_peppers | title = The Red Hot Chili Peppers (Page 1) | publisher = RollingStone.com | date = 1995-10-19| accessdate = 2007-03-31] They eventually settled on former Jane's Addictionguitarist Dave Navarro.
"One Hot Minute" (1993–1998)
Dave Navarrofirst appeared with the band at Woodstock '94, where they wore enormous light bulbcostumes attached precariously to chrome metallic suits, making it near-impossible for them to play their instruments. While externally, the band appeared to be settled, the relationship between the three established members and Navarro had begun to deteriorate. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 350] His differing musical background made performing difficult as they began playing together,cite web| author=Foege, Alec| url =http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5938152/the_red_hot_chili_peppers/2 | title = The Red Hot Chili Peppers (Page 2) | publisher = RollingStone.com | date = 1995-10-19| accessdate = 2007-03-31] and continued to be an issue over the next year as his first and only album with the Red Hot Chili Peppers, " One Hot Minute", was recorded and released on September 12, 1995. The band described the album as a darker, sadder record compared to their previous material. Despite mixed reviews, the album was a commercial success. Selling five million copies worldwide, [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 401] it spawned the band's third #1 single, the ballad "My Friends", and enjoyed chart success with the songs " Warped" and "Aeroplane".
This iteration of the band was also featured on several soundtracks. "
I Found Out", a John Lennoncover, was featured on "". The Ohio Playerscover, "Love Rollercoaster", was featured on the "Beavis and Butthead Do America soundtrack", and was released as a single.
By this point Kiedis had resumed his heroin dependence. In April 1998 it was announced that Navarro had left the band due to creative differences; Kiedis stated that the decision was "mutual." [cite web| author=Rosenthal, Joe| url =http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/redhotchilipeppers/articles/story/5927983/pepper_guitar_mill_grinds_on | title = Pepper Guitar Mill Grinds On | publisher = RollingStone.com | date =
1998-04-06| accessdate = 2007-03-31] Reports at the time, however, indicated Navarro's firing came after he attended a band practice under the influence of drugs, which at one point involved him falling backwards over his own amp. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 393 ] Kiedis has since said that though the event should have been comical, it was instead pitiful and was the impetus for Navarro's departure. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 377]
In the years following his departure from the band, it became public that John Frusciante had developed an addiction to heroin, which left him in poverty and near death.cite web| author=Skanse, Richard| url =http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/redhotchilipeppers/articles/story/5923940/red_hot_redux | title = Red Hot Redux | publisher = RollingStone.com | date =
1998-04-30| accessdate = 2007-03-31] He was talked into admitting himself to Las Encinas Drug Rehabilitation Center in January 1998. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 397] [cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:fbfoxqu5ld6e | title=John Frusciante Biography | accessdate=2007-08-08 | author=Prato, Greg | publisher= Allmusic] He concluded the process in February of that year and began renting a small apartment in Silver Lake.Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 398] He acquired many injuries/problems in the years of his addiction, some requiring surgery, including permanent scarring on his arms, a restructured nose, and new teeth to prevent fatal infection. [cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2003/feb/14/artsfeatures.popandrock |title=It's great to go straight|publisher=" The Guardian"|author=Dave Simpson|date=2003-02-14|accessdate=2008-08-15]
In April 1998, Flea visited his former band-mate and openly invited Frusciante to re-join the band, an invitation an emotional Frusciante readily accepted. Within the week and, for the first time in six years, the reunited foursome gathered to play, and jump-started the newly reunited Red Hot Chili Peppers.Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 389-400] Anthony Kiedis said of the situation: [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 399]
Despite the band's elation by Frusciante's return, he was both mentally and physically torn. Frusciante had not played with the band since his departure and having previously lost every guitar he owned in a house fire in which he barely escaped from, he experienced a difficult time resuming the life prior to his drug usage. His talent did, however, resurface and new songs began to roll out. On June 8, 1999, after over a year of production and meticulous practice, "Californication" was released as the band's seventh studio album. An almost instant achievement, the album ultimately sold over 15 million copies worldwide and became the band's most successful recording to date.Cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/3864401.stm|title=Chili Peppers' album tops survey|date=
2004-07-04|accessdate=2007-04-20|publisher=BBC] "Californication" contained fewer rap-driven songs than its predecessors, instead integrating textured, consistent, and melodic guitar riffs, vocals and bass-lines. [cite web|url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:a9fuxqykld0e |title=Californication > Overview|publisher= Allmusic|author=Prato, Greg|accessdate=2008-01-28]
"Californication" peaked at #3 in the US and produced three more number one modern rock hits: "
Scar Tissue", " Otherside" and "Californication". "Scar Tissue" won the 2000 Grammy Award for Best Rock Song. It was also performed at the ceremony and included a brief jam with rapper Snoop Doggat its culmination. Other singles included "Around the World", " Road Trippin'", and "Parallel Universe", which broke the Top 40 modern rock charts despite not having been commercially released as a single.
In July 1999, as part of the band's two-year long international world tour in support of their new album, the Red Hot Chili Peppers played at
Woodstock 1999. Some 10 minutes before the show, they were asked by Jimi Hendrix's sister to play a cover of her brother's songs. After some hesitation, the band decided to play his classic "Fire", which they had covered in "Mother's Milk". Coincidentally, about two thirds of the way into the band's set, the closing set of the three day concert, a small fire escalated into full-fledged vandalism and resulted in the intervention of riot control squads. [cite web| author=Eliscu, Jenny| url =http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/redhotchilipeppers/articles/story/5921381/woodstock_99_burns_its_own_mythology | title = Woodstock '99 Burns Its Own Mythology | publisher = RollingStone.com | date = 1999-07-26| accessdate = 2007-03-31]
In 2001, the Chili Peppers released their first concert DVD, "Off the Map". The DVD was directed by longtime friend
Dick Rude, who had also produced the music videos for " Catholic School Girls Rule" and " Universally Speaking". The footage was taken from numerous different concerts, but was amalgamated with transition and indistinguishable song conversions.
"By the Way" (2002–2005)
The band began writing their next album in early 2001, and released "
By the Way" over a year later, on July 9, 2002. The album, at the time, was their most noteworthy chart debut, selling over a million copies in first week and emerging at #2 on the "Billboard" 200. It produced five hit singles; "By the Way", " The Zephyr Song", "Can't Stop", " Dosed", and " Universally Speaking", and was the most subdued album they had generated to date, focusing primarily on melodic ballads as opposed to the Chili Peppers' classic style of rap-driven funk. Frusciante also concentrated on a more layered texture on many of the songs, often adding keyboard parts (albeit, they featured very low in the mix) and also writing string arrangements for songs (such as 'Midnight' and 'Minor Thing') [cite web|url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:gjfrxqr0ldje |title=By The Way > Overview|publisher= Allmusic|author=Johnson, Zac|accessdate=2008-01-28] The album was followed by an eighteen month-long world tour.cite web|url=http://www.livedaily.com/news/4623.html |title=Red Hot Chili Peppers plot first U.S. dates behind 'By the Way'|publisher=LiveDaily|author=Zahlaway, Jon|date= 2003-02-11|accessdate=2008-01-28]
The Chili Peppers recorded two new songs, "
Fortune Faded" and " Save the Population" for their "Greatest Hits" album released in November 2003,cite web | url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/discography/more.jsp?tp=others&pid=5507&aid=608574 | title=Artist Chart History - Red Hot Chili Peppers - Greatest Hits Warner Bros. Records| publisher=Billboard] peaking at #18 on the "Billboard" 200. However, "Universally Speaking" and "By the Way" were the only two songs from "By the Way" included in the compilation.
The European leg of the "By the Way" tour produced the band's second full-length concert DVD, "Live at Slane Castle", which was recorded during a show at
Slane Castlein Ireland on August 23, 2003. The band also went on to release their first full-length live album, " Live in Hyde Park"; recorded during their performances in Hyde Park, London. More than 258,000 fans paid over $17,100,000 in ticket sales to attend the band's three night stand at the park; the event ranked #1 on Billboard's Top Concert Boxscores of 2004.
It featured two previously unheard songs, "Rolling Sly Stone" and "Leverage of Space", which are believed to have been unreleased tracks from the "Greatest Hits" sessions.
"Stadium Arcadium" (2006–2007)
In 2006 the band released the
Grammy Award-winning " Stadium Arcadium", produced by Rick Rubin. Although 38 songs were created with the intention of being released as three separate albums spaced six months apart, [Catucci, Nick. "Red Hot Chili Peppers: Stadium Arcadium" (review). "Blender" magazine, June 2006 (Issue 48), p. 146 ] the band instead chose to release a 28-track double album, with the remaining ten tracks released later as B-sides. It was their first album to debut at #1 on the US charts, where it stayed for two weeks, and debuted at number one in the UK and 25 other countries. In the album's first week, it sold 442,000 units in the United States alone, and over 1,100,000 worldwide, setting a personal record for one week sales. By the end of 2006, "Stadium Arcadium" was named the best-selling album of the year, with over seven million units sold, and also recorded the highest one week in total sales of the year. [cite web|url=http://altern-rock.com/bands/rhcp-californication-by-the-way-and-stadium-arcadium-2 |title=RHCP: Californication, By The Way and Stadium Arcadium|publisher=altern-rock.com|accessdate=2008-02-01]
The record's first single "
Dani California", was the band's fastest-selling single, debuting on top of the Modern Rock chart in the US, peaking at #6 on the Billboard Hot 100, and reaching #2 in the UK. " Tell Me Baby", released next, also topped the charts in 2006. " Snow ((Hey Oh))" was released in late 2006, breaking multiple records by 2007. The song became their eleventh number one single, giving the band a cumulative total of 81 weeks at number one (all singles combined). It was also the first time three consecutive singles by the band made it to number one. It was also a theme song for WWE Wrestlemania 24" Desecration Smile" was released internationally in February 2007 and has reached number 27 on the UK charts. " Hump de Bump" was planned to be the next single for the US, Canada, and Australia only, but due to positive feedback from the music video, it was released as a worldwide single in May 2007.
The band began another international world tour in support of "Stadium Arcadium" in 2006, beginning with promotional concerts in Europe and culminating in a two-month long European tour from late May to mid-July. The group then toured North America from early August to early November, returning to Europe later in November for a second leg that ran until mid-December. The Chili Peppers began the year of 2007 with a second North American leg, this time including Mexico in addition to the United States, from mid-January to mid-March. This was followed by shows in various cities in Australia and New Zealand, from early-to-mid April and concerts in Japan in early June. The Chili Peppers recently finished touring Europe for another leg from late June to late August. They appeared at the Live Earth concert at
London's Wembley Stadiumon July 7, 2007. Throughout the course of their tour, the band appeared at several festivals, including Ireland's Oxegenin July 2006, Lollapaloozain August 2006 in Grant Park, Chicago, and a subsequent set at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festivalin Indio, Californiain late April 2007.
In February 2007, "Stadium Arcadium" won 6 Grammys: Best Rock Album, Best Rock Song ("Dani California"), Best Rock Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocal ("Dani California"), Best Boxed Or Special Limited Edition Package, Best Producer (Rick Rubin), [ 49th Annual Grammy Awards Nominee List, Grammy.com, http://www.grammy.com/GRAMMY_Awards/49th_Show/list.aspx] and Best Short Form Music Video ("Dani California"). The ceremony included a live performance of "Snow ((Hey Oh))", their single at the time, complete with confetti snow.
Hiatus and future plans (2007-present)
Anthony Kiedis told "
Rolling Stone Magazine" in an interview published May 20, 2008 that the Red Hot Chili Peppers are "disbanded for the moment." Following the last leg of the tour promoting "Stadium Arcadium", the band members have been on a break. Kiedis attributes this to the band being worn out from their years of nonstop work since "Californication". Kiedis explained that he is currently preoccupied with taking care of his new son, while Flea is experimenting with new musical ideas, Frusciante is continuing his solo career, and Chad Smith is in Japan working with a jazz band. The band plans to remain on hiatus for "a minimum of one year." However, Kiedis has stated that he is eager to start thinking about new material. [cite web |url=http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/20861357/qa_anthony_kiedis/2 |title=Q&A: Anthony Kiedis: Rolling Stone |accessdate=2008-05-22 |last=Anderson |first=Kyle |date=May 19, 2008 |publisher= Rolling Stone]
Nevertheless, band members appear divided as to what they want for the future of the band.
According to Smith, the group is to tentatively get together to discuss the possibility of their next album in September 2008.cite web|url=http://www.musicradar.com/news/guitars/chili-peppers-not-splitting-165942|title="Chili Peppers 'not splitting'"|author=Leonard, Michael|date=July 21, 2008|publisher=Music Radar|accessdate=2008-08-08] Smith went on to say that "some of our best stuff is yet to come. For some reason we have a special thing, the four of us. We've changed the chemistry of the band a couple of times. When John [Frusciante] rejoined for the second time, we were like: 'This is a special chemistry we have.'"cite web|url=http://www.musicradar.com/news/guitars/chili-peppers-not-splitting-165942|title="Chili Peppers 'not splitting'"|author=Leonard, Michael|date=July 21, 2008|publisher=Music Radar|accessdate=2008-08-08]
However, Flea enrolled at USC fall 2008 and stated that the Red Hot Chili Peppers are on a "major hiatus", the duration of which will be "two years". According to Flea, "We just needed two years. We had our noses to the grindstones so hard for so long. We needed to get away from it and get a fresh perspective on things." He also stated that they have no tenth album planned. [cite web |url=http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/soundboard/2008/09/flea-usc-freshm.html |title=Flea, USC Freshman, talks about his upcoming solo record |last=Wappler |first=Margaret |date=Sep, 23 2008]
Kiedis provides a range of vocal styles while singing. His approach of spoken verse and "rapping" (the primary characteristic of his vocals up to "
Blood Sugar Sex Magik") complemented with more traditional vocals have helped the band maintain a relatively consistent style. [cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:0sv1z8bajyv8~T1 | title=Anthony Kiedis Biography | accessdate=2007-08-08 | author=Sutton, Michael | publisher=" Allmusic"] Nevertheless, as the group has matured, the vocal sequences present in albums starting from "Californication" have drastically reduced the number of rapidly sung verses. "By the Way" only contained two songs which remained true to the rap-driven-verses and subsequent melodic choruses. [AMG "By the Way" Album Review. [http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:j06htr6rkl1x] ] Kiedis' more recent style has been developed through coaching throughout all nine of Red Hot Chili Peppers' albums. [Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 420] Hillel Slovak's style was strongly based on blues and funk. Early replacements, including current guitarist John Frusciante, based their style significantly on Slovak's. However, Frusciante has brought a more melodic and textured sound to more recent albums such as "By the Way", "Californication" and "Stadium Arcadium". This contrasts with his previous abrasive approach in "Mother's Milk", [cite web | url=http://rhcprock.free.fr/totalguitar_john.htm | title=Total Guitar Magazine interview with John Frusciante | publisher=" Total Guitar"] [cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:be7ibkh96akq|title=All Music Guide; Mother's Milk |accessdate=2007-08-08 | author=Hanson, Amy | publisher=" Allmusic"] as well as his dry, funky and more docile arrangements on "Blood Sugar Sex Magik". Dave Navarro brought an entirely different sound to the band during his tenure, with his style based on heavy metal, progressive rockand psychedelia. [cite web |url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:o4rp28gt056a |title="One Hot Minute" review |accessdate=2007-08-01 |author=Stephen Thomas Erlewine |publisher=" Allmusic"]
Flea's bass style is an amalgamation of
funk, psychedelic, punk, and hard rock.cite web | url=http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:7k77gjwrj6im~T1 | title=Flea Biography | accessdate=2007-08-08 | author=Prato, Greg | publisher=" Allmusic"] The groove-heavy, low-tuned melodies, played through either normal finger style or aggressive slapping (popping and slapping), have contributed to the Red Hot Chili Peppers' signature style. While Flea's slap bass style was prominent in earlier albums, later albums (post "Blood Sugar Sex Magik") have more melodic bass lines. He has also used double stops on "Don't Forget Me", "Blood Sugar Sex Magik" " Hump de Bump" and " Snow ((Hey Oh))".
Chad Smith's in-the-pocket style of drumming adds space and allows Frusciante and Flea to add melodies to the beats and grooves more effectively. He actively employs rapid successions of the bass drum—often following Flea's fast bass lines—with only one bass drum pedal. This is evident in the song "The Greeting Song", where in the main riff Smith's bass drum mimics Flea's bass accents. In addition, a song like "Give It Away" demonstrates his in-the-pocket drumming that places focuses on the groove over flashiness. However, Smith is known to play "flashy" fills during the band's live performances, although he has downplayed the importance of this, stating "Playing well with others is important—not being too flashy." [cite web|url=http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/c/chad_smith.html |title=Chad Smith Quotes|publisher=Brainyquote.com|accessdate=2008-02-01]
While Kiedis is the lead vocalist for the band, Frusciante often contributes backing vocals and two part harmonies to various songs. He sang lead on the chorus of such "Blood Sugar Sex Magik" songs as "The Power of Equality", "
Funky Monks", "Breaking The Girl" and "The Righteous and the Wicked". His falsettois used frequently, particularly on " By the Way" and " Stadium Arcadium", though it was also used on "Blood Sugar Sex Magik" on the songs " If You Have to Ask" and " Under the Bridge". Frusciante shared lead vocal duties with Kiedis on " Knock Me Down" from " Mother's Milk", and has solo spots on songs such as " Dosed" and " Desecration Smile". It has become a tradition that at some point during a Chili Peppers concert John performs an unaccompanied cover song, usually a hit from the 1960s or 1970s, or one of his own solo songs. Such songs include " Tiny Dancer" by Elton John, " SOS" by ABBA, " How Deep Is Your Love" by The Bee Gees, " Maybe" by The Chantels," I Feel Love" by Donna Summer, "For Emily, Wherever I May Find Her" by Simon and Garfunkel, "How Can I Tell You?" by Cat Stevensand " Inca Roads" by Frank Zappa.
For the last 16 years when playing live, most recently on their Stadium Arcadium tour, the band's front of house sound is mixed by professional sound engineer
Improvisation has always been a major part of the band's signature style, with early shows composed almost entirely of improvisations. In addition, many guitar solos recorded on the current albums and played live by Frusciante are improvised, as are several of Flea's bass solos. The band has, for most of the last decade, opened the show with a short improvisation, always in the same key as the initial song. Sometimes the beginnings, middle sections and/or endings of the songs are extended by long improvisations, such as "Give It Away", "My Lovely Man", "
If You Have to Ask", "Californication", "Parallel Universe", "Can't Stop", " Throw Away Your Television", " By the Way" and " Dani California". The group has always ended the show with a longer improvisation, usually stemming from the improvisation to "Give It Away". The idea of the band improvising at their shows stems from a request that Frusciante asked of Kiedis upon returning to the band for "Californication".Fact|date=July 2008
Lyrics and songwriting
Through the years, Kiedis' lyrics have dealt with a variety of topics, which have shifted as time has progressed. Themes within his repertoire include love and friendship,"Under the Bridge"; Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. pp. 264-5] ["Breaking the Girl"; Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 271] teenage angst and good-time aggression, ["Police Helicopter"; Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 108] various sexual topics and the link between sex and music, political and social commentary (Native American issues in particular), ["Green Heaven"; Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 112] romance, ["I Could Have Lied"; Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. pp. 269-70] ["Knock Me Down"; Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 242] loneliness, ["Scar Tissue"; Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. pp. 404-5] globalization and the cons of fame and Hollywood, ["Californication"; Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 418-9] poverty, drugs, alcohol, and dealing with death. ["Venice Queen";Kiedis, Sloman, 2004. p. 456]
Anthony Kiedis- lead vocals (1983-present)
John Frusciante- guitars, backing vocals, keyboards (1988-1992, 1998-present)
*Flea - bass, trumpet (1983-present)
Chad Smith- drums, percussion (1988-present)
*"The Red Hot Chili Peppers" (1984)
Freaky Styley" (1985)
The Uplift Mofo Party Plan" (1987)
Mother's Milk" (1989)
Blood Sugar Sex Magik" (1991)
One Hot Minute" (1995)
By the Way" (2002)
Stadium Arcadium" (2006)
Awards and honors
The Red Hot Chili Peppers have won seven
Grammy Awards: cite web |url=http://www.grammy.com/GRAMMY_Awards/Winners/Results.aspx?title=&winner=Red+Hot+Chili+Peppers&year=0&genreID=0&hp=1 |title=Grammy Awards Won by Red Hot Chili Peppers |publisher=Grammy.com|accessdate=2008-02-02]
*1993: Best Hard Rock Performance - "Give It Away"
*2000: Best Rock Song - "
*2007: Best Rock Album and Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package - "
Stadium Arcadium"; Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal and Best Rock Song: " Dani California" American Music Awards:
*2000: Favorite Alternative Artist
*2006: Favorite Pop/Rock Band/Duo/Group, Favorite Alternative Artist
Billboard Music Awards:
*2000: Best Alternative Group
The band have also received a star at the
Hollywood Walk of Famein 2008. [cite web |url=http://www.hollywoodchamber.net/icons/walk_of_fame.asp
title=Hollywood Walk of Fame Stars for 2008. |accessdate=2008-01-21 |publisher=Hollywood Chamber of Commerce]
List of artists who reached number one on the U.S. Mainstream Rock chart
*Best-selling music artist
List of Saturday Night Live hosts and musical guests
* cite book
last = Apter
first = Jeff
title = "Fornication: The Red Hot Chili Peppers Story"
isbn = 1-84449-381-4
* cite book
last = Kiedis
first = Anthony
authorlink = Anthony Kiedis
coauthors = Sloman, Larry
title = Scar Tissue
publisher = Hyperion
isbn = 1-4013-0101-0
* [http://www.redhotchilipeppers.com/ Red Hot Chili Peppers website]
*allmusicguide | id = 11:37d2vw9va9rk | label = Red Hot Chili Peppers
*imdb name | id = 1553090 | name = Red Hot Chili Peppers
*Last.fm|red+hot+chili+peppers|Red Hot Chili Peppers
* [http://uk.myspace.com/redhotchilipeppers Red Hot Chili Peppers Official MySpace page]
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