Lambert-St. Louis International Airport

Lambert-St. Louis International Airport
Lambert-St. Louis International Airport Logo.svg
Lambert field from the air.jpg
IATA: STLICAO: KSTLFAA LID: STL
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner City of St. Louis
Serves Greater St. Louis, Missouri
Location Unincorporated St. Louis County 10 miles (16 km) NW of St. Louis
Elevation AMSL 605 ft / 184.4 m
Coordinates 38°44′50″N 090°21′41″W / 38.74722°N 90.36139°W / 38.74722; -90.36139Coordinates: 38°44′50″N 090°21′41″W / 38.74722°N 90.36139°W / 38.74722; -90.36139
Website http://www.flystl.com/
Map
STL is located in Missouri
STL
Location within Missouri
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
12R/30L 11,019 3,359 Concrete
12L/30R 9,003 2,744 Concrete
11/29 9,000 2,743 Concrete
6/24 7,602 2,317 Concrete
Statistics (2010)
Aircraft operations 170,175
Passenger volume 12,331,426
Cargo tonnage
Area (acres) 2,800
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[1] and STL Airport[2]

Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (IATA: STLICAO: KSTLFAA LID: STL) is a Class B international airport serving Greater St. Louis. It is located approximately 10 miles (16 km) northwest of downtown St. Louis in unincorporated St. Louis County between Berkeley and Bridgeton. It is the largest and busiest airport in the state with 250 daily departures to more than 88 domestic and international locations. In 2010 12.3 million passengers traveled through the airport.[3]

Named for Albert Bond Lambert, an Olympic medalist and manufacturer of Listerine, the airport rose to international prominence in the 20th century due to many factors including an association with Charles Lindbergh, the development of the first air traffic control system at the airport, hub status of Trans World Airlines and an iconic terminal designed by Minoru Yamasaki which later inspired the designs of terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport in France.

With the bankruptcy of TWA and later buyout from American Airlines, passenger traffic in 2001 was severely affected. In 2011 the airport was faced with further adversity when an F4 tornado directly struck the airport causing significant property damage and lead the closing of an entire concourse. The airport, however, continues to make passenger traffic gains in 2010 and 2011.[4]

Contents

History

Aerial view of Naval Air Station St. Louis in the mid-1940s.
Control tower and main terminal
131st Fighter Wing and American Airlines Maintenance Ramp At Lambert Airport

The airport was originally a balloon launching base named Kinloch Field which was part of the 1890s Kinloch Park suburban development. The Wright brothers and their Exhibition Team visited the field while touring with their aircraft. During a visit to St. Louis, Theodore Roosevelt flew with pilot Arch Hoxsey on October 11, 1910, becoming the first U.S. president to fly. Later, Kinloch hosted the first experimental parachute jump.[5]

In June 1920 the Aero Club of St. Louis leased 170 acres of cornfield, the defunct Kinloch Racing Track[6] and the Kinloch Airfield in October 1923, during The International Air Races. The field was officially dedicated as Lambert-St. Louis Flying Field[7] in honor of Albert Bond Lambert, an Olympic silver medalist golfer in the 1904 Summer Games, president of Lambert Pharmaceutical Corporation (which made Listerine),[8] and the first person to receive a pilot's license in St. Louis. In February 1925, "Major" (his 'rank' was given by the Aero Club and not the military) Lambert, bought the field and added hangars and a passenger terminal. Charles Lindbergh's first piloting job was flying airmail for Robertson Airlines from Lambert Field; he left the airport for New York about a week before his record-breaking flight to Paris in 1927. Later that year, Lambert sold the airport to the City of St. Louis, making it the first municipally-owned airport in the United States.[9]

In the late 1920s, Lambert Field became the first airport with an air traffic control system—albeit one that communicated with pilots via waving flags. The first controller was Archie League.[10]

Naval Air Station St. Louis

From 1925 to 1958, the airport was also home to Naval Air Station St. Louis. Designated as a Naval Reserve Air Base prior to World War II and an active duty installation during World War II, it later became a postwar Naval Air Reserve installation operating carrier-based fighter and land-based patrol aircraft. Following its closure, most of the NAS St. Louis facilities were acquired by the Missouri Air National Guard and became Lambert Field Air National Guard Base. A portion of the naval air station's support facilities not taken by the Air National Guard were retained by non-flying activities of the Naval Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve, while the remaining former NAS St. Louis real estate was redeveloped for commercial airline expansion of St. Louis International Airport.[11][12]

Before World War II, Robertson Airlines, Marquette Airlines, and Eastern Air Lines provided passenger service to St. Louis. During the war, the airport became a manufacturing base for McDonnell Aircraft and Curtiss-Wright. After the war, Minoru Yamasaki was commissioned to design a new passenger terminal at Lambert. Completed in 1956, the four-domed design inspired terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport.[9]

After World War II

The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows TWA with 44 weekday departures; American, 24; Delta, 16; Ozark, 14; Eastern, 13; Braniff, six, and Central, two.

In the 1970s, St. Louis city officials proposed to replace the airport with a new one in suburban Illinois. But after Missouri residents objected, Lambert received a $290-million expansion that lengthened the runways, increased the number of gates to 81, and boosted its operational capacity by 50 percent. (A proposed Illinois airport was later built anyway, though not anywhere near the originally proposed site; MidAmerica St. Louis Airport opened in 1997 in Mascoutah, Illinois. As of 2010, no major carriers provide service there.)

TWA era

In 1982, Trans World Airlines (TWA) moved its hub from Kansas City International Airport. The move made TWA the dominant carrier at Lambert, and turned the St. Louis airport into one of the busiest in the country. The airport grew in importance for TWA after the airline declared bankruptcy in 1993; by the late 1990s, it was the airline's dominant hub. But the airport's influence waned after American Airlines (AA) bought TWA and merged the airlines' flight operations in 2001. Lambert became a reliever for AA's existing hubs at Chicago O'Hare and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, and transatlantic service was discontinued. AA transferred many mainline TWA routes to American Connection, a group of affiliated regional carriers. After the 2003 cutbacks, AA introduced American Eagle service at its St. Louis hub in May 2005. Unlike American Connection, American Eagle is wholly owned by AMR Corporation, the parent company of American Airlines and American Eagle.

2006–present

In 2006, the United States Air Force announced plans to turn the 131st Fighter Wing of the Missouri Air National Guard into the 131st Bomb Wing. The wing's 20 F-15C and F-15D aircraft were moved to the Montana Air National Guard's 120th Fighter Wing at Great Falls International Airport/Air National Guard Base, Montana and the Hawaii Air National Guard's 154th Wing at Hickam AFB, Hawaii. The pilots and maintainers moved to Whiteman AFB, Missouri to fly and maintain the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber as the first Air National Guard wing to fly the aircraft. Lambert Field Air National Guard Base formally shut down in June 2009, when the final two F-15C Eagles did a low approach over the field, then flew away. The event was attended by more than 2,200 people who said goodbye to a part of airport history for over 85 years.

As of 2009, Concourse D, previously used by Ozark and later TWA, was largely empty and closed off; Concourse B had limited traffic; and the distal portion of Concourse C was not used for commercial traffic.[citation needed] In September 2009, American Airlines announced that, as a part of the airline's restructuring, it will reduce its operations to 36 daily flights to nine destinations in the summer of 2010.[13] These cuts will end the remaining hub operation.[14]

On October 21, 2009, Southwest Airlines announced that the airline will increase service with a "major expansion" in St. Louis by May 2010. The airline will increase service to 83 daily departures from St. Louis, replacing American as the carrier with the most daily flights after American's service cuts scheduled for Summer 2010.[15]

Delta Air Lines is the airport's second-busiest operating airline.[16]

2011 St. Louis tornado

About 8:10 p.m. on April 22, 2011, a EF4[17] tornado struck the airport's Terminal 1, destroying jetways and breaking more than half of the windows.[18][18][19][20] One plane from Southwest Airlines was damaged when the wind pushed a baggage conveyor belt into it. Four American Airlines planes were damaged, including one that was buffeted by 80 mph crosswinds while taxiing after landing.[21] One aircraft, with passengers still aboard, was moved away from its jetway by the storm.[22] The FAA closed the airport on April 22 at 08:54 pm CDT, then reopened it the following day at temporarily lower capacity.[23]

Due to the extensive damage sustained to Concourse C, airline operations in that part of the airport were moved to vacant gates in the B and D concourses. AirTran, American, Cape Air, and Frontier experienced the greatest impact from this change. Airport officials predict that it may take until mid-2012 to completely recover from the tornado-inflicted damage.[24]

Later in the year the TSA honored Lambert Airport with the "Airport of the Year" award. It was given for "exceptional courtesy, high quality security" and recognized the excellent response by airport officials during and after the tornado. [25]

Facilities

Runways

STL FAA Airport Diagram

Lambert-St. Louis International Airport covers 2,800 acres (1,133 ha) and has four runways:

  • Runway 12R/30L: 11,019 x 200 ft (3,359 x 61 m), Surface: Concrete
  • Runway 12L/30R: 9,003 x 150 ft (2,744 x 46 m), Surface: Concrete
  • Runway 11/29: 9,000 x 150 ft (2,743 x 46 m), Surface: Concrete
  • Runway 6/24: 7,602 x 150 ft (2,317 x 46 m), Surface: Concrete

Terminals

Terminal 1, before the 2011 tornado damage
STL Terminal Map

The airport has two terminals with a total of 5 concourses. International flights and passengers use Terminal 2, whose lower level holds the Immigration and Customs gates. Passengers can move between the terminals on complimentary buses that run continuously, or via MetroLink. It is possible to walk between the terminals via Concourse D, however connection was blocked in 2008 with the closure of Concourse D.[26]

Terminal 1 (formerly Main Terminal)

Concourse C Gates
  • Concourse A: Gates A2–A6, A8–A10, A12, A14–A19, A21
  • Concourse B: Gates B2–B4, B6–B8, B10, B12, B14, B16
  • Concourse C: Gates C1–C3, C5–C10, C12, C15–C19, C21, C23–C25, C27–C32, C36, C38
    • Note: This concourse is closed for repair which is estimated to take until 2012 [26][27]
  • Concourse D: Gates D2, D4, D6, D8, D10, D14, D16, D18, D20, D22
    • Note: 12 gates of this concourse were closed as a cost-saving measure in 2008. It was reopened in 2011 for flights displaced from Concourse C.[28]

Terminal 2 (formerly East Terminal)

  • Concourse E: Gates E4, E6, E8, E10, E12, E14, E16, E18, E20, E22, E24, E25, E29, E31, E33.

Public transportation

Metro Rail / Subway

MetroLink Station at Terminal 1

Each of the airport's terminals has a rail station with direct trains to downtown St. Louis on MetroLink's Red Line. One-ride and all-day tickets can be purchased from vending machines on the platforms. MetroLink lines provide direct or indirect service to downtown St. Louis, the Clayton area, and Illinois suburbs in St. Clair County.

MetroBus

Two MetroBus lines serve the Lambert Bus Port, which is located next to the intermediate parking lot, and accessible via the tunnel from Terminal 1:

  • 49 Lindbergh
  • 66 Clayton-Airport

Airline lounges

The American Airlines Admirals Club at the B/C/D connector is large for its type, with seating for 244. It has a bar/snack area, basic ticketing functions, espresso bar, three private conference rooms, and complimentary use of six PCs, dataports, copier, printer and paper shredder. This club was significantly damaged in the 2011 tornado and a temporary location is operating out of the former Cheers location in D Concourse.

Lambert's USO facility, located on the lower level of the Main Terminal next to baggage claim carousel #M6, is one of the largest in the country. Open 24 hours a day, it serves more than 120,000 military men and women each year.[29]

Black Americans in Flight mural

Black Americans in Flight is a mural that depicts African American aviators and their contributions to aviation since 1917. It is located in Terminal 1 / Main Terminal on the lower level near the entrance to gates C and D and baggage claim. The mural consists of five panels and measures 8 feet tall and 51 feet long. The first panel includes the Tuskegee Institute and the Tuskegee Airmen, Eugene Bullard, Bessie Coleman, and Willa Brown (first African American woman commercial pilot in United States). The second panel shows Benjamin O. Davis Jr., Clarence "Lucky" Lester and Joseph Ellesberry. The third panel shows Gen. Daniel "Chappie" James, Capt. Ronald Radliff, and Capt. Marcella Hayes. The fourth and fifth panels show Ronald McNair, who died in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986, Guion Bluford, who in 1983 became the first African American in space, and Mae Jemison, the first African America woman in space. Spencer Taylor and Solomon Thurman created the mural in 1990.[30][31]

Aircraft on display

Two aircraft from the Missouri History Museum hang from Lambert's ceilings. The first is a 1934 Monocoupe D-145 near the Terminal 1 security checkpoint. Charles Lindbergh bought it in 1934 from the Lambert Aircraft Corporation and flew it as his personal plane. The second aircraft, a red Monocoupe 110 Special, manufactured in St. Louis in 1931, hangs in Terminal 2.[32] Until 1998, a Ryan B-1 Brougham, a replica of the Spirit of St. Louis, hung next to the D-145.[33]

Aircraft production

Lambert's runways have long been used for test flights and deliveries of military aircraft by McDonnell Douglas, which built its world headquarters and principal assembly plant next to the airport; and now by Boeing, which bought McDonnell and now uses its St. Louis facilities as headquarters for its Boeing Defense, Space & Security division. The plant currently builds the F-15 Strike Eagle, F/A-18 Super Hornet and EA-18 Growler; and is home to Boeing Phantom Works.

Other facilities

Ozark Air Lines had its corporate headquarters on the property of Lambert-St. Louis International Airport prior the purchase by TWA.[34]

Operations

Cargo

Airlines Destinations
Capital Cargo International Airlines Cincinnati, Toledo
China Cargo Airlines Shanghai-Pudong
DHL Multi City
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis
Integrated Airline Services Multi City
UPS Airlines Louisville

China Cargo Hub and Aerotropolis

China Airlines Boeing 777F

In 2008, China Cargo Airlines (a subsidiary of China Eastern Airlines) was reported to be considering a cargo hub at Lambert as part of its international cargo and passenger service expansion.[35][36] Lambert was considered an attractive option as runway 11/29 would accommodate the large cargo aircraft and the decline in passenger service during the first decade of the 2000s reduced congestion-related logistical issues of busier airports such as Chicago O'Hare International Airport.[37]

Negotiations led to the development of the public-private Midwest-China Hub Commission in 2009, which was tasked with developing the plan for implementation. Planners for the cargo hub envisioned St. Louis as an Aerotropolis, an urban form whose layout, infrastructure, and economy is centered on an airport, offering its businesses speedy connectivity to suppliers, customers, and enterprise partners worldwide. Negotiations with the Chinese ambassador Zhou Wenzhong, China's Minister of Foreign Affairs Li Zhaoxing, Missouri Senators Kit Bond and Claire McCaskill and business leaders from the St. Louis region continued over the next two years. The United States Department of Commerce allowed expansion of the foreign trade zone near Lambert airport on February 13, 2009.[38]

In 2011, the "Aerotropolis Tax Credit" [39] was introduced into the Missouri Senate. The bill provides $360 millon dollars of tax incentives to freight forwarders and for the development of warehouses, cold storage facilities and transportation connections in so-called "Gateway Zones," foreign trade zones located within 50 miles of St. Louis.[40] The bill will be voted on in a special session of the Missouri General Assembly in September 2011.[41]

On September 23, 2011, the first China Cargo Airlines flight arrived from Shanghai-Pudong. The Boeing 777 aircraft is the first flight for St. Louis' new China Eastern/China Cargo Hub.[42]

Passengers

Passenger traffic plummeted in the first decade of the 21st century going from a peak of 30.5 million passengers in 2000 to 12.3 million in 2010. Many factors are responsible for the drop including a general drop in air travel after the September 11 attacks,[43] the purchase of TWA by American Airlines and the subsequent elimination of hub status [44] and a regional population growth slower than the national average.[45]

Recent Passenger Statistics

Year Total Passengers (enplaned and deplaned)[3]
2010 12,331,426
2009 12,796,302
2008 14,431,471
2007 15,384,557
2006 15,205,944

Airlines and destinations

Scheduled Commercial Airlines

Airlines Destinations Terminal/Concourse
Air Canada Express operated by Jazz Air Toronto-Pearson 1A
Air Choice One Burlington (IA), Decatur (IA), Fort Leonard Wood 2E
AirTran Airways Atlanta, Orlando 2E
Alaska Airlines Seattle/Tacoma 1A
American Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York-LaGuardia, Washington-National [ends February 8] 1D
American Eagle Washington-National [begins February 9] 1D
Cape Air Cape Girardeau, Fort Leonard Wood, Kirksville, Marion, Owensboro [begins December 5], Quincy 1D
Continental Airlines Newark 1A
Continental Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines Newark
Seasonal: Cleveland, Houston-Intercontinental
1A
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Salt Lake City 1A
Delta Connection operated by Atlantic Southeast Airlines Detroit, Memphis, Washington-National 1A
Delta Connection operated by Comair Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Memphis, New York-JFK, New York-LaGuardia, Raleigh/Durham 1A
Delta Connection operated by Compass Airlines Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul 1A
Delta Connection operated by Mesaba Airlines Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Salt Lake City 1A
Delta Connection operated by Pinnacle Airlines Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Memphis, Raleigh/Durham 1A
Delta Connection operated by Shuttle America Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-LaGuardia 1A
Delta Connection operated by SkyWest Airlines Memphis, Salt Lake City 1A
Frontier Airlines Denver
Seasonal: Cancún, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana
1B
Southwest Airlines Albuquerque, Baltimore, Birmingham (AL), Boston, Chicago-Midway, Columbus (OH), Dallas-Love, Denver, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston-Hobby, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Little Rock, Los Angeles, Louisville, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Nashville, New Orleans, Newark, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Raleigh/Durham, San Diego, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, Tulsa 2E
Sun Country Airlines Cancun [begins December 24], Montego Bay [begins December 26], Punta Cana [begins December 24] 2E
United Airlines San Francisco 1A
United Express operated by GoJet Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Washington-Dulles 1A
United Express operated by Shuttle America Chicago-O'Hare, Newark 1A
United Express operated by SkyWest Airlines Chicago-O'Hare
Seasonal: Houston-Intercontinental
1A
United Express operated by Trans States Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Washington-Dulles
Seasonal: Cleveland, Houston-Intercontinental
1A
USA3000 Airlines Cancún [ends January 20], Fort Myers [ends January 2], Punta Cana [ends January 19] 2E
US Airways Charlotte, Philadelphia, Phoenix 1A
US Airways Express operated by Air Wisconsin Philadelphia 1A
US Airways Express operated by Mesa Airlines Charlotte 1A
US Airways Express operated by Republic Airlines Philadelphia 1A
US Airways Express operated by Trans States Airlines Pittsburgh 1A

Specialty and Charter Airlines

Airlines Destinations
Pet Airways [beginning late 2011] [46][47] Denver-Broomfield, Los Angeles-Hawthorne, Chicago-Midway, Omaha, New York-Farmingdale, Atlanta-DeKalb-Peachtree, Phoenix-Mesa
USA3000 Airlines Montego Bay, Puerto Vallarta
Ryan International Airlines Multi City

Top destinations

Busiest Domestic Routes from STL (June 2010 – May 2011)[48]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Flag of Illinois.svg Chicago, IL (ORD) 454,000 American, United
2 Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Atlanta, GA 423,000 AirTran, Delta
3 Flag of Texas.svg Dallas/Fort Worth, TX 357,000 American
4 Flag of Colorado.svg Denver, CO 335,000 Frontier, Southwest, United
5 Flag of Illinois.svg Chicago, IL (MDW) 259,000 Southwest
6 Flag of Arizona.svg Phoenix, AZ 225,000 Southwest, US Airways
7 Flag of Minnesota.svg Minneapolis, MN 221,000 Delta, Southwest
8 Flag of Texas.svg Dallas, TX (Love Field) 216,000 Southwest
9 Flag of Michigan.svg Detroit, MI 215,000 Delta, Southwest
10 Flag of California.svg Los Angeles, CA 185,000 American, Southwest

Expansion

Runway 11/29

During the late 1990s, Lambert Field was ranked as the eighth-busiest U.S. airport (measured by flights, not passengers) largely due to TWA's hub operations, Southwest Airlines' growing traffic, and commuter traffic to smaller cities in the region. Congestion caused delays during peak hours and was further exacerbated when bad weather reduced the number of usable runways from three to one. To cope, Lambert officials briefly redesignated the taxiway immediately north of runway 12L–30R as runway 13–31 and used it for commuter and general aviation traffic. However, traffic projections made in the 1980s and 1990s predicted yet more growth, enough to strain the airport and the national air traffic system.[49]

These factors led to the planning and construction of a 9,000-foot runway, dubbed Runway 11/29, parallel to the two larger existing runways. The project was the costliest public works program in St. Louis history at $1.1 billion dollars.[50] It required the relocation of seven major roads and the destruction of about 2,000 homes, six churches and four schools in Bridgeton, Missouri.[50][51][52] Construction began in 1998, and continued even as traffic at the airport declined after the 9/11 attacks, the purchase of Trans World Airlines by American Airlines in April 2001, and American's 2003 reduction in flights.[53][54] On April 13, 2006, American Airlines Flight 2470 became the first commercial airliner to land on the new runway.[55]

Since the construction, the runway has been shunned by fuel- and time-conscious airlines because it is farther from terminals than the older runways; an estimated 5% of flights use it.[50]

21st-century renovation

In February 2007, airport officials announced the largest renovation in the airport's history: a $70 million effort,[56] dubbed "The Airport Experience Project," to overhaul the Main Terminal. The project is scheduled to be completed in the fall of 2012.

Completed Projects

  • The domed ceiling has been completely restored with a new acoustic coating and a programmable LED lighting system.[57]
  • A new baggage carousel system has been installed which operates faster and more quietly[57]
  • The Main and East terminals were renamed Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 and signage throughout the facility was overhauled to reflect the change and to improve wayfinding[58]
  • 8 new restaurants and food vendors have been added to the terminal [59]

Planned Projects

  • Security checkpoints are being reconstructed to be more integrated and included new screening technology[60]
  • A terrazzo floor will be installed throughout the terminal
  • Art glass screens, designed by St. Louis-area artists will be installed throughout the terminal [57]
  • A dedicated performance area, dubbed "St. Louis Stage," will be added [61]
  • Restrooms throughout the terminal will be renovated with new restrooms being added to the baggage area [62]

Accidents

  • On 9 January 1984, Douglas C-47B C-GSCA of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on take-off, killing one of its two crew members. The aircraft was on an international cargo flight to Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada. Both engines lost power shortly after take-off. The aircraft had been fueled with JET-A instead of 100LL.[63]

Lambert in fiction

Television

  • In the "Airport" episode of the television show Newsradio, bad weather keeps Bill and Dave at Lambert for the entire show.
  • In "The Airport" episode of the television show Seinfeld, the characters leave from Lambert.

Film

See also


References

  1. ^ FAA Airport Master Record for STL (Form 5010 PDF), retrieved 2007-07-24
  2. ^ "Passenger Statistics". Lambert-St. Louis International Airport. http://www.flystl.com/flystl/media-newsroom/stats/. Retrieved September 25, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b http://www.flystl.com/flystl/media-newsroom/stats/
  4. ^ http://www.airport-world.com/news-articles/item/953-lambert-st-louis-passenger-traffic-up-41-in-july
  5. ^ Henry, Prince Joe (2006-12-07). "Joe gains another admirer: Kinloch's sergeant of police.". River Front Times (Riverfront Times, LLC). http://www.riverfronttimes.com/2006-12-06/news/joe-gains-another-admirer-kinloch-s-sergeant-of-police/. Retrieved 2010-08-27. 
  6. ^ John Aaron Wright. Kinloch: Missouri's first black city. http://books.google.com/books?id=K2_ZMVtnsd0C&pg=PA8&lpg=PA8&dq=%2Bkinloch+missouri+date+of+incorporation&source=bl&ots=b_X0XLboHd&sig=ooJ3xwHYXVSO5teqGTD0Pid1GBs&hl=en&ei=MXBLTYOgKcT1gAfIrpX4Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CFEQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  7. ^ "Lambert History". Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport. http://www.lambert-stlouis.com/flystl/about-lambert/history/. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  8. ^ Christensen, Lawrence O. (1999). Dictionary of Missouri Biography. University of Missouri Press. p. 469. ISBN 0826212220. http://books.google.com/books?id=6gyxWHRLAWgC&pg=PA469&lpg=PA469&dq=Albert+Bond+Lambert+Listerine&source=bl&ots=D9Noyxq7eZ&sig=hpa2FWaeROxj69SG9gQ3i2mMHL8&hl=en&ei=yyq3TdmtCpS5tgein6ibAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Albert%20Bond%20Lambert%20Listerine&f=false. 
  9. ^ a b Lambert-St. Louis history retrieved 2007-12-14. Archived November 20, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Mola, Roger. "Aircraft Landing Technology". U. S. Centennial of Flight Commission. http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Evolution_of_Technology/landing_navig/Tech32.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-24. 
  11. ^ http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/aviation/navy.htm
  12. ^ http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/aviation/navy5.htm
  13. ^ Mutzabaugh, Ben (September 18, 2009). "With AA's cuts, St. Louis will fall from the ranks of hub cities". USA Today: Today in the Sky blog. http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/item.aspx?type=blog&ak=68499380.blog. 
  14. ^ Leiser, Ken (September 18, 2009). "Airline blames cuts on restructuring". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/business/stories.nsf/story/story/5E1B3CA89E6A7F05862576350005F923?OpenDocument. 
  15. ^ Leiser, Ken (October 22, 2009). "Southwest will add nine daily flights here". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/stories.nsf/stlouiscitycounty/story/C4EC07EADEDDAB29862576560082EE24?OpenDocument. 
  16. ^ Leiser, Ken (2010-08-25). "Delta to add flights at Lambert". St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Lee Enterprises). http://www.stltoday.com/business/local/article_929771c6-b084-11df-881a-00127992bc8b.html. Retrieved 2010-09-08. 
  17. ^ April 22nd Tornadic Supercell Greater St. Louis Metropolitan Area, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri. (April 23, 2011).
  18. ^ a b Held, Kevin (April 23, 2011). "St. Louis Airport storm caught on camera". KSDK. http://www.ksdk.com/news/article/255902/3/Days-not-hours-until-Lambert-St-Louis-Airport-re-opens. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  19. ^ Moore, Bryce. "SkyZoom 4 images of the Lambert Airport damage". http://www.kmov.com/home/SkyZoom-4-images-of-the-Lambert-Airport-damage-120536224.html. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  20. ^ Bowers, Cynthia (April 23, 2011). "Residents: St. Louis was "bedlam" during tornado". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/04/23/eveningnews/main20056781.shtml. Retrieved April 24, 2011. 
  21. ^ Salter, Jim; Jim Suhr (April 23, 2011). "Tornado cleanup starts quickly in St. Louis area". Associated Press. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110423/ap_on_re_us/us_missouri_storms. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  22. ^ Moore, Bryce. "Lambert passengers watch plane move, then evacuate terminal". http://www.kmov.com/news/local/Lambert-passengers-watch-plane-move-then-evacuate-terminal-120532999.html. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  23. ^ "UPDATE: Lambert reopening today, expects to be at 70 percent capacity Sunday". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. April 23, 2011. http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/metro/article_f7e801d4-6dc7-11e0-b60f-0019bb30f31a.html. Retrieved April 24, 2011. 
  24. ^ Mutzabaugh, Ben (June 2, 2011). "St. Louis may need full year to recover from April tornado". USA Today. http://travel.usatoday.com/flights/post/2011/06/st-louis-airport-tornado-damage/172805/1. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  25. ^ http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/columns/deb-peterson/no-joke----tsa-names-lambert-airport-of/article_af4b712a-0a59-11e1-b906-001a4bcf6878.html
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