Extreme ultraviolet


Extreme ultraviolet

Extreme Ultra-Violet radiation (EUV) is generally considered to be the part of the electromagnetic spectrum spanning from 120 nm down to 10 nm. Its main uses are photoelectron spectroscopy, solar imaging, and lithography. EUV is naturally generated by the solar corona and artificially by plasma sources. EUV is the most highly absorbed component of the electromagnetic spectrum, requiring high vacuum for transmission.

EUV generation

Neutral atoms or condensed matter cannot emit EUV radiation. Ionization must take place first.

EUV light is typically emitted by electrons which are bound to multicharged positive ions. Such electrons are more tightly bound than typical valence electrons. The existence of multicharged positive ions is only possible in a hot dense plasma. Alternatively, the free electrons and ions may be generated temporarily and instantaneously by the intense electric field of a very-high-harmonic laser beam. The electrons accelerate as they return to the parent ion, releasing higher energy photons at diminished intensities, which may be in the EUV range. If the released photons constitute ionizing radiation, they will also ionize the atoms of the harmonic-generating medium, depleting the sources of higher-harmonic generation. The freed electrons escape since the electric field of the EUV light is not intense enough to drive the electrons to higher harmonics, while the parent ions are no longer as easily ionized as the originally neutral atoms. Hence, the processes of EUV generation and absorption (ionization) strongly compete against each other.

EUV light can also be emitted by free electrons orbiting a synchrotron.

EUV absorption in matter

When an EUV photon is absorbed, photoelectrons and secondary electrons are generated by ionization, much like what happens when X-rays or electron beams are absorbed by matter [ B. L . Henke "et al.", J. Appl. Phys. 48, pp. 1852-1866 (1977).] .

The response of matter to EUV radiation can be captured in the following equations:

Point of absorption: EUV photon energy = 92 eV = Electron binding energy + photoelectron initial kinetic energy

Within 3 mean free paths of photoelectron (1-2 nm): Reduction of photoelectron kinetic energy = ionization potential + secondary electron kinetic energy

Within 3 mean free paths of secondary electron (~30 nm): 1. Reduction of secondary electron kinetic energy = ionization potential + tertiary electron kinetic energy 2. Nth generation electron slows down aside from ionization by heating (phonon generation) 3. Final generation electron kinetic energy ~ 0 eV => dissociative electron attachment + heat

where the ionization potential is typically 7-9 eV for organic materials and 4-5 eV for metals. The photoelectron subsequently causes the emission of secondary electrons through the process of impact ionization. Sometimes, an Auger transition is also possible, resulting in the emission of two electrons with the absorption of a single photon.

Strictly speaking, photoelectrons, Auger electrons and secondary electrons are all accompanied by positively charged holes (ions which can be neutralized by pulling electrons from nearby molecules) in order to preserve charge neutrality. An electron-hole pair is often referred to as an exciton. For highly energetic electrons, the electron-hole separation can be quite large and the binding energy is correspondingly low, but at lower energy, the electron and hole can be closer to each other. As the name implies, an exciton is an excited state; only when it disappears as the electron and hole recombine, can stable chemical reaction products form.

Since the photon absorption depth exceeds the electron escape depth, as the released electrons eventually slow down, they dissipate their energy ultimately as heat. EUV wavelengths are absorbed much more strongly than longer wavelengths, since their corresponding photon energies exceed the bandgaps of all materials. Consequently, their heating efficiency is significantly higher, and has been marked by lower thermal ablation thresholds in dielectric materials. [ A. Ritucci et al., "Damage and ablation of large band gap dielectrics induced by a 46.9 nm laser beam," [https://e-reports-ext.llnl.gov/pdf/331469.pdf March 9, 2006 report UCRL-JRNL-219656] (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory).]


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Like other forms of ionizing radiation, EUV and electrons released directly or indirectly by the EUV radiation are a likely source of device damage. Damage may result from oxide desorption [ D. Ercolani "et al.", Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, pp. 587-592 (2005). ] or trapped charge following ionization [ D. J. DiMaria "et al.", J. Appl. Phys. 73, pp. 3367-3384 (1993).] . Damage may also occur through indefinite positive charging by the Malter effect. If free electrons cannot return to neutralize the net positive charge, positive ion desorption [ H. Akazawa, J. Vac. Sci. & Tech. A 16, pp. 3455-3459 (1998).] is the only way to restore neutrality. However, desorption essentially means the surface is degraded during exposure, and furthermore, the desorbed atoms contaminate any exposed optics. EUV damage has already been [http://www.promoptica.be/publications/defise/pdf/spie3114_1997_eit.pdf documented] in the CCD radiation aging of the Extreme UV Imaging Telescope (EIT) [ J-M. Defise "et al.", Proc. SPIE 3114, pp. 598-607 (1997).] .

Radiation damage is a well-known issue that has been studied in the process of plasma processing damage. A recent study at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron indicated that wavelengths below 200 nm are capable of measurable surface charging. [ J. L. Shohet, http://pptl.engr.wisc.edu/Nuggets%20v9a.ppt] EUV radiation showed positive charging centimeters beyond the borders of exposure while VUV radiation showed positive charging within the borders of exposure.

Studies using EUV femtosecond pulses at the FLASH synchrotron beam facility indicated thermal melting-induced damage thresholds below 100 mJ/cm2. [ R. Sobierajski "et al.", http://hasyweb.desy.de/science/annual_reports/2006_report/part1/contrib/40/17630.pdf ]

References


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