- Academy ratio
The Academy ratio of 1.37:1 is the standard aspect ratio of a frame of
35mm filmwhen used with 4-perf pulldown, and was standardized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciencesas the standard film aspect ratio in 1932, although it was used as early as 1928.
Silent films were shot at a 1.33 aspect ratio, with each frame using all of the negative space between the two rows of
film perforationsfor a length of 4 perfs. The frame linebetween the silent film frames was very thin. When sound films were introduced in the late 1920s, the soundtrack was placed down a row along the inside of one of the lines of perforations, cutting into the 1.33 image. This made the image area "taller", usually around 1.19, which was slightly disorienting to audiences used to the 1.33 frame and also presented problems for exhibitors with fixed-size screens and stationary projectors. Therefore, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciencesresolved the problem by trying to retain a similar aspect ratio to the original silent ratio. As the width of the usable image area had been reduced, the height of each frame also was reduced, which created slightly thicker frame lines, which also had the additional benefit of making splices less noticeable in editing. The Academy ratio is actually 1.375, but is usually shortened to 1.37, and often is cited as 1.33 by laypeople, despite the fact that only silent films were shot in that ratio.
Virtually all films from 1932 to 1952 were shot in Academy ratio. However, following the widescreen "revolution" of the 1950s, it quickly became an obsolete production format. Within several years, all major studios started "matting" their non-anamorphic films in the projector to wider ratios such as 1.66, 1.75, and 1.85, the latter of which is still in common use along with
anamorphic(2.39). 1.37:1 is not totally obsolete, nonetheless, and can still be found in selected recent films such as Gus Van Sant's "Elephant".
The Academy ratio is not created in the camera, which has continued to use the
full framesilent aperture gate for all 4-perf spherical filming. Rather, it is created in the married print, when the optical soundtrack and frame lines are added. Though most non-anamorphic film prints with a soundtrack are now framed to one of the non-anamorphic widescreen ratios, from 1.66 to 1.85, some still retain Academy-sized frames. These frames are then cropped in the projector by means of aperture masks used in the projector's gate in conjunction with a wider lens than would be used for projecting Academy ratio films.
During filming, using the 4-perf frame for widescreen framing when spherical lenses are used is sometimes considered to be wasteful in terms of the cost of film stock and processing, especially in the case of television, which does not require a film print. The
3-perf pulldownprocess was originally developed by Rune Eriksonin 1987 to solve this problem.
List of film formats
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Academy I Middle School — is a public middle school in Jersey City, New Jersey. The building was built in 1966, making it one of the newest schools in the city. The school ranks ahead of many Jersey City Public Schools in various areas. Although it ranks ahead, it is the… … Wikipedia
Academy of Music in Kraków — Akademia Muzyczna w Krakowie Plus ratio quam vis Address ul. św. Tomasza 43 … Wikipedia
Academy of Allied Health & Science — Infobox School | name = Academy of Allied Health and Science imagesize = thumb established = 1996 type = Magnet public high school district = Monmouth County Vocational School District grades = 9 12 principal = Robert V. Cancro enrollment = 277… … Wikipedia
Academy of St. Elizabeth — Infobox School name = Academy of Saint Elizabeth native name = motto = Deus est Caritas ( God is Love ) established = 1860 city = state = province = country = USA campus = type = Private, Day school affiliation = Roman Catholic Diocese of… … Wikipedia
Academy for Information Technology — Infobox School name = Academy for Information Technology imagesize = motto = established = grades = 9 12 district = Union County Vocational Technical Schools type = Magnet public high school principal = Paul Munz viceprincipal = enrollment = 204… … Wikipedia
Academy Charter High School — Infobox School name = Academy Charter High School imagesize = motto = established = 1998 grades = 9 12 district = type = Charter public high school principal = enrollment = 197 (as of 2005 06) faculty = 18.0 (on FTE basis) ratio = 10.9 nickname … Wikipedia
Academy of Mount St. Ursula High School — The Academy of Mount St. Ursula is a girls’ Catholic college preparatory school, established in 1855 in East Morrisania, New York. Since 1892, the school has been located at Bedford Park Boulevard and Bainbridge Avenue, two blocks east of Grand… … Wikipedia
Academy for Global Exploration — Infobox Private School background = #f0f6fa border = #ccd2d9 name = Academy for Global Exploration | motto = The world is our classroom slogan = What did you learn at school today? established = 2002 type = Private, Boarding, Traveling… … Wikipedia
Academy of Richmond County — Infobox School name = Academy of Richmond County native name = latin name = imagesize = caption = location = streetaddress = 910 Russel Street affiliations = city = Augusta state = county = Richmond County, Georgia zipcode = 30904 country =… … Wikipedia
Academy of the Holy Angels — Infobox School name = Academy of the Holy Angels native name = latin name = imagesize = caption = streetaddress = 315 Hillside Avenue city = Demarest state = NJ zipcode = 07627 country = template:USA coordinates =… … Wikipedia