Cleveland Hopkins International Airport


Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport.svg
IATA: CLEICAO: KCLEFAA LID: CLE
CLE is located in Ohio
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CLE
Location of the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner City of Cleveland
Operator City of Cleveland
Serves Cleveland, Ohio
Location Cleveland, Ohio
Hub for Continental Airlines
Elevation AMSL 791 ft / 241 m
Coordinates 41°24′42″N 081°50′59″W / 41.41167°N 81.84972°W / 41.41167; -81.84972Coordinates: 41°24′42″N 081°50′59″W / 41.41167°N 81.84972°W / 41.41167; -81.84972
Website www.clevelandairport.com
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
6L/24R 9,000 2,743 Concrete
6R/24L 9,955 3,034 Concrete
10/28 6,017 1,834 Asphalt/Concrete
Statistics (2010)
Aircraft operations 192,863
Total Passengers 9,492,455
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[1] and CLE airport.[2]

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (IATA: CLEICAO: KCLEFAA LID: CLE) is a public airport located nine miles (14 km) southwest of the central business district of Cleveland, a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States.[1] The airport lies just within the city limits of Cleveland. It is the largest airport in the state of Ohio and as of 2009 is the 39th largest airport in North America.[3]

The airport was founded in 1925, making it the first municipally owned airport in the United States.[4] The airport has been the site of many other airport firsts: the first air traffic control tower, ground to air radio control and the first airfield lighting system, all in 1930, and the first U.S. airport to be directly connected to a local or regional rail transit system, in 1968. The airport was named after its founder, former city manager William R. Hopkins, on his 82nd birthday in 1951.

The airport handled 9,492,455 passengers in 2010, representing a 2.3% decrease compared to 2009;[2] the passenger decline at Hopkins was 5th steepest among the 50 largest airports in the USA in 2009.[5] There were 192,863 operations (takeoffs and landings) in 2010.[2] The airport handles more than 325 daily nonstop flights to over 85 destinations. It is the third largest hub for Continental Airlines and its regional carriers ExpressJet, Chautauqua, Colgan Air, CommutAir, and Gulfstream International Airlines. Following Continental's merger with United Airlines, the airport will become the smallest of the combined airline's eight mainland U.S. hubs in terms of passenger boardings (though busier than Guam).[6] Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, along with Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport comprise the Cleveland Airport System operated by the city of Cleveland's Department of Port Control.

In 2006, Cleveland Hopkins International Airport unveiled a new marketing and branding campaign. The slogan, "CLE Going Places", is said to depict the airport's pursuit of improving passengers' experience as they upgrade the airport facility and negotiate additional air services.[citation needed] Improvements include upgrades to the restaurant and store concessions program, taxi service, on-site parking, customer service areas, and the attraction of additional flights to new destinations with the airport's new air service development program (begun in 2007).

Contents

Operational history

FAA Airport Diagram of CLE

North American international service

Intercontinental service

An outside view of the terminal

There is presently no intercontinental service from Cleveland. However, there have been several past short-lived attempts to establish intercontinental service from the airport since the airport was first granted authority to receive intercontinental service in 1977.[7][8]

  • Continental Airlines began offering seasonal nonstop flights from Hopkins to London Gatwick Airport in 1999.[12] This service continued for several summers, and in 2009, Continental switched to Heathrow Airport instead of Gatwick because of the airline's new access to Heathrow as part of the EU–U.S. Open Skies Agreement. However, this service was cancelled permanently because of insufficient passenger bookings.[13][14]
  • Continental launched a new route between Cleveland and Paris, France on May 22, 2008, but then announced elimination of the service in December 2008. The service has not been resurrected in subsequent summers.[citation needed] Continental had exited the SkyTeam Alliance, which included Air France. Because of the exit from SkyTeam, the incentive for Continental passengers in Cleveland to connect in Paris disappeared.[15]

Airfield, facilities and concourses

Satellite view of the airport

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport covers an area of 1,900 acres (770 ha)[1] which contains three runways:

  • Runway 6R/24L: 9,955 x 150 ft. (3,034 x 46 m), concrete
  • Runway 6L/24R: 9,000 x 150 ft. (2,743 x 46 m), concrete
  • Runway 10/28: 6,017 x 150 ft. (1,834 x 46 m), asphalt and concrete

The older parallel runway, formerly Runway 6C/24C, was 7,096 x 150 ft. (2163 x 46 m). It has been decommissioned as an active runway, its width narrowed, and is now designated as Taxiway C. The centerfield taxiway C has the word "TAXI" inscribed in large yellow letters on either end to ensure approaching aircraft do not mistakenly use it as a runway.

Currently underway is a project to move both thresholds of Runway 10/28 330 feet to the east, thus allowing for the addition of EMAS (Engineered Materials Arresting System) at both ends. As part of this project, some turnouts will be rebuilt, also.

For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2007, the airport had 244,717 aircraft operations, an average of 670 per day: 65% air taxi, 29% scheduled commercial, 5% general aviation and <1% military. There are 44 aircraft based at this airport: 21 jet, 10 single engine, 7 multi-engine and 6 military aircraft.[1]

Since 2008, BAA Cleveland has developed and managed retail and dining locations at the airport. A redevelopment project will add 76,000 square feet (7,100 m2) of new locations.[16][17][18]

An American Eagle counter at gate A3 in concourse A
Hopkins airport is known for its fanciful giant "paper" airplane sculptures located in the underground walkway between Concourses C and D.

Cleveland Airport consists of one passenger terminal which is divided into four concourses:

  • Concourse A (gates A1-A12, A14), originally known as "North Concourse", was the first of the airport's original two concourses and was built in 1962.
  • Concourse B (gates B1-B11) was the first extension pier to the airport and was built in 1966.
  • Concourse C (gates C1–C12, C14, and C16–C29) houses all mainline Continental Airlines services, except for international arrivals which are handled in Concourse A instead. The concourse (being the third-oldest one) was originally known as "South Concourse" when it opened in 1968. Until 1985, it was one of the main hub operations for United Airlines. United slowly cut flights from Hopkins as it built a new hub at Washington Dulles International Airport. By 1987, United had closed its hub at Hopkins and moved its operations to the B Concourse. Continental Airlines quickly established a hub in Cleveland to fill the void left by United. However, with the pending merger of Continental and United, as well as Continental joining the Star Alliance, United, as well as Air Canada Jazz, have since relocated their Cleveland operations to Concourse C.
  • Concourse D (gates D2–D12, D14, D17, D21, D25, and D28) was constructed in 1999 and is a separate terminal connected to the main terminal by an underground walkway. Although capable of handling larger jets such as Continental's Boeing 737[19], it currently handles regional aircraft exclusively. Concourse D contains 12 jet bridge gates and 24 ramp loading positions.[20]

Airlines and destinations

Airlines Destinations Concourse
Air Canada Express operated by Jazz Air Toronto-Pearson C
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth A
American Eagle Chicago-O'Hare, Miami, New York-JFK, New York-LaGuardia A
Continental Airlines Boston, Cancún, Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston-Intercontinental, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York-LaGuardia, Newark, Orlando, Phoenix, San Francisco, Tampa
Seasonal: Miami, San Diego, San Juan, Seattle/Tacoma, West Palm Beach
C
Continental Connection operated by Colgan Air [ends December 3] Albany, Baltimore, Chicago-O'Hare, Raleigh/Durham, Washington-National D
Continental Connection operated by CommutAir Buffalo, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Columbus (OH), Dayton, Erie, Flint, Grand Rapids, Harrisburg, Indianapolis, Madison, Pittsburgh, Rochester (NY), South Bend, Syracuse, Toronto-Pearson D
Continental Connection operated by Gulfstream International Airlines Bradford, DuBois, Franklin, Jamestown, Lewisburg (WV), Parkersburg D
Continental Express operated by Chautauqua Airlines Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Columbus (OH), Dallas/Fort Worth, Hartford, Indianapolis, Louisville, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New Orleans, New York-LaGuardia, Philadelphia, Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Washington-National C, D
Continental Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines Albany, Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Burlington (VT), Charlotte, Dallas/Fort Worth, Dayton, Grand Rapids, Green Bay, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Hartford, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Knoxville, Louisville, Madison, Manchester (NH), Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montréal-Trudeau, New Orleans, New York-LaGuardia, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Syracuse, Toronto-Pearson, Washington-National, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Albuquerque, Fort Myers, Jacksonville (FL), Nassau, Orlando, Portland (ME), Québec City, St. Louis, Tampa
C, D
Delta Air Lines Atlanta B
Delta Connection operated by Atlantic Southeast Airlines Atlanta, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul B
Delta Connection operated by Chautauqua Airlines Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Detroit, New York-JFK B
Delta Connection operated by Comair Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky B
Delta Connection operated by Compass Airlines Minneapolis/St. Paul B
Delta Connection operated by Mesaba Airlines Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul B
Delta Connection operated by Pinnacle Airlines Atlanta, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-JFK B
Delta Connection operated by SkyWest Airlines Minneapolis/St Paul B
Southwest Airlines Baltimore, Chicago-Midway, Las Vegas, Nashville, Orlando B
United Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Denver C
United Express operated by Colgan Air Washington-Dulles C
United Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Washington-Dulles C
United Express operated by SkyWest Airlines Atlanta, Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Milwaukee, Washington-National C
United Express operated by Trans States Airlines Boston, Dayton, Manchester (NH) [begins December 15], Portland (ME)
Seasonal: St. Louis
C
USA3000 Airlines Cancún [ends November 27], Fort Myers [ends December 30], Punta Cana [ends December 2]
A
US Airways Charlotte A
US Airways Express operated by Air Wisconsin Philadelphia A
US Airways Express operated by Chautauqua Airlines Philadelphia A
US Airways Express operated by Mesa Airlines Charlotte A
US Airways Express operated by PSA Airlines Charlotte A
US Airways Express operated by Republic Airlines Charlotte, Philadelphia A

Cargo airlines

Airlines Destinations
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis
FedEx Feeder operated by Mountain Air Cargo Erie
UPS Airlines Louisville

Statistics

Top Ten Busiest Domestic Routes Out of Hopkins International Airport
(June 2010- May 2011) [21]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Illinois Chicago, IL (O'Hare) 297,000 American, Continental, United
2 Texas Houston, TX (IAH) 251,000 Continental
3 Illinois Chicago, IL (Midway) 217,000 Southwest
4 Nevada Las Vegas, NV 214,000 Continental, Southwest
5 North Carolina Charlotte, NC 201,000 Continental, US Airways
6 Georgia (U.S. state) Atlanta, GA 187,000 Continental, Delta, United
7 Maryland Baltimore, MD 172,000 Continental, Southwest
8 New Jersey Newark, NJ 148,000 Continental
9 Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 143,000 Continental, US Airways
10 California Los Angeles, CA 142,000 Continental

Ground transportation

Public transit

Airport welcome sign

Hopkins International Airport is connected to the Cleveland Rapid Transit system. Passengers can board Red Line trains at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (RTA Rapid Transit station) airport terminal. During late night/early morning hours, service is provided by the # 75 bus from Hopkins to Downtown Cleveland.

Rental cars

In 1998, Hopkins moved rental car operations off the airport grounds to a new consolidated rental car facility. The facility has drawn mixed reviews from travelers because of its distance from the airport, inconsistent bus service and long bus rides, only partial canopy coverage for vehicles, and fees and taxes that are very high relative to those of other airports; the charges cover costs of not only operating the center but also supporting other local projects, such as the Cleveland Browns stadium.[22]

Incidents and accidents

  • In 1971 Jane Fonda was arrested by police at the airport for being belligerent and obstructing public safety because she refused to go through security screening. After an increase in aviation related skyjackings, the FAA had in 1969 ordered all airports to use metal detectors.
  • Hundreds of thousands of earthworms crawled onto the longest runway at Cleveland's Hopkins Airport in September, 1972. It created so great a safety hazard that the strip had to be closed for 30 minutes. Workmen used a motorized broom to sweep them away. Four jet pilots complained that the worms caused poor braking. Officials said heavy rains apparently brought the worms to the surface on ground surrounding the runway. (Milwaukee Journal 9/16/1972)
  • On January 4, 1985 Pan Am flight 558, a Boeing 727, was scheduled to fly from Cleveland to New York City's John F. Kennedy International Airport. While still on the ground at Cleveland, the aircraft was hijacked and the hijacker demanded to be taken to South America. The plane was stormed by Cleveland police and the hijacker arrested. The duration of the hijacking was less than one day.
  • On January 6, 2003, a Continental Express Embraer ERJ-145LR overran the runway upon landing from Bradley International Airport in Hartford, CT. After touchdown, the flight crew was unable to stop the airplane on the runway. The airplane continued beyond the departure end, on extended runway centerline, and struck the ILS runway 6 localizer antenna. It came to rest with the nose about 600 feet (180 m) beyond the end of the runway. The nose landing gear had collapsed rearward and deformed the forward pressure bulkhead.[citation needed]
  • On April 27, 2006 police officers confronted a man at the United Airlines ticket counter. The man fired a handgun, critically wounding a patrolman, but another officer shot and killed the attacker.
  • On February 18, 2007, at 3:14pm, a Shuttle America Embraer 170 operating as Delta Connection flight 6448 from Atlanta skidded off snow-covered runway 28 and crashed through a fence. None of the 70 passengers and four crew on board were injured.
  • On January 10, 2010, the airport lost power for more than seven hours after a transformer exploded at about 6:50am. All power inside the terminals was lost and air traffic was halted; however the control tower, runways, and taxiways remained lit, powered by backup generators. About 800 people were affected by the loss of power, and most flights didn't resume until 3:00pm. According to a spokesperson, the transformer exploded due to a buildup of road salt, causing corrosion.[23]

Relationship with Continental Airlines and the Post-Merger United Airlines

Continental Airlines, the largest tenant at Cleveland Hopkins, handles roughly 60% of all passenger traffic through the airport. Continental and Hopkins have both made substantial investments in support of Continental's presence at the airport, including the 1999 construction of Concourse D, primarily to accommodate Continental Express flights. However, Cleveland clearly has remained the airline's third-tier hub behind George Bush Intercontinental Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport.[24]

The airport, Cleveland community, and Continental have had something of an uneasy relationship for several years. In 2003, Continental CEO Gordon Bethune publicly scolded the Cleveland business community and encouraged business flyers to support Hopkins rather than to take cheaper fights from neighboring Akron-Canton Airport, which advertises itself as the "preferred alternative" to Hopkins and "a better way to go,"[25] and which is undertaking an ambitious expansion in response to substantial increases in enplanements while Hopkins boardings have declined.[24][26] Shortly thereafter, Continental reduced the size of its board of directors by halving the number of representatives from the Cleveland area, began to closely scrutinize local passenger traffic volume, and closed its four off-airport ticket offices in the Greater Cleveland area (while maintaining offices near its Houston and Newark hubs).[27][28] In March 2009, Continental CEO Larry Kellner omitted Cleveland but referenced Newark and Houston when commenting on the carrier's strengths: "We are strong in the Atlantic, we are strong in Latin America, we are strong in New York, we're strong in Houston."[29]

Unlike Continental's other hubs (EWR, IAH, GUM) or those of merger partner United Airlines (ORD, LAX, SFO, IAD, DEN, NRT), Continental's Cleveland operation has only a handful of flights to any international cities (in Mexico and Canada), has not been able to sustain year-round service from the airport to Europe or other trans-oceanic destinations, handles an overwhelming majority (81% as of May 2011) of its traffic via Continental Express regional jet or propeller-driven/turboprop aircraft rather than mainline jets (e.g., in Continental's case, its Boeing jets), and does not serve the airport with any twin-aisle, wide-body aircraft (e.g., in the case of Continental, its Boeing 767 or Boeing 777 planes).[24][30]

On September 14, 2007, Continental announced what was at the time called a "major expansion" at Hopkins that would have increased the hub's capacity by some 40% over a two-year period. The expansion would have entailed some 20 new destinations served primarily on regional aircraft, followed later by a dozen new destinations served on mainline aircraft. This expansion was to have created 700 jobs, and the state of Ohio offered a $16 million incentive package to help make the service increase happen.[31] However, when record-high fuel prices forced Continental to cut capacity in the summer of 2008, the airline reduced its workforce, eliminated service between Cleveland and 24 cities (including 12 cities that were part of Phase I of its hub expansion program), and reduced the frequency of its flights to a number of others; the service cuts in Cleveland were deeper as a percentage of overall flight volume than concurrent cuts at Continental's Houston and Newark hubs.[32] In March 2009, Continental indicated that it would continue to make capacity cuts in response to reduced demand for seats.[33] Continental passenger boardings in Cleveland have declined 22% since the year 2000.[34]

On July 10, 2009, the US Department of Transportation approved Continental's membership in Star Alliance (it had been a member of SkyTeam with Northwest Airlines and Delta Air Lines) and most aspects of the code-share agreement it had requested with United and other Star Alliance members (e.g. Lufthansa).[35] Then, on October 1, 2010, United and Continental officially completed the legal aspects of a full merger.[36] The merger only heightened ongoing concerns within the greater Cleveland area about the potential effect on Cleveland air service; Continental's previous merger talks with Star Alliance founding partner United were viewed in some circles as a serious threat to Continental's future at Hopkins.[37][38] When the 2010 United/Continental tie-up was initially announced, it prompted Cleveland politicians to propose hearings to investigate the potential impact of the marriage on the community; these investigations ultimately had no effect on the companies' efforts to combine.

There are ongoing concerns that a post-merger United will reduce or eliminate direct service from Cleveland to a number of cities and instead route passengers through United's hubs in Chicago (315 miles west by air) and Washington (287 air miles east by air).[39][40] The new company, United Continental Holdings, Inc., signed a letter of agreement with Cleveland officials stipulating what service levels will be maintained at Hopkins for five years, but it has been criticized as weak, vague, and having loopholes that the airline can exploit if it chooses to reduce service before the agreement expires. For example, the agreement dictates a certain number of flights but does not stipulate the type of aircraft used to operate them, which would allow the company potentially to substitute mainline Boeing jets with propeller-driven aircraft such as the Saab 340 (with 34 seats) or the Beechcraft 1900 (with 19 seats).[41] Moreover, the agreement hinges largely on United's profitability on routes to and from Cleveland, which might be subject to variation depending on how United assigns costs. Finally, the potential $20 million penalty for violating the agreement is a relatively minor amount for a company the size of United Continental Holdings, with 2010 revenue of $29 billion.[42] Terms of the agreement are as follows:

For the first two years after the merger (i.e. until October 1, 2012):

  • The new United must maintain at least 90 percent, or 170, of the 189 average daily departures that the two airlines had at Cleveland Hopkins in the year before their combination.

During the remainder of the five year agreement (i.e. until October 1, 2015):

  • United's average daily departure obligation decreases to 67 percent of pre-merger strength -- or 127 departures -- in the event that "segment profitability" at Hopkins is more than 15 percent worse than the network as a whole, with annual losses in Cleveland of more than $25 million.
  • If segment profitability is more than $40 million in the red during the second year, minimum departures in year three can fall to 45 percent of pre-merger levels, or 85 average daily departures. The minimum in years four and five can fall to 14 percent of pre-merger departures, or 26 departures a day.
  • If United's Cleveland operations lose more than $40 million in years three or four, then the 14 percent rule applies.
  • If the Cleveland operations are losing money and more than 25 percent worse than United's network as a whole, United can walk away from the agreement entirely and can cut service as deeply as it deems necessary.

These and other factors, such as the cost of operations at Hopkins, have led to speculation in news reports that the airport's hub status might eventually be further diminished or lost altogether, as has been the case with each of the metropolitan airports closest to Cleveland (with the exception of Detroit):

The Wall Street Journal noted the declines on September 28, 2011, stating, "Cities such as Cleveland, Pittsburgh and St. Louis are dealing with a deep retrenchment in flights, as airlines have cut costs in the wake of consolidation. Since 2005, the number of flights from Cleveland's Hopkins International airport are off 23%; Pittsburgh's are down 49% and St. Louis's are 36% lower."[43]

If Continental de-hubbed in Cleveland, it would not be the airline's first experience radically scaling back in a hub city; Continental abandoned its hub at Stapleton International Airport in Denver when Denver International Airport was built. It would also not be the first time that Cleveland lost an airline hub; ironically, United maintained a substantial hub at Hopkins before relocating it to Washington Dulles International Airport in the late 1980s as Cleveland's prominence as a business center began a more precipitous decline. Should the new United elect to close its Cleveland hub, Cleveland would have the dubious distinction of being the only U.S. airport to be "de-hubbed" twice by the same airline.

In an article about the Continental-United merger, the Wall Street Journal reported on May 3, 2010, that "One city that could feel the pinch from the latest consolidation is Cleveland, a small Continental hub. Analysts say that a combined United-Continental could shift more connecting traffic to Chicago, United's largest hub. Delta has continued to scale back flights at its small Cincinnati hub since it acquired Northwest, which had hubs in nearby Memphis and Detroit." [44]

Continental CEO Jeff Smisek stated in a speech in Cleveland on November 10, 2010 that "Cleveland needs to earn its hub status every day" and added that overall profitability would be the determining factor in whether the new United kept or shuttered the Cleveland operation.[45]

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  1. ^ a b c d FAA Airport Master Record for CLE (Form 5010 PDF), effective 2007-07-05
  2. ^ a b c Cleveland Airport - Fact Sheet
  3. ^ http://www.aci-na.org/stats/stats_traffic
  4. ^ ClevelandAirport
  5. ^ http://www.aci-na.org/stats/stats_traffic
  6. ^ http://www.crainscleveland.com/article/20101110/FREE/101119982/1096/rss01&rssfeed=rss01
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  10. ^ http://airlineroute.net/2011/01/21/w85-ju/
  11. ^ http://www.jatlondon.com/about/history/history.htm
  12. ^ Continental Airlines Launches First Ever Non-Stop Transatlantic Service Between Cleveland and London, Continental Airlines news release. June 29, 1999.
  13. ^ http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2009/12/continental_airlines_cancels_n.html
  14. ^ "Continental: Cleveland-London nonstop is gone for good". USA Today. December 4, 2009. http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/2009-12-04-continental-cleveland-london_N.htm?csp=34. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  15. ^ Grant, Allison. "Continental Airlines' new alliance may smooth connections for Northeast Ohio travelers." The Plain Dealer. Thursday October 22, 2009. Updated on Friday October 23, 2009. Retrieved on September 8, 2011.
  16. ^ http://www.baausa.com/Content/ClevelandHopkinsInternationalAirport.aspx
  17. ^ http://www.clevelandairport.com/site/391/default.aspx
  18. ^ http://i.elias-savion.com/11/59/en-us/documents/baareleases/NewsRelease090611.pdf
  19. ^ http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Continental+Airlines+Unveils+State-of-the-Art+Aviation+Facility+in...-a054625182
  20. ^ http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Continental+Airlines+Unveils+State-of-the-Art+Aviation+Facility+in...-a054625182
  21. ^ http://www.transtats.bts.gov/airports.asp?pn=1&Airport=CLE&carrier=FACTS
  22. ^ http://www.crainscleveland.com/article/19980601/SUB/806010742
  23. ^ Power back on at Cleveland airport. CNN. 10 January 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2010
  24. ^ a b c http://www.crainscleveland.com/article/20030331/SUB/303310706
  25. ^ http://www.akroncantonairport.com/index.php
  26. ^ http://www.transtats.bts.gov/databases.asp
  27. ^ http://www.continental.com/web/en-US/content/Contact/reservations/cto/default.aspx
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  29. ^ http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/headline/biz/6326257.html
  30. ^ http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2009/06/regional_airline_pilots_descri.html
  31. ^ http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=85779&p=irol-newsArticle_Print&ID=1051678&highlight=
  32. ^ http://www.crainscleveland.com/article/20080612/FREE/321370822
  33. ^ http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2009/03/continental_airlines_says_it_w.html
  34. ^ http://www.transtats.bts.gov/databases.asp
  35. ^ "Continental Airlines Joins Star Alliance". The New York Times. July 11, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/11/business/11bizbriefs-CONTINENTALA_BRF.html?_r=1. Retrieved March 28, 2010. 
  36. ^ http://www.continental.com/web/en-us/content/news/uamerger.aspx?SID=8F27214874D34D41BA55AFC348357081
  37. ^ http://www.crainscleveland.com/article/20061213/BLOG01/61213002
  38. ^ http://www.continental.com/web/en-US/content/news/alliance.aspx
  39. ^ http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2008/06/continental_united_agree_to_li.html
  40. ^ "DOT plans to OK Continental joining Star alliance". USA Today. April 7, 2009. http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/2009-04-07-dot-continental-star-alliance_N.htm. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
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  42. ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-12-14/united-continental-ceo-smisek-sees-significant-progress-in-integration.html
  43. ^ online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111903374004576583022456381458.html
  44. ^ Esterl, Mike (May 3, 2010). "Airline Merger Would Bring Flyers Mixed Results". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703969204575220103718568846.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_LEFTWhatsNewsCollection. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  45. ^ http://www.crainscleveland.com/article/20101110/FREE/101119982/1096/rss01&rssfeed=rss01

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