- Gaulish language
extinct=After 6th century AD
Old Italic alphabet, Greek alphabet, Latin alphabet
Gaulish or Gallic is the name given to the
Celtic language that was spoken in Gaulbefore the Vulgar Latinof the late Roman Empirebecame dominant in Roman Gaul. According to Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars it was one of three languages in Gaul, the others being Aquitanian and Germanic. Gaulish is paraphyletically grouped with Celtiberian, Lepontic, and Galatian as Continental Celtic. The Lepontic language is sometimes considered to be a dialect of Gaulish. Gaulish is a P-Celticlanguage.
The Gaulish language is known from several hundred inscriptions on stone, on
ceramicvessels and other artifacts, and on coins, and occasionally on metal ( lead, and on one occasion zinc). They are found in the entire area of Roman Gaul, i.e., mostly in the area of the west of France, as well as parts of Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Belgium(Meid 1994).
The earliest Continental Celtic inscriptions, dating to as early as the 6th century BC, are in Lepontic (sometimes considered a dialect of Gaulish), found in
Gallia Cisalpinaand were written in a form of the Old Italic alphabet. Inscriptions in the Greek alphabetfrom the 3rd century BChave been found in the area near the mouths of the Rhône, while later inscriptions dating to Roman Gaulare mostly in the Latin alphabet. Gregory of Tourswrote in the 6th centuryAD that some people in his area could still speak Gaulish.
**short: a, e, i, o u
**long: ā, ē, ī, (ō), ū
**diphthongs: ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou
*semivowels: w, y
**voiceless: p, t, k
**voiced: b, d, g
**nasals: m, n
**liquids r, l
[χ] is an allophone of /k/ before /t/.
The diphthongs all transformed over the course of the historical period. "Ai" and "oi" collapsed into long "ī"; "eu" merged with "ou", both becoming long "ō". "Ei" became long "ē" early on. In general, long diphthongs became short diphthongs and then collapsed into long vowels.
Other transformations include the transformation of unstressed "i" into "e". "Ln" became "ll", a stop + "s" became "ss", and a nasal + velar became /ng/ + velar.
The occlusives also seem to have been both
lenis, as compared to Latin which distinguished voiced occlusives with a lenis realization from voiceless occlusives with a fortisrealization, hence confusions like "Glanum" for "Clanum", "vergobretos" for "vercobreto", "Britannia" for "Pritannia" [Paul Russell, "An Introduction to the Celtic Languages", (London: Longman, 1995), 206-7.] .
The alphabet of
Luganoused in Gallia Cisalpinafor Lepontic::AEIKLMNOPRSTΘUVXZ
The alphabet of Lugano does not distinguish voiced and unvoiced
occlusives, i.e. P represents /b/ or /p/, T is for /d/ or /t/, K for /g/ or /k/.Z is probably for /ts/. U /u/ and V /w/ are distinguished only in one early inscription. Θ is probably for /t/ and X for /g/ (Lejeune 1971, Solinas 1985).
Eastern Greek alphabetused in southern Gallia Transalpina::αβγδεζηθικλμνξοπρστυχω
χ is used for [χ] , θ for /ts/, ου for /u/, /ū/, /w/, η and ω for both long and short /e/, /ē/ and /o/, /ō/, while ι is for short /i/ and ει for /ī/. Note that the Sigma in the Eastern Greek alphabet looks like a C (lunate sigma). All Greek letters were used except
Latin alphabet (monumental and cursive) in use in
G and K are sometimes used interchangeably (especially after R). "Ð"/"ð", "ds" and "s" may represent /ts/. X, "x" is for [χ] or /ks/. Q is only used rarely (e.g. "Sequanni", "Equos") and may represent an archaism (a retained *kw) or a local Q-dialect. Ð and ð are used here to represent the letter "Tau Gallicum" (the Gaulish dental affricate), which has not yet been added to Unicode. In contrast to the
glyphfor Ð, the central bar extends right across the glyph and also does not protrude outside it.
*Gaulish changed PIE voiceless labiovelars "kw" to "p" (hence P-Celtic), a development also observed in Brythonic (as well as Greek and some
Italic languages), while the other Celtic, 'Q-Celtic', retained the labiovelar. Thus the Gaulish word for "son" was "mapos" (Delmarre 2003: 216-217), contrasting with Primitive Irish "*maqqos" (attested in the genitive, "maqqi"), which became "mac" (genitive "mic") in modern Irish. In modern Welsh the word "map" ("mab") (or its contracted form "ap"("ab")) is used to mean "son of". Similarly one Gaulish word for "horse" was "epos" (in Southern Gaulish "eqos") while Old Irish has "ech", Modern Gaelic (Irish adn Scottish) "each", Manx "egh"; all derived from Indo-European "*eqwos" (Delmarre 2003: 163-164)
*Voiced labiovelar "gw" became "w", e. g. "gwediūmi" > "uediiumi" "I pray" (cf. Old Irish "guidiu" "I pray", Welsh "gweddi" "to pray").
*PIE "tst" became /ts/, spelled "ð", e.g. "*nedz-tamo" > "neððamon" (cf. Old Irish "nessam" "nearest", Welsh "nesaf" "next", Irish "neasa" [now only used as a girl's name] ).
*PIE "eu" became "ou", and later "ō", e.g. "*teutā" > "touta" > "tōta" "tribe" (cf. Old Irish "tuath", Welsh "tud" "people").
*Additionally, intervocalic /st/ became the affricate [ts] (alveolar stop + voiceless alveolar stop) and intervocalic /sr/ became [ðr] and /str/ became [þr] . Finally, when a labial or velar stop came before either a /t/ or /s/ the two sounds merged into the fricative [x] .
There was some areal (or genetic, see
Italo-Celtic) similarity to Latin grammar, and the French historian A. Lot argued that this helped the rapid adoption of Latin in Roman Gaul.
Gaulish has six or seven cases (Lambert 2003 pp.51-67). In common with Latin it has nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, and dative; where Latin has an ablative, Gaulish has an instrumental and may also have a locative. There is more evidence for common cases (nominative and accusative) and for common stems (-o- and -a- stems) than there is for cases less frequently used in inscriptions, or rarer stems such as -i-, -n- and occlusive. The following table summarizes the case endings which are most securely known. A blank means that the form is unattested.
In some cases a historical evolution is known, for example the dative singular of -a- stems is -ai in the oldest inscriptions, becoming first -e and finally -i.
Ordinal numerals from the
La Graufesenque graffiti
#"cintus, cintuxos" (Welsh "cyntaf" "first", Breton "kent" "in front", Old Irish "céta", Modern Irish "céad" "first")
#"allos" (Welsh "ail", Breton "eil", OIr "aile" 'other', Modern Irish "eile")
#"tritios" (Welsh "trydydd", Breton "trede", OIr "treide", Modern Irish "treas")
#"petuarios" (Welsh "pedwerydd", Breton "pevare", OIr "cethramad", Modern Irish "ceathrú")
#"pinpetos" (Welsh "pumed", Breton "pempet", OIr "cóiced", Modern Irish "cúigiú")
#"suexos" (maybe mistaken for "suextos", Welsh "chweched", Breton "c'hwec'hved", OIr "seissed", Modern Irish "séú")
#"sextametos" (Welsh "seithfed", Breton "seizhved", OIr "sechtmad", Modern Irish "seachtú")
#"oxtumetos" (Welsh "wythfed", Breton "eizhved", OIr "ochtmad", Modern Irish "ochtú")
#"nametos" (Welsh "nawfed", Breton "naved", OIr "nómad", Modern Irish "naoú")
#"decametos", "decometos" (Welsh "degfed", Breton "degvet", OIr "dechmad", Modern Irish "deichniú", Celtiberian "dekametam")
The ancient Gaulish language was more similar to
Latinthan modern Gaelic languages are to modern Romance languages. The ordinal numerals in Latin are "prímus, secundus/alter, tertius, quártus, quíntus, sextus, septimus, octávus, nónus, decimus".
The majority of Gaulish sentences are SVO (subject-verb-object). However, other surface variations are attested: verb-initial, verb-medial, and verb-final. Verb-initial sentences can nonetheless be evaluated as pro-drop or imperative. Gaulish was certainly not a verb-second language, as evidenced by:
*ratin briuatiom | frontu tarbetisonios | ie(i)uru
*NP.Acc.Sg. | NP.Nom.Sg. | V.3rd Sg.
**"Frontus Tarbetisonios dedicated the board of the bridge."
Whenever a clitic pronominal object is present, it must be syntactically hosted (i.e., adjacent) to the verb, as per Vendryes' Restriction. Since Wackernagel's Law was strongly grammaticalized in Celtic, this had the effect of ensuring that the verb occupied clause-initial position. In such cases, the verb occupies absolute initial position in the clause or is preceded only by a null-position, semantically empty, sentential connective, the original purpose of which was to host the clitic phonologically.
*sioxt-i | albanos | panna(s) | extra tuð(on) | CCC
*V-Pro.Neut. | NP.Nom.Sg. | NP.Fem.Acc.Pl. | PP | Num.
**"Albanos added them, vessels beyond the allotment (in the amount of) 300."
*to-me-declai obalda natina
*Conn.-Pro.1st.Sg.Acc.-V.3rd.Sg. | NP.Nom.Sg. | Appositive
**Obalda, (their) dear daughter, set me up."
Vendryes' Restriction is believed to have played a large role in the development of Insular Celtic VSO word order.
Considering that Gaulish is not a verb-final language, it is not surprising to find other head-intitial features.
*Genitives follow their head nouns
***"The border of gods and men."
*The unmarked position for adjectives is after their head nouns
***"citizen of Nîmes"
*Prepositional phrases are headed by the preposition
**uatiounui so nemetos commu escengilu
***"To Vatiounos this shrine (was dedicated) by Commos Escengilos
Subordinate clauses follow their head and are characterized by the presence of an uninflected particle ("jo") which is attached to the initial verb of the subordinate clause.
*gobedbi | dugijonti-jo | ucuetin | in alisija
*NP.Dat/Inst.Pl. | V.3rd.Pl.- Pcl. | NP.Acc.Sg. | PP
**"to the smiths who serve Ucuetis in Alisia"
This particle is used in relative clauses and to construct the equivalent of THAT-clauses
*scrisu-mi-jo | uelor
*V.1st.Sg.-Pro.1st Sg.-Pcl. | V.1st Sg.
**"I wish that I spit"
This particle is found residually in the Insular Languages, thus:
**Middle Welsh "yssyd", modern "sydd" "which is" from *"esti-jo"
**vs. Welsh "yd" "is" from *"esti"
**Old Irish 3rd plural relative "cartae" "loves" from *"caront-jo"
Gaulish has a number of clitic pronominals, such as the object pronominals:
*Conn. - Pro.3rd Sg.Acc - PerfVZ - V.3rd Sg
**"he gave it"
Subject pronominals also exist: "mi, tu, id", which function like the emphasizing particles known as "notae augentes" in the Insular Celtic languages.
*V.1st.Sg. | Emph.-Pcl.1st Sg.Nom. | Pro.3rd Pl.Acc.
**"I prepare them"
*V.3rd Sg.Pres.Subjunc.-Emph.Pcl.3rd Sg.Nom.Neut.
**"it should be"
Clitic doubling is also found (along with left dislocation), where a neuter pronominal doubles an instrinsically inanimate but grammatically animate nominal, a construction which is also attested in Old Irish.
, Musée de Millau. The inscription on the left hand tablet starts: In-sinde se—: bnanom bricto n,—eainom anuana sanander na:—brictom uidlaias uidli [..] tigontias so. "Herein: a magical incantation of women, their special magical infernal names, the magical incantation of a seeress who fashions this prophecy". [harvnb|Koch|2005|p=1106] ] The Gaulish corpus is edited in the "Recueil des Inscriptions Gauloises" (R.I.G.), in four volumes:
*Vol. 1: Inscriptions in the
Greek alphabet, edited by Michel Lejeune (items G-1 –G-281)
*Vol. 2.1: Inscriptions in the
Etruscan alphabet( Lepontic, items E-1 – E-6), and inscriptions in the Latin alphabet in stone (items l. 1 – l. 16), edited by Michel Lejeune
*Vol. 2.2: inscriptions in the Latin alphabet on instruments (ceramic, lead, glass etc.), edited by Pierre-Yves Lambert (items l. 18 – l. 139)
*Vol. 3: The
calendars of Coligny(73 fragments) and Villards d'Heria(8 fragments), edited by Paul-Marie Duval and Georges Pinault
*Vol. 4: inscriptions on coins, edited by Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Beaulieu and Brigitte Fischer (338 items)
The longest known Gaulish text was found in
1983in L'Hospitalet-du-Larzac(coord|43|58|N|3|12|E|) in Aveyron. It is inscribed in Latin cursivescript on both sides of two small sheets of lead. Probably curse tablets ("defixio"), they contain magical incantations regarding one Severa Tertionicna and a group of women (often thought to be a rival group of witches), but the exact meaning of the text remains unclear. [citation|title=Le plomb magique du Larzac et les sorcières gauloises|last=Lejeune|first= Michel|last2= Fleuriot|first2= L.|last3=Lambert|first3= P. Y. |last4= Marichal|firat4= R.|last5=Vernhet|first5= A. |publisher= CNRS|year=1985|id= ISBN 2-222-03667-4] [ [http://www.arbre-celtique.com/encyclopedie/plomb-du-larzac-233.htm Inscriptions and French translations on the lead tablets from Larzac] ]
Coligny calendarwas found in Coligny near Lyon, Francewith a statue identified as Apollo. The "Coligny Calendar" is a lunisolar calendarthat divides the year into two parts with the months underneath. SAMON "summer" and GIAMON "winter". The date of SAMON- xvii is identified as TRINVX [tion] SAMO [nii] SINDIV.
Another major text is the lead tablet of
Chamalières(l. 100), written on lead in Latin cursive script, in twelve lines, apparently a curseor incantation addressed to the god " Maponos". It was deposited in a spring, much like defixiones often are.
The graffito of La Graufesenque,
Millau( [http://pedagogie.ac-toulouse.fr/culture/divers/lagraufesenque.htm] coord|44|05|36|N|3|05|33|E|), inscribed in Latin cursive on a ceramic plate, is our most important source for Gaulish numerals. It was probably written in a ceramic factory, referring to furnaces numbered 1 to 10.
A number of short inscriptions are found on spindle
whorls and are among the most recent finds in the Gaulish language. Spindle whorls were apparently given to young girls by their suitors and bear such inscriptions as:
*"moni gnatha gabi / buððutton imon" (l. 119) "my girl, take my kiss"
*"geneta imi / daga uimpi" (l. 120) '"I am a young girl, good (and) pretty".
Inscriptions found in
Switzerlandare rare, but a lot of modern placenames are derived from Gaulish names as they are in the rest of Gaul. There is a statue of a seated goddess with a bear, Artio, found in Muri near Berne, with a Latin inscription DEAE ARTIONI LIVINIA SABILLINA, suggesting a Gaulish "Artiyon-" "bear goddess". A number of coins with Gaulish inscriptions in the Greek alphabet have been found in Switzerland, e.g. RIG IV Nrs. 92 ( Lingones) and 267 ( Leuci). A sword dating to the La Tène period was found in Port near Bienne, its blade inscribed with KORICIOC (Korisos), probably the name of the smith. The most notable inscription found in Helvetic parts is the " Berne Zinc tablet", inscribed ΔΟΒΝΟΡΗΔΟ ΓΟΒΑΝΟ ΒΡΕΝΟΔΩΡ ΝΑΝΤΑΡΩΡ, and apparently dedicated to Gobannus, the Celtic god of smithcraft. Caesar relates that census accounts written in the Greek alphabet were found among the Helvetii.
*citation|first=Martin |last= Ball|first2= James|last2= Fife|publisher=Routledge|year= 1993
title=The Celtic Languages|id=ISBN 0415010357|pages=26-63
*Delamarre, Xavier. "Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise", 2nd ed. Paris: Editions Errance, 2003.
*Eska, Joseph F. and D. Ellis Evans. "Continental Celtic".
*citation|title=Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia|first=John T.|last= Koch|publisher= ABC-CLIO|year=2005|id=ISBN 1851094407. Also available as an
e-book, ISBN 1-85109-445-8.
*Lambert, Pierre-Yves. "La langue gauloise", 2nd ed. Paris: Editions Errance, 2003.
*Lejeune, Michel. "Lepontica" (Monographies linguistiques, 1). Paris: Société d’edition “les Belles Lettres”, 1971.
*Meid, Wolfgang. "Gaulish Inscriptions". Budapest: Archaeolingua, 1994.
*"Recueil des inscriptions gauloises" (XLVe supplément à «GALLIA»). ed. Paul-Marie Duval et al. 4 vols. Paris: CNRS, 1985-2002. ISBN 2-271-05844-9
*Russell, Paul. "An Introduction to the Celtic Languages". London: Longman, 1995.
*Savignac, Jean-Paul. "Dictionnaire français-gaulois". Paris: Éditions de la Différence, 2004.
*Savignac, Jean-Paul. "Les Gaulois, leurs écrits retrouvés : « Merde à César »". Paris: Éditions de la Différence, 1994.
*Solinas, Patrizia (1995). ‘Il celtico in Italia’. "Studi Etruschi" 60:311-408
*Woodward, Roger G., ed. "Celtic Languages". "Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Languages of France
* [http://www.orbilat.com/Encyclopaedia/G/Gaulish_language.html L.A. Curchin, "Gaulish language"]
* [http://indoeuro.bizland.com/tree/celt/gaulish.html Gaulish language on TIED]
* [http://technovate.org/web/coligny.htm The Coligny Calendar]
* [http://www.tartanplace.com/hcustom/allsaints.html All Saints Day: Coligny Calendar]
* [http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/didact/idg/kelt/gallbs.htm two sample inscriptions on TITUS]
* [http://www.musee-antiquitesnationales.fr/documents/FPlangues.pdf Langues et écriture en Gaule Romaine] by Hélène Chew of the Musée des Antiquités Nationales (in French)
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