Old Three Hundred

The Old Three Hundred is a term used to describe the 297 grantees, made up of families and some partnerships of unmarried men, who purchased 307 parcels of land from Stephen Fuller Austin and established a colony near present day Brenham in Washington County, Texas .[dubious ]Moses Austin was the original emprisario of the Old Three Hundred

Science: In 1790, Moses Austin , an American businessman who had taken Spanish citizenship in order to start a small colony in Missouri, travelled to San Antonio de Bexar to request an empresarial grant in Spanish Texas. The governor, Antonio María Martínez, refused to listen to Austin's proposal and ordered him to leave the territory immediately. While departing, Austin encountered an acquaintance he had met years earlier at an inn in Spanish Missouri, Felipe Enrique Neri, Baron de Bastrop. Bastrop listened to Austin's plan, and, using his influence, persuaded the governor to approve the request.[1] Austin's plan was approved, and in January 1821 he left for Missouri with a grant to bring 300 colonists into Texas. On his way home he was attacked by highwaymen and badly beaten. Soon after he made his way back to Missouri, Austin died, leaving his empresarial grant to his son, Stephen Fuller Austin.[2]

Stephen Austin agreed to implement his father's plan, and in the summer of 1821 he and a small group of settlers crossed into Texas. Before he arrived in San Antonio to meet with the governor, they learned that Mexico had earned its independence from Spain, making Texas a Mexican province rather than a Spanish province. Governor Martinez assured him, however, that the new Mexican government would honor the colonization contract.[3]

Moses returned to Louisiana to recruit settlers. He offered land at 12.5 cents per acre, only 10% of what comparable acreage sold for in the United States. Settlers would pay no customs duties for seven years and would not be subject to taxation for ten years. In return, they would be expected to become Mexican citizens.[4]

In March 1822, Austin learned that the new Mexican government had not ratified his father's land grant with Spain. He was forced to travel to Mexico City, 1,200 miles (1,931 km) away, to get permission for his colony.[5]

The 1823 Imperial Colonization Law of Mexico allowed an empresario to receive a land grant within the Mexican province of Texas. The empresario and a commissioner appointed by the governor would be authorized the distribute land to settlers and issue them titles in the name of the Mexican government. Only one contract was ultimately approved under this legislation, the first contract granted to Stephen F. Austin.[6]

Between 1824 and 1828, Austin granted 297 titles under this contract. Each head of household received a minimum of 177 acres[7] or 4,428 acres[8] depending on whether they intended to farm or raise livestock. The grant could be increased for large families or those wishing to establish a new industry, but the lands would be forfeited if they were not cultivated within two years.[6]

The settlers who received their titles under Austin's first contract were known as the Old Three Hundred, and they made up the first organized, approved influx of Anglo-American immigrants to Texas. The new titles were located in an area where no Spanish or Mexican settlements had existed, covering the land between the Brazos River and the Colorado River from the Gulf Coast to the San Antonio Road.[9]


When he began advertising his colony, he received a great deal of interest. He was able to be selective in his choice of colonists, which enabled his colony to be very different from most others of the time period. Settlers were chosen based on whether Austin believed they would be appropriately industrious. Overall, they belonged to a much higher economic scale than most immigrants, and all brought some property with them. One-quarter of the families brought slaves with them. Surprisingly for the time, all but four of the men could read and write. This unheard-of level of literacy had a great impact on the future of the colony. According to historian William C. Davis, because they were literate, the colonists "absorbed and spread the knowledge and news always essential to uniting people to a common purpose".[10]

Despite a provision in Mexican law requiring immigrants to be Catholic, most of Austin's settlers were Protestant. Many were unenthused about being ruled by Catholics. Most also held strong feelings about property ownership and personal liberty.

Lester G. Bugbee in his article The Old Three Hundred published in the October 1897 issue of The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, identifies the head of each family who purchased land in Austin's colony.[11] They were:

Head of household Born Died Family as of March 1826 Notes
Elijah Allcorn 1769 1844 Wife, five children, and two servants. [12]
Martin Allen 1780 1837 Wife, nine children [13]
John C. Alley 1822 Brother of Thomas, Rawson, and William Alley. [14]
Rawson Alley 1793 1833 Single Brother of John, Thomas, and William Alley [15]
Thomas Alley 1826 Single Brother of John, Rawson, and William Alley [16]
William Alley 1800 August 15, 1869 Single Brother of John, Rawson, and Thomas Alley [17]
Charles Alsbury Single Brother of Harvey and Horace Alsbury [18]
Harvey Alsbury Wife Brother of Charles and Horace Alsbury [19]
Horace Alsbury 1805 June 1847 Single; later married Juana Navarro Brother of Charles and Harvey Alsbury. Member of the Coahuila y Tejas legislature in 1835. Left the Alamo Mission as a courier during the Siege of the Alamo in February 1836. Fought at the Battle of San Jacinto. [20]
Thomas Alsbury 1773 Wife and two daughters Father of Charles, Harvey, and Horace Alsbury. Served in the War of 1812. [21]
Simeon Asa Anderson Wife, three children, one slave [22]
John Andrews February 1838 Wife, two children, one servant [23]
William Andrews 1840 Wife, five children, two slaves Daughter married Randal Jones in 1824. [24]
Samuel Angier August 26, 1792 In 1829, married fellow colonist Pamelia Pickett [25]
James E.B. Austin October 3, 1803 August 14, 1829 Helped put down the Fredonian Rebellion. Brother of Stephen F. Austin. [26]
John Austin March 17, 1801 August 11, 1833 Member of the Long Expedition in 1819. Served as alcalde of Brazoria in 1832, and was a delegate to the Convention of 1832. Participated in 1832 Anahuac Disturbances, led Texian forces at the Battle of Velasco, and signed the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. [27]
Stephen F. Austin November 3, 1793 December 27, 1836 Brother of James Austin. Convinced Mexico to reinstate the Spanish policy of land grants for empresarios, and organized the first colony in Texas. President of the Convention of 1832 and delegate to the Convention of 1833. In 1835, served as the first general of the Texian Army. In November 1835, became Texas commissioner to the United States. Defeated in election for first president of the Republic of Texas, and instead served as the first secretary of state. [28]
James B. Baily
Daniel E. Balis
William Baratt
Thomas Barnet
Mills M. Battle
James Beard
Benjamin Beason
Charles Belknap poop
Josiah H. Bell
Thomas B. Bell
M. Berry
Isaac Best
Jacob Betts
Francis Biggam
William Bloodgood
Thomas Boatwright
Thomas Borden
Caleb R. Bostwick
John T. Bowman
Edward R. Bradley
John Bradley
Thomas Bradley
Charles Breen
Patrick Brias
William B. Bridges
David Bright
Enoch Brinson
Bluford Brooks
Robert Brotherington
George Brown
John Brown
William S. Brown
Aylett C. Buckner
Pumphrey Brunet
Jesse Burnam
Micajah Byrd
Morris A. Callihan
Alexander Calvit
David Carpenter
William C. Carson
Samuel Carter
Jesse H. Cartwright
Thomas Cartwright
Sylvenus Castleman
Samuel Chance
Horatio Chriesman
John C. Clark
Antony R. Clarke
Merit M. Coats
John P. Coles
James Cook
John Cooke
William Cooper
John Crier
John Crownover
James Cummings
John Cummings
Rebecca Cummins
William Cummings
James (Jack) Cummins
James Curtis, Sr.
James Curtis, Jr.
Hinton Curtis
Samuel Davidson
Thomas Davis
D. Deckrow
Charles Demos
Peter Demos
William B. Dewees
John Dickinson
Nicholas Dillard
Thomas M. Duke
George Duty
Joseph Duty
Clement C. Dyer
Thomas Earle
G.E. Edwards
John Elam
Robert Elder
Charles Falenash
David Fenton
John F. Fields
James Fisher
David Fitzgerald
Isaiah Flanakin
Elisha Flowers
Isaac Foster
John Foster
Randolph Foster
James Frazier
Charles Fulshear
Charles Garret
Samuel Gates
William Gates
Freeman George
Preston Gilbert
Sarah Gilbert
Daniel Gilleland
Chester S. Gorbet
Michael Gouldrich
Thomas Gray
Jared E. Groce
Robert Guthrie
John Haddan
Samuel C. Hady
George B. Hall
John W. Hall
W. J. Hall
David Hamilton
Abner Harris
David Harris
John R. Harris
William Harris
William J. Harris
George Harrison
William Harvey
Thomas S. Haynes
James Hensley
Alexander Hodge
Francis Holland
William Holland
Kinchen Holliman
James Hope
C.S. Hudson
George Huff
John Huff
Isaac Hughes
Eli Hunter
Johnson Hunter
John Iiams [sic]
Ira Ingram
Seth Ingram
John Irons
Samuel Isaacks
Alexander Jackson
Humphrey Jackson
Isaac Jackson
Thomas Jamison
Henry W. Johnson
Henry Jones
James W. Jones
Oliver Jones
R. Jones
Imla Keep
John C. Keller
John Kelly
Samuel Kennedy
Alfred Kennon
James Kerr
Peter Kerr
William Kerr
William Kincheloe
William Kingston
James Knight
Abner Kuykendall
Brazilla Kuykendall
Joseph Kuykendall
Robert Kuykendall
Hosea H. League
Joel Leakey
Benjamin Linsey
John Little
William Little
Jane H. Long
James Lynch
Nathanael Lynch
John McCroskey
Arthur McCormick
David McCormick
John McCormick
Thomas McCoy
Aechilles McFarlan
John McFarlan
Thomas F. McKenney
Hugh McKinsey
A.W. McClain
James McNair
Daniel McNeel
George W. McNeel
John McNeel
John G. McNeel
Pleasant D. McNeel
Sterling McNeel
Elizabeth McNutt
William McWilliams
Shubael Marsh
Wily Martin
William Mathis
David H. Milburn
Samuel Miller
Samuel R. Miller
Simon Miller
James D. Millican
Robert Millican
William Millican
Joseph Minus
Asa Mitchell
John L. Monks
John H. Moore
Luke Moore
Moses Morrison
William Morton
David Mouser
James Nelson
Joseph Newman
Charles Isaac Nidever
M.B. Nuckols
James Orrick
Nathan Osborn
William Parks
Joshua Parker
William Parker
Isaac Pennington
George S. Pentecost
Freeman Pettus
William A. Pettus
John Petty
J.C. Peyton
James A.E. Phelps
I.B. Phillips
Zeno Phillips
Pamelia Picket
Joseph H. Polley
Peter Powell
William Prater
Pleasant Pruitt
William Pryor
Andrew Rabb
John Rabb
Thomas J. Rabb
William Rabb
William Raleigh
L. Ramey
David Randon
John Randon
Frederic H. Rankin
Amos Rawls
Benjamin Rawls
Daniel Rawls
Stephen Richardson
Elijah Roark
Earle Robbins
William Robbins
Andrew Roberts
Noel F. Roberts
William Roberts
Edward Robertson
A. Robinson
George Robinson
James Ross
June Salmeron
Joseph San Pierre
Robert Scobey
Marvin Scheick
James Scott
William Scott
William Selkirk
David Shelby
Daniel Shipman
Moses Shipman
Bartlet Sims
G.W. Singleton
Phillip Singleton
Christian Smith
Cornelius Smith
John Smith
William Smeathers
Gabriel S. Snider
Albert L. Sojourner
Nancy Spencer
Adam Stafford
William Stafford
Thomas Stevens
Owne H. Stout
John Strange
Walter Sutherland
David Tally
John I. Taylor
George Teel
Ezekiel Thomas
Jacob Thomas
Jesse Thompson
Thomas J. Tone
James F. Tong
Samuel Toy
John Trobough
Elizabeth Tumlinson
James Tumlinson
Isaac Vandorn
Martin Varner
Allen Vince
Richard Vince
Robert Vince
William Vince
James Walker
Thomas Walker
Caleb Wallice
Francis F. Wells
Amy White
Joseph White
Reuben White
Walter C. White
William C. White
Boland Whitesides
Henry Whitesides
James Whitesides
William Whitesides
Nathaniel Whiting
William Whitlock
Elias D. Wightman
Jane Wilkins
George I. Williams
Henry Williams
John Williams
John R. Williams
Robert H. Williams
Samuel M. Williams
Solomon Williams
Thomas Williams
Zadock Woods

References

  1. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 58.
  2. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 59.
  3. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 60.
  4. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 61.
  5. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 63.
  6. ^ a b Greaser (1999), p. xviii.
  7. ^ Cantrell (2000), p. 419.
  8. ^ Hatch (1999), p. 136.
  9. ^ Greaser (1999), p. ix.
  10. ^ Davis (2006), p. 60.
  11. ^ Bugbee, Lester G..org/publicatshq/online/v001/n2/article_7.html THE OLD THREE HUNDRED. A LIST OF SETTLERS IN AUSTIN'S FIRST COLONY ], Volume 001, Number 2, Southwestern Historical Quarterly Online, Page 108–117. Accessed 2008-04-14.
  12. ^ "Allcorn, Elijah", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal16.html 
  13. ^ "Allen, Martin", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal23.html 
  14. ^ "Alley, John C.", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal33.html 
  15. ^ "Alley, Rawson", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal34.html 
  16. ^ "Alley, Thomas V.", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal36.html 
  17. ^ "Alley, William A.", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal37.html 
  18. ^ "Alsbury, Charles Grundison", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal46.html 
  19. ^ "Alsbury, James Harvey", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal47.html 
  20. ^ "Alsbury, Horace Arlington", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal48.html 
  21. ^ "Alsbury, Thomas", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal50.html 
  22. ^ "Anderson, Simeon Asa", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fan11.html 
  23. ^ "Andrews, John", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fan21.html 
  24. ^ "Andrews, William", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fan26.html 
  25. ^ "Angier, Samuel Tubbs", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fan28.html 
  26. ^ "Austin, James Elijah Brown", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fau8.html 
  27. ^ "Austin, John", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fau9.html 
  28. ^ "Austin, Stephen Fuller", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fau14.html 
  • Cantrell, Gregg (2001), Stephen F. Austin, empresario of Texas, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 9780300090932 
  • Davis, William C. (2006), Lone Star Rising, College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 9781585445325  originally published 2004 by New York: Free Press
  • Edmondson, J.R. (2000), The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts, Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 1-55622-678-0 
  • Greaser, Galen (1999), "Foreword", Austin's Old Three Hundred: The First Anglo Colony in Texas, Austin, TX: Eakin Press, ISBN 1571682910 
  • Hatch, Thom (1999), Encyclopedia of the Alamo and the Texas revolution, Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, ISBN 9780786405930 

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