Old Three Hundred
The Old Three Hundred is a term used to describe the 297 grantees, made up of families and some partnerships of unmarried men, who purchased 307 parcels of land from Stephen Fuller Austin and established a colony near present day Brenham in Washington County, Texas .[dubious ]Moses Austin was the original emprisario of the Old Three Hundred
Science: In 1790, Moses Austin , an American businessman who had taken Spanish citizenship in order to start a small colony in Missouri, travelled to San Antonio de Bexar to request an empresarial grant in Spanish Texas. The governor, Antonio María Martínez, refused to listen to Austin's proposal and ordered him to leave the territory immediately. While departing, Austin encountered an acquaintance he had met years earlier at an inn in Spanish Missouri, Felipe Enrique Neri, Baron de Bastrop. Bastrop listened to Austin's plan, and, using his influence, persuaded the governor to approve the request. Austin's plan was approved, and in January 1821 he left for Missouri with a grant to bring 300 colonists into Texas. On his way home he was attacked by highwaymen and badly beaten. Soon after he made his way back to Missouri, Austin died, leaving his empresarial grant to his son, Stephen Fuller Austin.
Stephen Austin agreed to implement his father's plan, and in the summer of 1821 he and a small group of settlers crossed into Texas. Before he arrived in San Antonio to meet with the governor, they learned that Mexico had earned its independence from Spain, making Texas a Mexican province rather than a Spanish province. Governor Martinez assured him, however, that the new Mexican government would honor the colonization contract.
Moses returned to Louisiana to recruit settlers. He offered land at 12.5 cents per acre, only 10% of what comparable acreage sold for in the United States. Settlers would pay no customs duties for seven years and would not be subject to taxation for ten years. In return, they would be expected to become Mexican citizens.
In March 1822, Austin learned that the new Mexican government had not ratified his father's land grant with Spain. He was forced to travel to Mexico City, 1,200 miles (1,931 km) away, to get permission for his colony.
The 1823 Imperial Colonization Law of Mexico allowed an empresario to receive a land grant within the Mexican province of Texas. The empresario and a commissioner appointed by the governor would be authorized the distribute land to settlers and issue them titles in the name of the Mexican government. Only one contract was ultimately approved under this legislation, the first contract granted to Stephen F. Austin.
Between 1824 and 1828, Austin granted 297 titles under this contract. Each head of household received a minimum of 177 acres or 4,428 acres depending on whether they intended to farm or raise livestock. The grant could be increased for large families or those wishing to establish a new industry, but the lands would be forfeited if they were not cultivated within two years.
The settlers who received their titles under Austin's first contract were known as the Old Three Hundred, and they made up the first organized, approved influx of Anglo-American immigrants to Texas. The new titles were located in an area where no Spanish or Mexican settlements had existed, covering the land between the Brazos River and the Colorado River from the Gulf Coast to the San Antonio Road.
When he began advertising his colony, he received a great deal of interest. He was able to be selective in his choice of colonists, which enabled his colony to be very different from most others of the time period. Settlers were chosen based on whether Austin believed they would be appropriately industrious. Overall, they belonged to a much higher economic scale than most immigrants, and all brought some property with them. One-quarter of the families brought slaves with them. Surprisingly for the time, all but four of the men could read and write. This unheard-of level of literacy had a great impact on the future of the colony. According to historian William C. Davis, because they were literate, the colonists "absorbed and spread the knowledge and news always essential to uniting people to a common purpose".
Despite a provision in Mexican law requiring immigrants to be Catholic, most of Austin's settlers were Protestant. Many were unenthused about being ruled by Catholics. Most also held strong feelings about property ownership and personal liberty.
Lester G. Bugbee in his article The Old Three Hundred published in the October 1897 issue of The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, identifies the head of each family who purchased land in Austin's colony. They were:
Head of household Born Died Family as of March 1826 Notes Elijah Allcorn 1769 1844 Wife, five children, and two servants.  Martin Allen 1780 1837 Wife, nine children  John C. Alley 1822 Brother of Thomas, Rawson, and William Alley.  Rawson Alley 1793 1833 Single Brother of John, Thomas, and William Alley  Thomas Alley 1826 Single Brother of John, Rawson, and William Alley  William Alley 1800 August 15, 1869 Single Brother of John, Rawson, and Thomas Alley  Charles Alsbury Single Brother of Harvey and Horace Alsbury  Harvey Alsbury Wife Brother of Charles and Horace Alsbury  Horace Alsbury 1805 June 1847 Single; later married Juana Navarro Brother of Charles and Harvey Alsbury. Member of the Coahuila y Tejas legislature in 1835. Left the Alamo Mission as a courier during the Siege of the Alamo in February 1836. Fought at the Battle of San Jacinto.  Thomas Alsbury 1773 Wife and two daughters Father of Charles, Harvey, and Horace Alsbury. Served in the War of 1812.  Simeon Asa Anderson Wife, three children, one slave  John Andrews February 1838 Wife, two children, one servant  William Andrews 1840 Wife, five children, two slaves Daughter married Randal Jones in 1824.  Samuel Angier August 26, 1792 In 1829, married fellow colonist Pamelia Pickett  James E.B. Austin October 3, 1803 August 14, 1829 Helped put down the Fredonian Rebellion. Brother of Stephen F. Austin.  John Austin March 17, 1801 August 11, 1833 Member of the Long Expedition in 1819. Served as alcalde of Brazoria in 1832, and was a delegate to the Convention of 1832. Participated in 1832 Anahuac Disturbances, led Texian forces at the Battle of Velasco, and signed the Turtle Bayou Resolutions.  Stephen F. Austin November 3, 1793 December 27, 1836 Brother of James Austin. Convinced Mexico to reinstate the Spanish policy of land grants for empresarios, and organized the first colony in Texas. President of the Convention of 1832 and delegate to the Convention of 1833. In 1835, served as the first general of the Texian Army. In November 1835, became Texas commissioner to the United States. Defeated in election for first president of the Republic of Texas, and instead served as the first secretary of state.  James B. Baily Daniel E. Balis William Baratt Thomas Barnet Mills M. Battle James Beard Benjamin Beason Charles Belknap poop Josiah H. Bell Thomas B. Bell M. Berry Isaac Best Jacob Betts Francis Biggam William Bloodgood Thomas Boatwright Thomas Borden Caleb R. Bostwick John T. Bowman Edward R. Bradley John Bradley Thomas Bradley Charles Breen Patrick Brias William B. Bridges David Bright Enoch Brinson Bluford Brooks Robert Brotherington George Brown John Brown William S. Brown Aylett C. Buckner Pumphrey Brunet Jesse Burnam Micajah Byrd Morris A. Callihan Alexander Calvit David Carpenter William C. Carson Samuel Carter Jesse H. Cartwright Thomas Cartwright Sylvenus Castleman Samuel Chance Horatio Chriesman John C. Clark Antony R. Clarke Merit M. Coats John P. Coles James Cook John Cooke William Cooper John Crier John Crownover James Cummings John Cummings Rebecca Cummins William Cummings James (Jack) Cummins James Curtis, Sr. James Curtis, Jr. Hinton Curtis Samuel Davidson Thomas Davis D. Deckrow Charles Demos Peter Demos William B. Dewees John Dickinson Nicholas Dillard Thomas M. Duke George Duty Joseph Duty Clement C. Dyer Thomas Earle G.E. Edwards John Elam Robert Elder Charles Falenash David Fenton John F. Fields James Fisher David Fitzgerald Isaiah Flanakin Elisha Flowers Isaac Foster John Foster Randolph Foster James Frazier Charles Fulshear Charles Garret Samuel Gates William Gates Freeman George Preston Gilbert Sarah Gilbert Daniel Gilleland Chester S. Gorbet Michael Gouldrich Thomas Gray Jared E. Groce Robert Guthrie John Haddan Samuel C. Hady George B. Hall John W. Hall W. J. Hall David Hamilton Abner Harris David Harris John R. Harris William Harris William J. Harris George Harrison William Harvey Thomas S. Haynes James Hensley Alexander Hodge Francis Holland William Holland Kinchen Holliman James Hope C.S. Hudson George Huff John Huff Isaac Hughes Eli Hunter Johnson Hunter John Iiams [sic] Ira Ingram Seth Ingram John Irons Samuel Isaacks Alexander Jackson Humphrey Jackson Isaac Jackson Thomas Jamison Henry W. Johnson Henry Jones James W. Jones Oliver Jones R. Jones Imla Keep John C. Keller John Kelly Samuel Kennedy Alfred Kennon James Kerr Peter Kerr William Kerr William Kincheloe William Kingston James Knight Abner Kuykendall Brazilla Kuykendall Joseph Kuykendall Robert Kuykendall Hosea H. League Joel Leakey Benjamin Linsey John Little William Little Jane H. Long James Lynch Nathanael Lynch John McCroskey Arthur McCormick David McCormick John McCormick Thomas McCoy Aechilles McFarlan John McFarlan Thomas F. McKenney Hugh McKinsey A.W. McClain James McNair Daniel McNeel George W. McNeel John McNeel John G. McNeel Pleasant D. McNeel Sterling McNeel Elizabeth McNutt William McWilliams Shubael Marsh Wily Martin William Mathis David H. Milburn Samuel Miller Samuel R. Miller Simon Miller James D. Millican Robert Millican William Millican Joseph Minus Asa Mitchell John L. Monks John H. Moore Luke Moore Moses Morrison William Morton David Mouser James Nelson Joseph Newman Charles Isaac Nidever M.B. Nuckols James Orrick Nathan Osborn William Parks Joshua Parker William Parker Isaac Pennington George S. Pentecost Freeman Pettus William A. Pettus John Petty J.C. Peyton James A.E. Phelps I.B. Phillips Zeno Phillips Pamelia Picket Joseph H. Polley Peter Powell William Prater Pleasant Pruitt William Pryor Andrew Rabb John Rabb Thomas J. Rabb William Rabb William Raleigh L. Ramey David Randon John Randon Frederic H. Rankin Amos Rawls Benjamin Rawls Daniel Rawls Stephen Richardson Elijah Roark Earle Robbins William Robbins Andrew Roberts Noel F. Roberts William Roberts Edward Robertson A. Robinson George Robinson James Ross June Salmeron Joseph San Pierre Robert Scobey Marvin Scheick James Scott William Scott William Selkirk David Shelby Daniel Shipman Moses Shipman Bartlet Sims G.W. Singleton Phillip Singleton Christian Smith Cornelius Smith John Smith William Smeathers Gabriel S. Snider Albert L. Sojourner Nancy Spencer Adam Stafford William Stafford Thomas Stevens Owne H. Stout John Strange Walter Sutherland David Tally John I. Taylor George Teel Ezekiel Thomas Jacob Thomas Jesse Thompson Thomas J. Tone James F. Tong Samuel Toy John Trobough Elizabeth Tumlinson James Tumlinson Isaac Vandorn Martin Varner Allen Vince Richard Vince Robert Vince William Vince James Walker Thomas Walker Caleb Wallice Francis F. Wells Amy White Joseph White Reuben White Walter C. White William C. White Boland Whitesides Henry Whitesides James Whitesides William Whitesides Nathaniel Whiting William Whitlock Elias D. Wightman Jane Wilkins George I. Williams Henry Williams John Williams John R. Williams Robert H. Williams Samuel M. Williams Solomon Williams Thomas Williams Zadock Woods
- ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 58.
- ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 59.
- ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 60.
- ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 61.
- ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 63.
- ^ a b Greaser (1999), p. xviii.
- ^ Cantrell (2000), p. 419.
- ^ Hatch (1999), p. 136.
- ^ Greaser (1999), p. ix.
- ^ Davis (2006), p. 60.
- ^ Bugbee, Lester G..org/publicatshq/online/v001/n2/article_7.html THE OLD THREE HUNDRED. A LIST OF SETTLERS IN AUSTIN'S FIRST COLONY ], Volume 001, Number 2, Southwestern Historical Quarterly Online, Page 108–117. Accessed 2008-04-14.
- ^ "Allcorn, Elijah", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal16.html
- ^ "Allen, Martin", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal23.html
- ^ "Alley, John C.", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal33.html
- ^ "Alley, Rawson", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal34.html
- ^ "Alley, Thomas V.", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal36.html
- ^ "Alley, William A.", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal37.html
- ^ "Alsbury, Charles Grundison", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal46.html
- ^ "Alsbury, James Harvey", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal47.html
- ^ "Alsbury, Horace Arlington", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal48.html
- ^ "Alsbury, Thomas", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fal50.html
- ^ "Anderson, Simeon Asa", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fan11.html
- ^ "Andrews, John", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fan21.html
- ^ "Andrews, William", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fan26.html
- ^ "Angier, Samuel Tubbs", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fan28.html
- ^ "Austin, James Elijah Brown", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fau8.html
- ^ "Austin, John", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fau9.html
- ^ "Austin, Stephen Fuller", Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/fau14.html
- Cantrell, Gregg (2001), Stephen F. Austin, empresario of Texas, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 9780300090932
- Davis, William C. (2006), Lone Star Rising, College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 9781585445325 originally published 2004 by New York: Free Press
- Edmondson, J.R. (2000), The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts, Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 1-55622-678-0
- Greaser, Galen (1999), "Foreword", Austin's Old Three Hundred: The First Anglo Colony in Texas, Austin, TX: Eakin Press, ISBN 1571682910
- Hatch, Thom (1999), Encyclopedia of the Alamo and the Texas revolution, Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, ISBN 9780786405930
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