History of Oradea
* 10th century founded
Várad(" vár" = castle, "-ad" = diminutive suffix (cf.Heren"d", Kermen"d", Kövös"d", Fertő"d", Város"d", Jobbá"gy", Hortobá"gy""))
Várad Bishopricwas founded by King Ladislaus I of Hungary.
* 12th century the second
culturaland religious center of the kingdom.
* After the canonization of Ladislaus, his gravestone became the place of many ordeals.
* 1208-1235 REGESTRUM VARADIENSIS is the oldest documents concerning
* The city flourished during the 13th century.
Mongol- Tatarattack against the city. The city's destruction was described by Rogerius in his work entitled " Carmen Miserabile" ("Sad Song").
* 5 kings were buried here, during the centuries:
St. Ladislaus, Stephen II of Hungary, Andreas II, Mary of Hungary, Sigismundof Luxembourg
* XIV century one of the most prosperous period in the city's life. Statues of St. Stephen, Emeric and Ladislaus (before 1372) and the
equestrian sculptureof St. Ladislaus (1390) erected in Oradea. St. Ladislaus' fabled statue was the first proto-renaissance public square equestrian in Europe. (The statues were torn down and melted by the Turks in 1660) The Kolozsvári brothersonly work which has survived the centuries is the Statue of St. George in Prague. Bishop Andreas Báthori (1329-1345) rebuilt the cathedral in Gothic style. From that epochdates also the Hermes, now preserved at Györ, which contains the skull of King Ladislaus, and which is a masterpiece of the Hungarian goldsmith's art.
* Sigismund King of Hungary and
Holy Roman Emperorintercede with the Pope on behalf of letting Oradea Cathedral having patronal festival rights. Same as only two Basilicahad at that time in Europe: St Mark's Basilicafrom Venice and Santa Maria Portiuncula from Assisi
1412, Wladislaus II of Polandcame to the gravestone of St. Ladislausbarefooted.
* 1437 Sigismund died and was buried in Oradea Cathedral.
* 1445 Bishop
John Vitéz of Zrednatook up the duties of bishop. He was one of the most distinguished and active promoters of Humanism in Hungary.
* 1474 The city was devastated by the Turks
* Matthias Corvinus met the Sultan's, the Emperor's and the Pope's ministers in Oradea Castle.
* The peasant uprising from 1514 led by
György Dózsahave sacked and burned up the city
Bishop of OradeaFrancis Perenyi was killed in the Battle of Mohács
* Friar George Utyesenich took up the duties of bishop.
* 1538 in 1538, Zápolyai’s ablest adviser, the
Croat Franciscan, Friar George, mediated the secret agreement of Oradea, under which each claimant (Ferdinand of Habsburg and John I of Hungary) recognised the other's title and the territorial status quo.
populationof Nagyvárad numbered around 15-20,000
* 1541 fall of
Buda, refugees arrived to Oradea.
* 1557 Queen Isabella's captain Tamas Varkoch captured the fortress. The bishopric's estates were confiscated and the members of Oradea's chapter scattered all over the country.
* 1565 Saint Ladislaus' grave was ruined.
* 1570-1596 a new fortess was built in late Italian Renaissance style
* 1598-1606 Oradea seceded Transylvania
1598, the fortress was besiged and, on August 27, 1660, Oradea fell to the Turks.
chevra kadisha" was founded in 1735, the first synagoguein 1803, and the first communal schoolin 1839. Not until the beginning of the 19th centurywere Jews permitted to do business in any other part of the city, and even then they were required to withdraw at nightfall to their own quarter. In 1835permission to live at will in any part of the city was granted them.
The Jewish community of Oradea became divided into Orthodox and Reform . While the members of the Reform congregation still retained their membership in the "chevra kadisha", they started to use a
cemeteryof their own in 1899. In the early 20th century, the Jews of Oradea had won prominence in the public life of the city; there were Jewish manufacturers, merchants, lawyers, physicians, and farmers; the chief of police (1902) was a Jew; and in the municipal council, the Jewish element was proportionately represented. The community possessed, in addition to the hospital and "chevra kadisha" already mentioned, a Jewish women's association, a grammar school, an industrial schoolfor boys and girls, a yeshiva, a soup kitchen, etc.
The following are among those who have held the rabbinate of Oradea:
David Joseph Wahrmann(Orthodox);
Alexander Rosenberg(Reform: removed to Arad);
Alexander Kohut(Reform: removed to New York, 1885; died, 1894);
According to the "Center for Jewish Art":
The Oradea Jewish community was once the most active both comercially and culturally in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1944, twenty-five thousand Oradean Jews were deported to concentration camps, thus decimating this vital community. Three hundred Jews reside in Oradea today. In the center of the city, towering over other buildings in the area, is the large Neolog Temple Synagogue built in 1878. The unusual cube-shaped synagogue with its large cupola is one of the largest in Romania. Inside there is a large organ and stucco decorations. In 1891, the Orthodox community also built a complex of buildings including two synagogues and a community center. [cite web |url=http://www.hum.huji.ac.il/CJA/NL14-Romania.htm |title=Uncovering and Documenting Jewish Art and Architecture in Western Romania |accessdate=2007-03-05 |date=Summer 1998 |work=Center for Jewish Art |publisher=The Hebrew University of Jerusalem]
Gotthard Deutsch& G. Kecskeméti( [ [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=452&letter=G JewishEncyclopedia.com - GROSSWARDEIN (NAGY-VARAD): ] ] )
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Oradea — Nagyvárad County capital … Wikipedia
Oradea International Airport — Aeroportul Internaţional Oradea IATA: OMR – ICAO: LROD … Wikipedia
History of the Jews in Hungary — concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. Jews have been a present community in Hungary since at least the 11th Century (with earlier references to Jews in Hungary existing), struggling against discrimination throughout the Middle… … Wikipedia
History of FC Steaua — The history of FC Steaua covers the time between the foundation of FC Steaua Bucureşti, a Romanian football club based in Bucharest, between their foundation in 1947 up to this day.Steaua was founded on 7 June 1947 by the Romanian Royal Army, and … Wikipedia
History of the Székely people — OriginsMythsAt the end of the 13th century, in a chronicle called Gesta Hungarorum, the notary of Hungarian King Béla explained his beliefs about the conquest of Hungary about 280 years earlier. According to this chronicle, the Hungarians and… … Wikipedia
Baroque Palace of Oradea — The Baroque Palace of Oradea, also know as Palatul Baroc Oradea (Rom.) or Muzeul Tarii Crisurilor [http://www.mtariicrisurilor.ro/] (Rom.) (Eng. Museum of the Rivers Country) or The Bishopric Palace of Oradea. The Baroque Palace of Oradea,… … Wikipedia
Roman Catholic Diocese of Oradea Mare — Baroque Cathedral, Oradea The Diocese of Oradea (Latin: Dioecesis Magnovaradinensis Latinorum, Hungarian: Nagyváradi Római Katolikus Egyházmegye, Romanian: Dieceza Romano Catolică de Oradea) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Romania … Wikipedia
University of Oradea — Infobox University name=University of Oradea romanian name=Universitatea din Oradea established=1990 type=Public rector=Cornel Antal students=35,000 faculty=2,003 city=Oradea country=Romania website= [http://www.uoradea.ro/] The University of… … Wikipedia
CA Oradea — Full name Clubul Atletic Oradea Short name CAO Founded 1910 Dissolved … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of Oradea — Details Armiger City Government Crest A seven tower mural crown … Wikipedia