MALT lymphoma Classification and external resources
Endoscopic image of gastric MALT lymphoma taken in body of stomach in patient who presented with upper GI hemorrhage. Appearance is similar to gastric ulcer with adherent clot.
ICD-9 200.3 ICD-O: M9699/3 OMIM 604860 DiseasesDB 31339 MeSH D018442
MALT lymphoma (MALToma) is a form of lymphoma involving the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), frequently of the stomach, but virtually any mucosal site can be afflicted. It is a cancer originating from B cells in the marginal zone of the MALT, and is also called extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma.
The initial diagnosis is made by biopsy of suspicious lesions on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD, upper endoscopy). Simultaneous tests for H. pylori are also done to detect the presence of this microbe.
In other sites, chronic immune stimulation is also suspected in the pathogenesis (e.g. association between chronic autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and MALT lymphoma of the salivary gland and the thyroid).
If the disease is limited to the stomach (which is assessed with computed tomography), then 70–80% of patients will have a complete regression on treatment with antibiotic eradication of H. pylori.
Others may be effectively controlled with the use of radiotherapy, or surgery. Both modalities may be curative in localized disease.
Two other genetic alterations are known:
- t(1;14)(p22;q32) which deregulates BCL10, at the locus 1p22.
- t(14;18)(q32;q21), which deregulates MALT1, at the locus 18q21.
- Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma
- ^ Parsonnet J, Hansen S, Rodriguez L, Gelb A, Warnke R, Jellum E, Orentreich N, Vogelman J, Friedman G (1994). "Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma.". N Engl J Med 330 (18): 1267–71. doi:10.1056/NEJM199405053301803. PMID 8145781.
- ^ Bayerdörffer E, Neubauer A, Rudolph B, Thiede C, Lehn N, Eidt S, Stolte M (1995). "Regression of primary gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection. MALT Lymphoma Study Group.". Lancet 345 (8965): 1591–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90113-2. PMID 7783535.
- ^ Noels H, van Loo G, Hagens S, et al. (April 2007). "A Novel TRAF6 binding site in MALT1 defines distinct mechanisms of NF-kappaB activation by API2middle dotMALT1 fusions". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (14): 10180–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M611038200. PMID 17287209. http://www.jbc.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17287209.
- ^ Liu H, Ruskon-Fourmestraux A, Lavergne-Slove A, Ye H, Molina T, Bouhnik Y, Hamoudi R, Diss T, Dogan A, Megraud F, Rambaud J, Du M, Isaacson P (2001). "Resistance of t(11;18) positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.". Lancet 357 (9249): 39–40. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03571-6. PMID 11197361.
- ^ Ye H, Gong L, Liu H, et al. (February 2005). "MALT lymphoma with t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1 is characterized by strong cytoplasmic MALT1 and BCL10 expression". J. Pathol. 205 (3): 293–301. doi:10.1002/path.1715. PMID 15682443.
- ^ Turgeon, Mary Louise (2005). Clinical hematology: theory and procedures. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 283. ISBN 0-7817-5007-5. "Frequency of lymphoid neoplasms. (Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001, p. 2001.)"
Hematological malignancy/leukemia histology (ICD-O 9590–9989, C81–C96, 200–208)
Lymphoid/Lymphoproliferative, Lymphomas/Lymphoid leukemias (9590–9739, 9800–9839)By development/
markerALL (Precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma)CD5+CD22+see immunoproliferative immunoglobulin disordersBy infectionBy development/
CD30-: Non-mycosis fungoides CD30− cutaneous large T-cell lymphoma · Pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma · Lymphomatoid papulosis type BCD30+: CD30+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma · Secondary cutaneous CD30+ large cell lymphoma · Lymphomatoid papulosis type AOther peripheralBy infectionHTLV-1 (Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma)NK cell/
(most CD56)Aggressive NK-cell leukemia · Blastic NK cell lymphomaT or NKLymphoid+myeloid
Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasiaCutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia with bandlike and perivascular patterns · Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia with nodular pattern · Jessner lymphocytic infiltrate of the skin Tumors: digestive system neoplasia (C15–C26/D12–D13, 150–159/211) GI tractUpper GI tractUpper and/or lower Accessory PeritoneumPrimary peritoneal carcinoma · Peritoneal mesothelioma · Desmoplastic small round cell tumor Infectious diseases · Bacterial diseases: Proteobacterial G− (primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109) αRickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) · Rickettsia conorii (Boutonneuse fever) · Rickettsia japonica (Japanese spotted fever) · Rickettsia sibirica (North Asian tick typhus) · Rickettsia australis (Queensland tick typhus) · Rickettsia honei (Flinders Island spotted fever) · Rickettsia africae (African tick bite fever) · Rickettsia parkeri (American tick bite fever) · Rickettsia aeschlimannii (Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection)Rickettsia felis (Flea-borne spotted fever)Brucella abortus (Brucellosis) β γH2S-VibrionalesXanthomonadalesCardiobacterialesCardiobacterium hominis (HACEK) ε
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