- Rhythm and blues
Infobox Music genre
name=Rhythm and blues
Jazz Blues(esp. electric)
Guitar- Bass - Harmonica- Trumpet- Saxophone- Drum kit- Piano- Organ - Keyboard
popularity= Significant from 1940s to 1960s; iconic afterwards
Contemporary R&B- Reggae- Ska- Rock and roll- Funk
subgenrelist= List of R&B genres
Soul music- Rockabilly
List of R&B musicians
Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B, R'n'B or RnB) is a
popular music genrecombining jazz, gospel, and bluesinfluences.
Jerry Wexlerof "Billboard" magazine coined the term "rhythm and blues" in 1948 as a musical marketing term in the United States.cite news|last=Sacks|first=Leo|date=1993-08-29|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE7D7163BF93AA1575BC0A965958260 |title=The Soul of Jerry Wexler|publisher= New York Times|accessdate=2007-01-11] It replaced the term "race music", which originally came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. [cite book|last=Cohn|first=Lawrence|title=Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians|origmonth=September|origyear=1993|coauthors=Aldin,Mary Katherine; Bastin,Bruce|publisher=Abbeville Press|isdn=978-1558592711|pages=314] "Jerry Wexler, famed record producer, dies at 91", Nekesa Mumbi Moody, AP Music Writer, Dallas Morning News, 15 August 2008] Writer/producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music that was made by and for black Americans". [cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Rock & Roll: An Unruly History|date=1995-kk09-19|publisher=Harmony|isbn=978-0517700501] He has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues.cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Deep Blues: A Musical and Cultural History of the Mississippi Delta|origdate=1981-05-21|publisher=Viking Adult|isbn=978-0670495115] Lawrence Cohn, author of "Nothing but the Blues", writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella terminvented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical musicand religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.cite book|last=Cohn|first=Lawrence|title=Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians|origmonth=September|origyear=1993|coauthors=Aldin,Mary Katherine; Bastin,Bruce|publisher=Abbeville Press|isdn=978-1558592711]
RCA Victorwas marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordandominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, and two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. [cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1947|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1947|publisher=Billboard|accessdate=2007-12-23] Jordan's band, the Tympany Five(formed in 1938), consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano, bass and drums. [ [http://www.oldstatehouse.org/educational_programs/classroom/arkansas_news/detail.asp?id=939&issue_id=12&page=8] [http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/musician.php?id=8211] ] Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". [cite book|last=Cohn|first=Lawrence|title=Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians|origmonth=September|origyear=1993|coauthors=Aldin,Mary Katherine; Bastin,Bruce|publisher=Abbeville Press|isdn=978-1558592711|pages=173] Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat". [cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Deep Blues: A Musical and Cultural History of the Mississippi Delta|date=1982-07-29|publisher=Penguin|edition=paperback|isbn=978-0140062236|pages=146] Jordan's cool music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, and Wynonie Harris, is now also referred to as jump blues. Also in 1948, Wynonie Harris' remake of Roy Brown's 1947 recording " Good Rockin' Tonight" hit the charts in the #2 spot, following band leader Sonny Thompson's "Long Gone" at #1. [ [http://www.vocalgroupharmony.com/Swinging.htm The Vocal Group Harmony Web Site ] ] [cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1948|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1948|publisher=Billboard|accessdate=2007-12-23]
In 1949, the term "rhythm and blues" replaced the Billboard category "Harlem Hit Parade". Also in that year, "The Huckle-Buck", recorded by band leader and saxophonist Paul Williams, was the #1 R&B tune, remaining on top of the charts for nearly the entire year. Written by musician and arranger Andy Gibson, the song was described as a "dirty boogie" because it was risque and raunchy. [ [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1444711/bio Andy Gibson (II) - Biography ] ] Paul Williams and His Hucklebuckers' concerts were sweaty riotous affairs that got shut down on more than one occasion. Their lyrics, by Roy Alfred (who later co-wrote the 1955 hit "
(The) Rock and Roll Waltz"), were mildly sexually suggestive, and one teenager from Philadelphia said "That Hucklebuck was a very nasty dance." [ [http://www.wfmu.org/LCD/26/huck1.html Hucklebuck! ] ] [ [http://www.wfmu.org/LCD/26/huck2.html Hucklebuck! ] ] Also in 1949, a new version of a 1920s blues song, " Ain't Nobody's Business" was a #4 hit for Jimmy Witherspoon, and Louis Jordan and the Tympany Five once again made the top 5 with " Saturday Night Fish Fry". [ [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1949 Billboard.com - Year End Charts - Year-end Singles - Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs ] ]
Early to mid 1950s
Working with African American musicians,
Greek American Johnny Otis, who had signed with the Newark, New Jersey-based Savoy Records, produced many R&B hits in 1951, including: "Double Crossing Blues", "Mistrustin' Blues" and "Cupid's Boogie", all of which hit number one that year. Otis scored ten top ten hits that year. Other hits include: "Gee Baby", "Mambo Boogie" and "All Nite Long". [ [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/bio/index.jsp?JSESSIONID=QPBXHGLFbQhkhw1S20fwnLwvQ2Nqb6zCmJLZ6NLnQQ2zNnyMWg9Q!-72533986&pid=1388 Billboard.com - Biography - Johnny Otis ] ] The Clovers, a vocal trio who sang a distinctive sounding combination of blues and gospel, had the #5 hit of the year with "Don't You Know I Love You" on Atlantic Records. [ [http://www.history-of-rock.com/vocal_groups.htm The Vocal Groups ] ] [ [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/bio/index.jsp?JSESSIONID=QPBXHGLFbQhkhw1S20fwnLwvQ2Nqb6zCmJLZ6NLnQQ2zNnyMWg9Q!-72533986&pid=1388 Billboard.com - Biography - Johnny Otis ] ] [ [http://www.cduniverse.com/search/xx/music/pid/6730003/a/Don't+You+Know+I+Love+You+&+Other+Favorites.htm Clovers Don't You Know I Love You & Other Favorites CD ] ] Also in July 1951, Cleveland, OhioDJ Alan Freedstarted a late-night radio show called "The Moondog Rock Roll House Party" on WJW-AM (850). [ [http://library.case.edu/digitalcase/SearchResults.aspx?q=mintz Digital Case - Search Results ] ] Freed's show was sponsored by Fred Mintz, whose R&B record store had a primarily African American clientele. Freed began referring to the rhythm and blues music he played as " rock and roll". Ruth Brown, on the Atlantic Recordslabel, placed hits in the top 5 every year from 1951 through 1954: " Teardrops from My Eyes", "Five, Ten, Fifteen Hours", "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean" and " What a Dream". Faye Adams‘s "Shake a Hand" made it to #2 in 1952. In 1953, the R&B record-buying public made Willie Mae Thornton's original recording of Leiber and Stoller's Hound Dogthe #3 hit that year. [cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1953|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1953|publisher=Billboard|accessdate=2007-12-23] That same year The Orioles, a doo-wopgroup, had the #4 hit of the year with Crying in the Chapel. [cite web|url=http://www.colorradio.com/orioles.htm|title=The Orioles Record Label Shots|accessdate=2007-12-23] In 1954 The Chords' " Sh-Boom" became the first hit to cross over from the R&B chart to hit the top 10 early in the year. Late in the year, and into 1955, " Hearts of Stone" by The Charmsmade the top 20. [Go, Cat, Go! by Carl Perkins and David McGee 1996 page 111 Hyperion Press ISBN 0-7868-6073-1] Fats Dominomade the top 30 of the pop charts in 1952 and 1953, then the top 10 with " Ain't That a Shame". [Go, Cat, Go! by Carl Perkins and David McGee 1996 pages 111 Hyperion Press ISBN 0-7868-6073-1] R&B was an upfront use of gospel music conventions in an R&B context. Ray Charlescame to national prominence in 1955 with " I Got a Woman". Big Bill Broonzysaid of Charles' music: "He's mixing the blues with the spirituals... I know that's wrong." [cite book|last=Cohn|first=Lawrence|title=Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians|origmonth=September|origyear=1993|coauthors=Aldin,Mary Katherine; Bastin,Bruce|publisher=Abbeville Press|isdn=978-1558592711|pages=173]
At the urging of
Leonard Chessat Chess Records, Chuck Berryhad reworked a fiddle tune with a long history, " Ida Red". The resulting " Maybellene" was not only a #3 hit on the R&B charts 1955, but it also reached into the top 30 on the pop charts. Alan Freed, who had moved to the much larger market of New York City, helped the record become popular with white teenagers. Freed had been given part of the writers' credit by Chess in return for his promotional activities; a common practice at the time. [ [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/bio/index.jsp?JSESSIONID=gwpQHnLPbv4cYhCG80yCBx6Pg878GwrkyyZ9196BdWhZwLT2271G!1236061003&&pid=4076 Billboard.com - Biography - Chuck Berry ] ] Also at Chess Records in 1955, Bo Diddley's debut record "Bo Diddley"/" I'm A Man" climbed to #2 on the R&B charts and popularized the Bo Diddley beat.
In 1956, an R&B "Top Stars of '56" tour took place. With headliners
Al Hibbler, Frankie Lymonand the Teenagers, and Carl Perkins, whose " Blue Suede Shoes" was very popular with R&B music buyers. Some of the performers completing the bill were Chuck Berry, Cathy Carr, Shirley & Lee, Della Reese, the Cleftones, and the Spaniels with Illinois Jacquet's "Big Rockin' Rhythm Nand. Cities visited by the tour included Columbia, SC, Annapolis, MD, Pittsburgh, PA, Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo, NY, into Canada, and through the mid Western US ending in Texas. In Columbia the concert ended with a near riot as Perkins began his first song as the closing act. Perkins is quoted as saying, "It was dangerous. Lot of kids got hurt. There was a lot of rioting going on, just crazy, man! The music drove 'em insane." In Annapolis 70,000 to 50,000 people tried to attend a sold out performance with 8,000 seats. Roads were clogged for seven hours. [Go, Cat, Go! by Carl Perkins and David McGee 1996 pages 188, 210, 212-214 Hyperion Press ISBN 0-7868-6073-1]
Film makers took advantage of the popularity of "rhythm and blues" musicians as "rock n roll" musicians beginning in 1956. Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Big Joe Turner, The Treniers, The Platters, The Flamigos, all made it onto the big screen. [
Don't Knock the Rock(1956), Rock Around the Clock (1956), "Rock, Rock, Rock" (1956), "Rumble on the Docks" (1956), "Shake, Rattle & Rock!" (1956), "The Girl Can't Help It" (1956), "Rock Baby, Rock It" (1957), "Untamed Youth" (1957), "Go, Johnny, Go!" (1959)]
Elvis Presleyrecords made the R&B top five in 1957: " Jailhouse Rock"/"Treat Me Nice" at #1, and " All Shook Up" at #5, an unprecedented acceptance of a non- African Americanartist into a music category known for being created by blacks. [cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1957|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1957|publisher=Billboard|accessdate=2007-12-23] Nat King Cole, a former jazzpianist who had had #1 and #2 hits on the pop charts in the early 1950s ("Mona Lisa" at #2 in 1950 and " Too Young" at #1 in 1951), had a record in the top 5 in the R&B charts in 1958, "Looking Back"/"Do I Like It".
In 1959, two black-owned record labels, one of which would become hugely successful, made their debut: Sam Cooke's Sar, and Berry Gordy's
Motown Records. [cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Rock & Roll: An Unruly History|date=1995-09-19|publisher=Harmony|isbn=978-0517700501|page 82] Brook Bentonwas at the top of the R&B charts in 1959 and 1960 with one #1 and two #2 hits. Benton had a certain warmth in his voice that attracted a wide variety of listeners, and his ballads led to comparisons with performers such as
Cole, Sinatra and
Tony Bennett. [cite web|url=http://www.shewins.com/bio.htm|last=Simon|first=Tom|title=Brook Benton Biography|accessdate=2007-12-23] Lloyd Price, who in 1952 had a #1 hit with " Lawdy Miss Clawdy" regained predominance with a version of " Stagger Lee" at #1 and "Personality" at #5 for in 1959. [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1952] [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1959]
1960s and later
Sam Cooke‘s #5 hit "Chain Gang" is indicative of R&B in 1960, as is Chubby Checker's #5 hit "The Twist". [cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1959|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1959|publisher=Billboard|accessdate=2007-12-23] [cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1960|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1960|publisher=Billboard|accessdate=2007-12-23] By the early 1960s, the music industry category previously known as "rhythm and blues" was being called soul music, and similar music by white artists was labeled blue eyed soul. [cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Rock & Roll: An Unruly History|date=1995-09-19|publisher=Harmony|page=82|isbn=978-0517700501]
Motown had its first million-selling single in 1960 with
The Miracles' " Shop Around". [cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Rock & Roll: An Unruly History|date=1995-09-19|publisher=Harmony|page=83,84|isbn=978-0517700501] In 1961, Stax Recordshad its first hit with Carla Thomas' pop-influenced "Gee Whiz! (Look at His Eyes), which featured violins, piano, drums and backup singers." [ [http://music.barnesandnoble.com/search/mediaplayer.asp?ean=610583191929&disc=2&track=14] sample of "Gee Whiz"] Its next major hit, the Mar-Keys' instrumental "Last Night", was released the same year. "Last Night" introduced the rawer Memphis soulsound, built around horns, electric organs, guitars, and drums, which became the sound the Stax would be most noted for. [ [http://www.mp3fiesta.com/mar_keys_last_night_song1014658/ sample] ]
Around this time in the United Kingdom, R&B influenced
beat music, rock and roll skiffle. Notable beat groups included The Who, The Creation, The Actionand The Beatles. Simultaneously, skaemerged in Jamaicaas another local R&B variant. Thailand's String music and wong shadowmixed R&B (brought over by American and Australian soldiers serving in the Vietnam War) with indigenous musical forms and other Anglo-Americanmusical styles.
By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" was being used as a
blanket termto describe soul and funk. In the 2000s, the initialism "R&B" is almost always used instead of the full "rhythm and blues", and mainstream use of the term usually refers to contemporary R&B, which is a modern version of soul and funk-influenced pop musicthat originated as discofaded from popularity.
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