In its original meaning, an Amerasian is a person born in
Asia, to a U.S. military father and an Asian mother. Colloquially, the term has sometimes been considered synonymous with Asian American, to describe any person of mixed Asian and American parentage, regardless of the circumstances.
Several countries have significant populations of Amerasians, including the islands that dot the
Pacific Ocean(such as Guamand Hawaii). These countries include Japan( Okinawa), Thailand( Phuketand Pattaya Beach), South Korea, the former South Vietnamand most notably, the Philippines( Angeles, Olongapo, and La Union), where the biggest U.S. air and naval bases outside the U.S. mainland were situated.
The term was coined by writer
Pearl S. Buckand was formalized by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Many people were born to Asian women and U.S. servicemen during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. The official definition of "Amerasian" came about as a result of Public Law 97-359, enacted by the 97th Congressof the United States on October 22, 1982.
According to the
U.S. Department of Justiceand the Immigration and Naturalization Service(INS), an "Amerasian" is: " [A] n alien who was born in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, or Thailandafter December 31, 1950, and before October 22, 1982, and was fathered by a U.S. citizen." [from instructions for INS Form 360, "Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant"] The Amerasian Foundation (AF) and Amerasian Family Finder (AFF) define an "Amerasian" as: "Any person who was fathered by a citizen of the United States (an American servicemen, American expatriate, or U.S. Government Employee (Regular or Contract)) and whose mother is, or was, an Asian National Asian." [ [http://amerasianfoundation.org/?page_id=15 Amerasian Foundation - Giving Amerasians a Voice » Amerasian Definition ] ]
The term is commonly applied to half Japanese children fathered by a U.S. serviceman in
Japanon the island of Okinawa, as well as half-Korean children fathered by veterans of the Korean War, most notably seen on the 1960s soap opera "Love is a Many Splendored Thing". The term is also applied to children of Filipinos and American rulers during the U.S. colonial period of the Philippines (but is still used until today) and children of Thais and U.S. soldiers during World War IIand the Vietnam War(the reference to Thailandstems from the U.S. military stationing their military bases during the Vietnam War). Since there are large Overseas Chineseminorities in Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia, an Amerasian could be a child born to American and ethnic Chinese parents in any country. Children born to mainland U.S. and native Pacific Islanderparents in U.S.-controlled Pacific Islandsare also sometimes considered Amerasian.
Although the term Amerasian denotes mixed ancestry, it should not be interpreted as a fixed racial term relating to a specific mixture of races (such as
Mestizo, mulatto, Eurasian or blasian). The racial strain of the American parent of one Amerasian may be different from that of another Amerasian; it may be white, black, Hispanic, Native American, or even Asian. In the latter case, it is conceivable that the Amerasian could be fathered by a person who shares the same racial background but not the same nationality.
During the Korean and Vietnam Wars, many of the unions between American fathers and Asian mothers happened through client-prostitute relationships. Mixed blood children, whatever the reality of the occupations of their parents, have inherited this social
stigma. In poor countries where impoverished women have little choice but to consider prostitution as a means of survival, the resulting sense of disempowerment among men and women alike can bring seething resentment. Additional resentment may be fueled by the common knowledge that many servicemen fathers made promises to support the children, and simply left for the U.S., never to be seen again.
Amerasians in the Philippines
Since 1898, when the U.S. first colonized the
Philippines, there have been as many as 21 U.S. bases and 100,000 U.S. military personnel stationed there. The bases closed in 1992 leaving behind thousands of Amerasian children. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3693/is_199710/ai_n8759139 Women and children, militarism, and human rights: International Women's Working Conference | Off Our Backs | Find Articles at BNET.com ] ] Pearl S. Buck International foundation estimates there are 52,000 Amerasiansscattered throughout the Philippines with 5,000 in the Clark area of Angeles."The majority of the children have been abandoned by their American fathers," said Jocelyn Bonilla, the manager of the Pearl S. Buck center in Angeles City. [ [http://www.stripes.com/01/jun01/ed061901a.html Tuesday, June 19, 2001 ] ] Unlike their counterparts in other countries, American-Asians, or Amerasians, in the Philippines remain impoverished and neglected.A study made by the University of the Philippines' Center for Women Studies further disclosed startling facts affirming that many Amerasians have experienced some form of abuse and even domestic violence. The findings cited cases of racial, gender and class discrimination that Amerasian children and youth suffer from strangers, peers, classmates and teachers. The study also said black Amerasians seem to suffer more from racial and class discrimination than their white counterparts. White female Amerasians are highly vulnerable to sexual harassment, the study noted. [ [http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54a/239.html ‘G.I. babies’: Little outcasts ] ] Two-thirds are raised by single mothers; others by relatives and non-relatives; 6% live on their own or in institutions. 90% are born "out of wedlock." [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3693/is_199710/ai_n8759139 Women and children, militarism, and human rights: International Women's Working Conference | Off Our Backs | Find Articles at BNET.com ] ] It was reported in 1993, that prostitutes are increasingly Amerasian, children of prostitutes caught in a cycle which transcends generations. [ [http://feminism.eserver.org/prostitution.txt Feminism and Women's Studies: Prostitution ] ]
A class action suit was filed in 1993 on their behalf in the International Court of Complaints here in Washington, DC, to establish Filipino American children’s rights to assistance.They have been consigned to live on the streets in hovels or slums in unimaginable poverty. The case did not prosper.The court ruled that the children were the products of unmarried women who provided sexual services to US service personnel in
Olongapo, Subic Bayand Angeles Cityand were therefore engaged in illicit acts of prostitution.Such illegal activity could not be the basis for any legal claim. [ [http://cpcabrisbane.org/Kasama/2005/V19n3/LifeOfStreetChildren.htm The Life of Street Children in the Philippines and Initiatives to Help Them ] ]
In popular culture
*In the "M*A*S*H" episode "Yessir, That's Our Baby," the staff of the 4077th find an abandoned Amerasian baby and attempted help her after
Father Mulcahywarns that she will be mistreated at the orphanage. Although the staff initially decline his advice about leaving her with a reclusive monastic order, their own efforts to solicit aid from various organizations were bluntly rebuffed with frustrating regularity. This included a confrontation with a South Korean representative who pointed out the mortifying fact to the U.S. officers that their own government ignores the issue as well. Eventually, the staff leave the baby with the monks.
Chuck Norrisfilm "" (1988) depicted Amerasian children trapped in Vietnam; in the film, Norris is the father to an Amerasian child believing that his Vietnamese wife died during the Fall of Saigon.
*In the television show "
King of the Hill", it is revealed in an episode that the protagonist Hank has an Amerasian half-brother named Junichiro, the result of an affair between Hank's father and a nurse during his stay in post- World War II Japan.
1999American Vietnamese languagefilm " Three Seasons", James Hager, played by Harvey Keitel, searches for his Vietnamese Amerasian daughter in hopes of "coming to peace with this place".
2004film " The Beautiful Country" is about Amerasian boy who leaves his native Vietnamto find his father (played by Nick Nolte).
Eric Byler, Filmmaker & Activist (Chinese Caucasian)
James Duval, actor(Vietnamese Amerasian)
Johnny Damon, Professional Baseball Player (Thai Amerasian)
Kip Fulbeck, Artist & Filmmaker, Author of "Part Asian, 100% Hapa" (Chinese English Irish)
Danny Graves, Professional Baseball Player (Vietnamese Amerasian)
Angela Melini, model, most notably a " Playboy" Playmate(Vietnamese Amerasian)
Greg Pak, Filmmaker & Author (Korean Caucasian)
Maggie Q, model, actress(Vietnamese Amerasian)
Jeff Chiba Stearns, Filmmaker (Japanese Caucasian)
Hines Ward, American footballplayer (Korean Amerasian)
Tiger Woods, Professional Golfer (Thai Amerasian)
Ann Curry, Award winning Journalist and Today Show Host (Japanese Amerasian)
Kristin Kreuk,Canadian Actress on Smallville (Chinese Amerasian)
Lindsay Price, Actress is currently starring on Lipstick Jungle(Korean American)
Betty Nguyen, CNN anchor (Vietnamese American)
Eurasian (mixed ancestry)
List of Eurasians
* [http://www.asian-nation.org/amerasians.shtml "Asian-Nation: Vietnamese Amerasians"] , by C.N. Le, Ph.D.
* [http://www.asian-nation.org/multiracial.shtml "Asian-Nation: Multiracial Asian Americans"] , by C.N. Le, Ph.D.
* [http://www.amerasianworld.com "AmerasianWorld.com"] , renamed [http://www.saigonnezumi.com "SaigonNezumi.com"]
* [http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2003130151_hapaculture16.html Los Angeles Times: "Hapas find a voice in emerging culture" by Teresa Watanabe]
* [http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/us/2007/05/12/nguyen.100.percent.hapa.cnn?iref=videosearch CNN's Betty Nguyen examines Hapa/Amerasian identity]
* [http://www.discovernikkei.org/en/people/profile.php?id=48 Discover Nikkei interview with Kip Fulbeck on Amerasian identity]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Amerasian — [am΄ər ā′zhən] n. [ AMER(ICAN) + ASIAN] a person of both American and Asian descent, esp. the child of a U.S. serviceman and an Asian woman adj. 1. both American and Asian [an Amerasian child] 2. of or for Amerasians … English World dictionary
Amerasian — 1966, noun and adjective, from AMERICAN (Cf. American) + ASIAN (Cf. Asian); coined in reference to children fathered by U.S. servicemen stationed in Asia during the Cold War … Etymology dictionary
Amerasian — 1. noun a person of mixed American and Asian parentage, especially if their father was an American serviceman or temporary resident stationed in Asia I am an Amerasian, why am I not allowed to stay here legally? Why do you try to keep me out, why … Wiktionary
Amerasian — [[t]əme̱re͟ɪʒ(ə)n[/t]] Amerasians N COUNT People who have one American parent and one Asian parent are sometimes referred to as Amerasians. ...discrimination against Amerasians in Vietnam. ADJ Amerasian is also an adjective. ...an Amerasian boy… … English dictionary
Amerasian — [ˌamə reɪʃ(ə)n, ʒ(ə)n] adjective having one American and one Asian parent. noun an Amerasian person … English new terms dictionary
amerasian — ¦amərˌ noun Usage: capitalized Etymology: Amer + Asian : a person of mixed American and Asian descent ; especially : one fathered by an American and especially an American serviceman in Asia • amerasian adjective, usually capitalized … Useful english dictionary
Amerasian — noun Etymology: American + Asian Date: 1953 a person of mixed American and Asian descent; especially one fathered by an American and especially an American serviceman in Asia … New Collegiate Dictionary
Amerasian — /am euh ray zheuhn, sheuhn/, n. 1. the offspring of an American and an Asian, esp. one whose father is American. adj. 2. of mixed American and Asian descent. Also, Amer Asian. [1950 55; AMER(ICAN) + ASIAN] * * * … Universalium
Amerasian — Am|er|a|sian [ˌæməˈreıʒən, ʃən] n [Date: 1900 2000; Origin: American + Asian] someone who has one American parent and one Asian parent →↑Asian American … Dictionary of contemporary English
Amerasian — Am|er|a|sian [ ,æmə reıʒn ] noun count someone who has one parent from the U.S. and one parent from Asia ╾ Am|er|a|sian adjective … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English