Jay Pritzker Pavilion

Infobox Theatre
name = Jay Pritzker Pavilion



image_size = 250px
caption = Pritzker Pavilion and Millennium Park with Historic Michigan Boulevard District background
address = Millennium Park
city = Chicago, Illinois
country = USA
designation =
latitude =
longitude =
architect = Frank Gehry
owner = City of Chicago
capacity = 11,000 (4,000 fixed, 7,000 lawn)cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/artandarchitecture/jay_pritzker_factsheet.html|accessdate=2007-09-20|title=Facts and Dimensions of Jay Pritzker Pavilion|publisher=City of Chicago]
type =
opened = 2004-07-16
yearsactive = 2004-present
rebuilt =
closed =
othernames =
production =
currentuse = Performing arts
website =

Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Pritzker Pavilion, or Pritzker Music Pavilion is a band shell in the Loop community area of Chicago in Cook County, Illinois, United States. The pavilion was designed by Frank Gehry, named for Pritzker family member Jay Pritzker, and was constructed between June 1999 and July 2004 in Millennium Park. It is located on the south side of Randolph Street directly across from some of the tallest buildings in the world and east of the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District.

It is the park's outdoor performing arts venue and the new home of the Grant Park Symphony Orchestra and Chorus. As home of the Grant Park Symphony Orchestra and Chorus it is also the home of the Grant Park Music Festival, the nation's only remaining free outdoor classical music series. The structure is built partially atop the Harris Theater for Music and Dance, the park's indoor performing arts venue.cite web|url=http://www.pbase.com/tanakak/pritzker|title=The Jay Pritzker Pavilion|accessdate=2007-09-20|publisher=Pbase.com and Kenneth Tanaka] It serves as the centerpiece for the park that was opened on July 16, 2004.cite web|url=http://www.lares-lexicon.com/millenium/millenium.html|accessdate=2007-09-20|title=The Jay Pritzker Music Pavilion Sounds as Good as it Looks|author=Delacoma, Wayne] At first the lawn seats were free for all concerts, but when Tori Amos performed the venue's first mainstream concert at the pavilion on August 31, 2005 this changed.cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10CEE1EF3961DD78&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Howls over charge for Millennium Park concert // Watchdog contends lawn seats supposed to be free|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-09-01|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Herrmann, Andrew] cite web|url=http://chicagoist.com/2005/09/01/city_charges_to_publicly_view_its_private_parts.php|title=City Charges To Publicly View Its Private Parts|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-09-01|publisher=Gothamist LLC|work=Chicagoist] [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10C3BBDD80EBBF90&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title= Can Tori Amos pass the Millennium Park test?|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-08-26|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=Downing, Andy]

The performance venue is designed with a large fixed seating area, a great lawn, a trellis network to support the sound system and a signature Gehry stainless steel headdress. It features a sound system with an innovative acoustic design that replicates an indoor concert hall sound experience. The pavilion and the park in general are well-known and respected for their accessibility.cite web|url=http://pva.convio.net/site/DocServer/PN_BFA_2005_Article.pdf?docID=1921|title=Chicago's New Class Act|accessdate=2007-12-21|year=2005|month=July|publisher=Paralyzed Veterans of America|work=PN|author=Deyer, Joshua]

Design and development

In February 1999, the city announced it was negotiating with Frank Gehry to design a proscenium arch and orchestra enclosure for a band shell as well as a pedestrian bridge, that became BP Pedestrian Bridge, crossing Columbus Drive and that it was seeking donors to cover his work. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:ADHB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0ED0293A7773EBF9&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=The City|accessdate=2008-07-24|date=1999-02-18|publisher=Newsbank|work=Daily Herald] At the time, the "Chicago Tribune" dubbed Gehry "the hottest architect in the universe" in reference to the acclaim for his Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, and they noted the designs would not inlcude Mayor Daley trademarks such as wrought iron and seasonal flower boxes. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EB42A2E27BC3A9F&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=City Has Designs On Ace Architect For Its Band Shell|accessdate=2008-07-24|date=1999-02-17|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=Warren, Ellen and Teresa Wiltz] Millennium Park, project manager Edward Uhlir said "Frank is just the cutting edge of the next century of architecture," and he noted that no other architect was being sought.cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EB42A2E27BC3A9F&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Building for future - Modern architect sought for park|accessdate=2008-07-24|date=1999-02-18|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Bey, Lee] Gehry was approached several times by Skidmore architect Adrian Smith on behalf of the city. The choice of Gehry was a key component of having modern themes in the park.cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EB42A4E848E3AFC&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=A World-Class Designer Turns His Eye To Architecture's First City|accessdate=2008-07-24|date=1999-04-18|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=Kamin, Blair]

In April 1999, the city announced that the Pritzker family had donated $15 million to fund Gehry's Bandshell and an additional nine donors committed a total of $10 million. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EB42A53177A0D06&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Millennium Park Gets Millions|accessdate=2008-07-24|date=1999-04-27|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune] [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EB4240F126851DB&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Room for Grant Park to grow|accessdate=2008-07-24|date=1999-04-28|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Spielman, Fran] The day of this announcement, Gehry agreed to the design request. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EB4240F06C75DE5&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Architect on board to help build bridge to 21st century |accessdate=2008-07-24|date=1999-04-28|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=De LaFuente, Della] In November, when his design was unveiled, Gehry said the Bridge was very preliminary and not well-conceived because funding for it was not committed. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EF7FF2E848D60A9&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Architect's Band Shell Design Filled With Heavy-Metal Twists|accessdate=2008-07-24|date=1999-11-04|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=Kamin, Blair]

Grant Park has been protected by 172 years of "forever open, clear and free" legislation that has been affirmed by four previous Illinois Supreme Court rulings. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=121435C3FB5CE640&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Mayor gets what he wants - Council OKs move 33-16 despite opposition|accessdate=2008-07-29|date=2008-06-12|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Spielman, Fran] [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=1212F083B836ABB8&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=The taking of Grant Park|accessdate=2008-07-29|date=2008-06-08|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune] [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=120B5E8D060726E0&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=13-2 vote for museum - Decision on Grant Park sets up Council battle|accessdate=2008-07-29|date=2008-05-16|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Spielman, Fran and Art Golab] Aaron Montgomery Ward twice sued the city of Chicago to force it to remove buildings and structures from Grant Park and to keep it from building new ones. [cite web|url=http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/538.html|title=Grant Park|accessdate=2008-07-28|date=2005|work=The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago|publisher=Chicago Historical Society|author=Grinnell, Max] As a result, the city has what are termed the Montgomery Ward height restrictions on buildings and structures in Grant Park. However, "Crown Fountain" and the convert|139|ft|m|adj=on Pritzker Pavilion were exempt from the height restriction because they were classified as works of art and not buildings or structures. [Gilfoyle, p. 181] Some say the Pavilion is described as a work of art to dodge the protections established by Ward who is said to continue to rule and protect Grant Park from his grave. [cite web|url=http://www.economist.com/world/unitedstates/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9905732|title=In a fight over Grant Park, Chicago's mayor faces a small revolt |aceessdate=2008-07-31|date=2007-10-04|publisher= The Economist Newspaper Limited|work=The Economist]

The pavilion includes 4,000 fixed seats and a convert|95000|sqft|m2|adj=on Great Lawn that can accommodate an additional 7,000 people. Early plans to incorporate a surrounding waterfall and stairway were abandoned. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EB4862A2DB2FB15&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=City Tweaks Millennium Park Design|accessdate=2008-07-24|date=2000-01-07|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=Song, Lisa] It features a convert|120|ft|adj=on proscenium theatre with a brushed stainless steel headdress. The main stage, which can accommodate a full orchestra and chorus of 150 members, is connected by this frame to a trellis of interlocking crisscrossing steel pipes that support the sound system. The innovative sound system distributes sound to mimic indoor concert hall acoustics.cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/artandarchitecture/jay_pritzker_pavilion.html|accessdate=2007-09-20|title=Jay Pritzker Pavilion|publisher=City of Chicago] The trellis is ft to m|600|300. [cite web|url=http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/BTS/archives/perform/05_jayPritzker/overview.asp|accessdate=2007-09-20|title=Jay Pritzker Pavilion |publisher=The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.|work=Architectural Record|author=Kamin, Blair] It is located above and behind the Harris Theater and this has the benefit that the park's indoor and outdoor performance venues are able to share a loading dock, rehearsal rooms and other backstage facilities.cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=103E954310A1AB15&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title= Joan W. and Irving B. Harris Theater for Music and Dance - ** - 205 E. Randolph Drive - Hammond Beeby Rupert Ainge, Chicago|accessdate=2008-06-06|date=2004-07-18|publisher=newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=Kamin, Blair] The project cost 60 million dollars, [cite web|url=http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/September-2007/Ten-Modern-Masterpieces/The-List/index.php?cp=3&si=2|accessdate=2007-09-20|title=The List|publisher=Chicago Magazine] and is named after Jay Pritzker, a prominent Chicago businessman from the Pritzker family, who own the Hyatt Hotels.cite web|url=http://gochicago.about.com/od/attractionsandlandmarks/ss/millennium_park_3.htm|accessdate=2007-09-20|title=Jay Pritzker Pavilion|publisher=About, Inc.|author=Carlson, Prescott] The family contributed $15 million to the construction.cite web|url=http://chicagoarchitecture.info/Building/1248/Pritzker_Pavilion__The.php|accessdate=2007-09-20|publisher=chicagoarchitecture.info|title=Pritzker Pavilion, The]

This pavilion follows a series of open-air projects by Guggenheim Museum Bilbao designer, Frank Gehry, such as the Merriweather Post Pavilion in Columbia, Maryland, the Concord Performing Arts Center in Concord, California, and numerous renovations to the Hollywood Bowl in Hollywood, California. It is also a part of a larger inner city redevelopment that includes a theater, extensive gardens and a Gehry-designed serpentine pedestrian footbridge that buffers against street noise. The redevelopment was part of an effort to overcome unsightly railroad tracks and parking lots. [cite web|url=http://www.citymayors.com/environment/millennium_park.html|accessdate=2007-09-20|publisher=citymayors.com|author=Pesci, Renato|title=A people's park of international importance in downtown Chicago] Much like his Experience Music Project in Seattle, Washington, it suggests musical qualities. The trellis design was an effort to avoid the traditional obstructing forest of speaker towers.cite web|url=http://www.guggenheim.org/exhibitions/past_exhibitions/gehry/millenium_30.html|accessdate=2007-09-20|title=Millennium Park Music Pavilion and Great Lawn|publisher=guggenheim.org]

The original design was much more modest. It had a smaller shell structure and speakers affixed to poles interspersed throughout the seating area. However, two things happened to change the original plans. John H. Bryan, former CEO of the Sara Lee Corporation, raised revenues to change the scope of the project. Also, Jay Pritzker's widow, Cindy, was unimpressed with the design and demanded that Gehry be involved. Despite the redesign, the pavilion has its blemishes: the supporting backside along Randolph Street is controversial, and the fact that the supporting proscenium braces are left exposed is offensive to some observers. [cite web|url=http://www.lynnbecker.com/repeat/Gehry/gehrybaroque.htm|accessdate=2007-09-21|title=Frank Gehry, Millennium Park and the development of the Techno-Baroque|author=Becker, Lynn|publisher=Lynn Becker |work=Repeat] Other people contest that the smooth rounded trellis and sharp-edged band shell are geometrically discordant. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9901E2D61F3BF93BA25754C0A9629C8B63|title= ART/ARCHITECTURE; Big Shoulders, Big Donors, Big Art|accessdate=2008-06-01|date=2004-07-18|author=Bernstein, Fred A.|publisher=The New York Times Company|work=The New York Times]

The Millennium Park director has been honored for his contribution to making America more accessible. The stage is accessible by gently-sloped ramps instead of stairs as part of the overall parks accessibility aware design. There was controversy that the Great Lawn was not sloped as much as planned to save money, [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EDB47DD36D61F4A&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Millennium Park flounders as deadlines, budget blown - Poor plans, constant changes slow progress, drive up price-- and city taxpayers may have to help make up difference|accessdate=2008-07-28|date=2001-08-05|publisher=newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=Martin, Andrew and Laurie Cohen] but Gehry says that the slope was more accommodating to people with disabilities and better able to accommodate lawn activities than originally planned. [Gilfoyle, p. 168.]

Acoustics

The Pritzker Pavilion uses an innovative LARES sound system, which generates reflected and reverberant energy that surrounds the audience. The system causes the sound quality to be fairly uniform throughout the entire venue, and has received critical acclaim for adaptations of its technologies such as signal processing in a variety of indoor and outdoor venues. [cite web|url=http://www.mixfoundation.org/tec/1993.html|title=1993 TEC Awards|publisher=mixfoundation.org] The Pritzker Pavilion is the first permanent outdoor installation of the LARES system in the United States. The trellis serves acoustic and architectural purposes because it allows for the precise placement for sound optimization without visual obstructions, as well as simultaneously providing a unifying visual canopy.

The overall acoustic system is described as a distributed sound reinforcement system. It uses many innovative features as well as standard sound reinforcement techniques. With this system musicians on stage are able to hear each other clearly in a way that facilitates ensemble play. In addition, direct natural sound from the stage is reflected from architectural surfaces as well as being reinforced by two sound systems. The forward facing reinforcement speakers time the relaying of sound so as to make it seem to have arrived directly from the stage with clarity and proper volume levels. Distributed speakers allow for lower sound volumes than would be necessary with centralized speakers that would disturb the neighboring residences and business.cite web|url=http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor/strategies/noise/docs/urbandes/16pritzkerpavillion.pdf|accessdate=2007-09-21|title=Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Millennium Park|publisher=Talaske|work=london.gov.uk]

The trellis system has several unique features. Instead of merely reinforcing the sound like a traditional public address system, it seeks to replicate the acoustics of a concert hall, and it creates a clearly defined concert space. Sound arriving directly from lateral sources masks city disturbances. Downward facing acoustic enhancement speakers simulate sound reflection similar to indoor concert hall wall and ceiling effects. Some critics reservedly say that the acousticians, Talaske Group of Oak Park, Illinois, and Gehry have solved many of the problems and mysteries of the outdoor presentation of classical music. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10402B13C82F136D&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=THE NEW MILLENNIUM|accessdate=2008-08-06|date=2004-07-18|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Nance, Kevin and Wynne Delacoma]

Events

The Jay Pritzker Pavilion competes with Ravinia Festival as a Chicagoland outdoor music venue. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=1092F6D3A6BE4DF5&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title= Grant Park takes bold steps - 2005 season to put Pritzker to the test|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-03-31|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=von Rhein, John] [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10C21616DDEB12A8&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title= Can Ravinia compete with Millennium Park?|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-08-21|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=von Rhein, John] It hosts free music events from spring to fall, such as the Grant Park Music Festival and Gospel Fest. The Grant Park Symphony Orchestra performs the free classical concerts at the Grant Park Music Festival in June, July and August. ["Frommer's Irreverent Guide to Chicago (sixth edition)," 2007, p. 123, Wiley Publishing, Hoboken, NJ, ISBN 0-470-04079-3.] These free concerts are part of the broad offerings of free music in Chicago that have become one of the best free things to do in Chicago. [cite web|url=http://www.frommers.com/destinations/chicago/0006020765.html|title=Best Free Things to Do|accessdate=2008-07-07|publisher=Wiley Publishing, Inc.|work=Frommer's] Other recent events include a concert by Wilco on September 12, 2007, the "Poland for Chicago", which featured Lech Kaczyński on September 25, 2007, and concerts by Rogue Wave and Death Cab for Cutie on June 3, 2008. [cite web|url=http://www.dailyherald.com/story/?id=37198|accessdate=2007-09-21|publisher= Daily Herald Inc.|title=Wilco just perfect at Millennium Park concert|author=Cox, Ted] [cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/parkevents/eventpopup.aspx?eventId=586|accessdate=2007-09-21|title=Poland for Chicago|publisher=City of Chicago] [cite web|url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/features/lifestyle/chi-death-cab-ovn-0605jun05,0,1900729.story|accessdate=2008-06-09|publisher= Chicago Tribune|title=Death Cab rolls on|author=Kot, Greg] The pavilion also hosts a series of jazz concerts in July and August. [cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/parkevents/jazz.aspx|accessdate=2007-09-21|title= Calendar of Millennium Park Free Programs: Jazz|publisher=City of Chicago] On Saturday mornings in the summer, the great lawn under the trellis system hosts various workouts such as yoga and pilates, [cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/parkevents/fitness.aspx|accessdate=2007-09-21|title=Calendar of Millennium Park Free Programs: Fitness|publisher=City of Chicago] however events are not just limited to the summer months. [cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/parkevents/eventpopup.aspx?eventId=517|accessdate=2007-09-21|title= Arctic Symphony|publisher=City of Chicago] The Pritzker Prize presentation ceremony, which moves to various architecturally significant international locations each year, was held in the Pritzker Pavilion in 2005. [cite web|url=http://www.citymayors.com/environment/pritzker2006.html|accessdate=2007-09-22|title=Brazilian architect wins the 2006 Pritzker Prize|publisher=citymayors.com|author=Queiroga, Rodrigo M]

The initial plan was that the lawn seating would be free for all events. In fact, an early brochure for the Grant Park Music Festival said "You never need a ticket to attend a concert! The lawn and the general seating section are always admission free." When parking revenue fell short of estimates during the first year however, the city charged $10 for lawn seating at the August 31, 2005 concert by Tori Amos. The city justified this by contending that since the Pavilion is an open air venue, there were many places in Millennium Park, such as the Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain and Lurie Gardens, where one could have enjoyed the sounds or the atmosphere of the park without having to pay. In a related controversy of this concert, the Gehry-designed BP Pedestrian Bridge that connects Millenium Park with Daley Bicentennial Plaza was closed until 7:00 A.M. the next day. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=116266DCE2E9D5F0&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=A bad deal all around|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-09-09|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Wasielewski, Carl] Amos, a classically trained musician who chose only piano and organ accompaniment, earned positive reviews as the inaugural rock and roll performer in this venue that has become a regular host to classical music. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10CF366622FB2B70&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Amos creates musical magic as Pritzker's first rock act|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-09-02|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Orloff, Brian] In addition to charging for lawn seating, the event promoters prohibited customers from bringing any beverage, including bottled water, to the lawn; drinks instead had to be purchased onsite. The city stated later that confiscation of unopened beverage bottles was a mistake and that "Bottled water is always allowed at the free concerts we host at the park, and will be allowed at any future events as well." [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CSTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10D5CE1E91AA8D70&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title=Bottled water hardly worth all the fuss we make of it|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-09-21|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Roeper, Richard] An estimated 300 attendees set up their blankets beyond the bounds of the trellis system where they could enjoy their own beverage while listening to the concert.cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:CTRB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10C60A7D8F809508&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title= Church of Tori holds a revival in heart of city|accessdate=2008-05-18|date=2005-09-02|publisher=Newsbank|work=Chicago Tribune|author=Elder, Robert K.] The official Chicago policy is that alcohol his permitted on throughout the Jay Pritzker Pavilion during public performance, but glass bottles and cans are not permitted on the Great Lawn.cite web|url=http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalCategoryTreeAction.do?deptMainCategoryOID=-536887892&categoryPath=%2fCity+Agencies%2fCity+Departments%2fCity+of+Chicago%2fSub+Agencies%2fMillennium+Park%2fFAQ+Categories&success=FAQ&entityName=Millennium+Park&topChannelName=SubAgency&contentType=COC_FAQ&Failed_Reason=Invalid+timestamp,+engine+has+been+restarted&com.broadvision.session.new=Yes&Failed_Page=%2fwebportal%2fportalCategoryTreeAction.do|title=Frequently Asked Questions|accessdate=2008-06-08|publisher=City of Chicago]

This was not the first controversy about the Pavilion. In addition to the cost and time overruns, the general idea of the Pavilion to replace the long-time downtown Petrillo Music shell in Grant Park, was contrary to the wishes of the Petrillo family. The Petrillo music shell has a long history of hosting free music events. [cite web|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:NewsBank:&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0FEA4948D70BB60A&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=AA98CDC331574F0ABEAFF732B33DC0B2|title='Pritzker' shell angers Petrillo kin - Granddaughter may fight naming, OKd after $15 mil. gift|accessdate=2008-06-06|date=2003-10-30|publisher=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Herrmann, Andrew and Fran Spielman]

The pavilion has hosted several one-day events that were noted in international publications. The United States debut of A Throw of Dice, a 1929 Indian silent movie about two Kings with a common love interest, occurred on July 30, 2008 at the Pavilion. At the debut, Nitin Sawhney and the Grant Park Orchestra accompanied the movie with a live performance. [cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/27/travel/27DATEBOOK.html?|title=Datebook: Chicago, San Francisco and Singapore|accessdate=2008-07-30|date=2008-07-27|publisher=The New York Times Company|work=The New York Times] A global warming awareness festival culminated in a performance entitled "Arctic" at the pavilion. [cite web|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/7b21456e-920d-11dc-8981-0000779fd2ac.html|title=Arctic: Soundscape|accessdate=2008-07-31|date=2007-11-13|publisher=The Financial Times Ltd|work=The Financial Times|author=Weitzman, Hal] Oprah Winfrey filmed the September 8, 2008 season-opening Oprah Winfrey Show on September 3, 2008 at the Pavilion with Michael Phelps, Nastia Liukin, Dara Torres, Kobe Bryant, Misty May-Treanor, Kerri Walsh, and more than 150 olympic medalists in an effort to rally support for the Chicago 2016 Olympic bid. [cite web|url=http://www.suntimes.com/sports/olympics/1136773,CST-NWS-oprah30.article|title=Oprah tickets available for show featuring Olympians|accessdate=2008-09-01|date=2008-08-30|publisher=Digital Chicago, Inc. |work=Chicago Sun-Times|author=Herrmann, Andrew] [cite web|url=http://www.chicago2016.org/News/Pages/14-TimeOlympicGoldMedalistMichaelPhelpsComingtoChicago.aspx|title=14-Time Olympic Gold Medalist Michael Phelps Coming To Chicago: Phelps’ Continued Support Brings International Star Power to Chicago 2016 Bid
accessdate=2008-09-01|date=2008-08-28|publisher=Chicago 2016|author=Johnson, Drew
] [cite web|url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26471209/|title=Oprah Tickets Available For Show Featuring Olympians|accessdate=2008-09-01|date=2008-08-30|publisher=Microsoft|work=MSNBC.com]

In addition to the various public events that the Pavilion hosts, it hosts private events. It is available, as is the entire park, as a venue for private events year round. The stage's design with a glass and steel door "curtain" enable it to provide indoor space protected from the elements when necessary. [cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/privaterentals/pritzker/|title=Private Rentals: Photo Galleries: Jay Pritzker Pavilion|accessdate=2008-06-13|publisher=City of Chicago] In addition, the Pavilion has a Choral Rehearsal Room that is available for rental for private purposes. [cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/privaterentals/choral/|title=Private Rentals: Photo Galleries: Choral Rehearsal Room|accessdate=2008-06-13|publisher=City of Chicago]

Grant Park Music Festival

The Grant Park Music Festival, a Chicago tradition since 1931, [Tiebert, Laura, "Frommer's Chicago with Kids" (3rd edition), 2007, Wiley Publishing, Inc., ISBN 978-0470-12481-9, p.263.] remains the nation's only free, outdoor classical music series and features the Grammy-Nominated Grant Park Orchestra and Chorus. [cite web|url=http://www.millenniumpark.org/parkevents/gpmf.aspx|accessdate=2007-09-20|publisher=City of Chicago|title=Grant Park Music Festival] The 2007 performances were on Wednesday, Friday and Saturday from mid-June to mid-August. [cite web|url=http://www.grantparkmusicfestival.com/schedule.shtml|title=Grant Park Music Festival 2007|accessdate=2007-09-20|publisher=grantparkmusicfestival.com]

On July 18, 2007, the Grant Park Music Festival partnered with the Metro Chicago to produce a free, Wednesday-night show featuring indie band The Decemberists. The concert was a rare orchestral collaboration with the Grant Park Orchestra and featured brand-new orchestral arrangements of The Decemberists’ songs arranged and conducted by Sean O’Loughlin. While the concert was free to the public, the front seating sections of the pavilion were reserved those who had purchased season membership passes.cite web|url=http://www.grantparkmusicfestival.com/newsApril19_2007.shtml|title=The Decemberists To Make Millennium Park Debut With The Grant Park Orchestra, Wednesday Evening, July 18|accessdate=2008-06-09|publisher=grantparkmusicfestival.com] Fans of the band began forming a line hours prior to the show in a bid to obtain the remaining first-come, first-served seats in the Pavilion. As a result, membership holders who were mostly unfamiliar with the band were seated closest to the stage, while the remaining fans were seated farther away. This audience dichotomy did not go unnoticed by Decemberists' frontman Colin Meloy, as evidenced during the band's encore performance (without the orchestra) when he encouraged the crowd to breach the barriers separating the Pavilion's seats from the great lawn in order to get closer to the stage. The show had the largest attendance volume of any free concert held at Jay Pritzker Pavilion with an estimated attendance of over 10,000. [cite web|url=http://chicagoist.com/2007/07/19/the_decemberist.php|title=ReViewed: The Decemberists with the Grant Park Orchestra|accessdate=2008-06-09|date=2007-07-19|work=Chicagoist]

Critical review

By many accounts the Pavilion is the highlight of Millennium Park. "Fodor's" describes it as the "showstopper" of the park; [cite web|url=http://www.fodors.com/world/north-america/usa/illinois/chicago/review-111571.html|title=Millennium Park|accessdate=2008-07-30|publisher=Fodor's Travel] "Time" calls it "dynamic", [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,995369,00.html|title=Windy City Redux|accessdate=2008-07-30|date=2004-10-11|author=Roston, Eric|publisher=Time Inc.|work=Time] and one "New York Times" writer found herself standing "agog" at what appeared to her to be a "celestial gateway to another universe" and a frame for the sky.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F01EED7163AF936A25754C0A9629C8B63|title= NATURE; Softening a City With Grit and Grass|accessdate=2008-07-30|date=2004-07-15|publisher=The New York Times Company|work=The New York Times|author=Raver, Anne] "Lonely Planet" describes the Pavilion as the anchor of the park. [cite web|url=http://www.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/usa/chicago/sights/1000317530?list=true|title=Millennium Park|accessdate=2008-07-30|publisher=Lonely Planet Publications] The 2004 year in review issue of "Time" describes it as the crown jewel of the park. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/bestandworst/2004/arch.html|title=Best & Worst 2004: The Best Architecture|author=Lacayo, Richard|accessdate=2008-07-31|date=2004|publisher=Time Inc.|work=Time] The "USA Today" describes the bandshell as a landmark and the centerpiece of the park. [cite web|url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/USAToday/access/664721801.html?dids=664721801:664721801&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Jul+15%2C+2004&author=Debbie+Howlett&pub=USA+TODAY&edition=&startpage=A.03&desc=Donors%27+cash+turns+city+green+%3B+Private+contributions+make+Millennium+Park+a+reality+in+Chicago|title=Donors' cash turns city green ; Private contributions make Millennium Park a reality in Chicago|accessdate=2008-07-31|date=2004-07-15|work=USA Today|author=Howlett, Debbie] [cite web|url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/USAToday/access/664722041.html?dids=664722041:664722041&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Jul+15%2C+2004&author=Debbie+Howlett&pub=USA+TODAY&edition=&startpage=A.03&desc=%27A+band+shell+on+steroids%27|title=A band shell on steroids|accessdate=2008-07-31|date=2004-07-15|work=USA Today|author=Howlett, Debbie] The bandshell's accoustics are unparalleled by any contemporary outdoor venue according to the "Financial Times". [cite web|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/63ad44b2-2196-11da-a603-00000e2511c8.html|title=Classical city soars above Capone clichés|accessdate=2008-07-31|date=2005-09-10|publisher=The Financial Times Ltd|work=The Financial Times|author=Daniel, Caroline and Jeremy Grant] Another "Financial Times" critic notes that Gehry revisits some of his past motifs such as his use of stainless steel and explores new ones such as his trellis and sound system. [cite web|url=http://search.ft.com/ftArticle?queryText=%22Cloud%20Gate%22%20Chicago&y=0&aje=true&x=0&id=040720000796&ct=0|title=How a steel bean gave Chicago fresh pride|accessdate=2008-07-31|date=2004-07-20|publisher=The Financial Times Ltd|work=The Financial Times|author=Daniel, Caroline]

Gallery


Grant Park, the South Side and the Historic Michigan Boulevard District
Chicago Police Officer blocks pedestrian access to Millennium Park during Looptopia 2007 with Pritzker Pavilion visible in the background

Notes

External links

* [http://www.millenniumpark.org/parkevents/parkmap.pdf Millennium Park map]
* [http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/COCWebPortal/COC_ATTACH/Community_Areas_LOOP.pdf City of Chicago Loop Community Map]

Geographic Location
Center = Jay Pritzker Pavilion
North = Harris Theater/Exelon Pavilions
East = BP Pedestrian Bridge
South = Lurie Garden
West = Chase Promenade
Northeast = McDonald's Cycle Center


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